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Citation Information : Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis. Volume 76, Issue 4, Pages 257-268, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ane-2017-025
License : (CC BY 4.0)
Received Date : 31-December-2015 / Accepted: 06-September-2016 / Published Online: 26-July-2017
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex pathogenesis. Many studies over the last four decades have recognized altered immune responses among individuals diagnosed with ASD. The purpose of this critical and comprehensive review is to examine the hypothesis that immune dysfunction is frequently present in those with ASD. It was found that often individuals diagnosed with ASD have alterations in immune cells such as T cells, B cells, monocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. Also, many individuals diagnosed with ASD have alterations in immunoglobulins and increased autoantibodies. Finally, a significant portion of individuals diagnosed with ASD have elevated peripheral cytokines and chemokines and associated neuroinflammation. In conclusion, immune dysregulation and inflammation are important components in the diagnosis and treatment of ASD.