Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology

Polish Society of Microbiologists

Subject: Microbiology


ISSN: 0079-4252
eISSN: 2545-3149





Volume / Issue / page

Related articles

VOLUME 57 , ISSUE 1 (June 2018) > List of articles


Stanisława Tylewska-Wierzbanowska / Beata Fiecek / Tomasz Chmielewski *

Keywords : Borrelia, relapsing fevers

Citation Information : Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology. Volume 57, Issue 1, Pages 41-46, DOI:

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Published Online: 23-May-2019



Relapsing fevers are considered, on the one hand, emerging or re-emerging diseases, and on the other hand, they still belong to neglected diseases which attract little attention of researchers and the public in developed countries. Genus Borrelia is divided into two large groups. The first of these is Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato – the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, first isolated from the Ixodes dammini tick. The second large group of Borrelia spirochetes contains more than 20 species associated with relapsing fever, which are mainly transmitted by soft ticks, with the exception of B. recurrentis transmitted by lice. Comparision of the DNA of different species within this genus showed that the similarity between them is often small, e.g. the DNA homology between B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi s.s. or B. garinii is 13%, and B. afzelii only 8%, whereas the B. miyamotoi DNA has a profile similar to the representatives of the tick-borne relapsing fevers, such as B. hermsii (44%), B. turicatae (41%), B. Parkeri (51%). Symptoms of relapsing fevers transmitted by lice and by ticks are very similar. The following symptoms are characteristic for both types of relapsing fevers: high fever with sudden onset, chills, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, drowsiness, photophobia and cough.

Content not available PDF Share



1. Barbour A.G.: Phylogeny of a relapsing fever Borrelia species transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes scapularis. Infect. Genet. Evol. 27, 551–558 (2014)

2. Barbour A.G., Miller S.C.: Genome sequence of Borrelia parkeri, an agent of enzootic relapsing fever in Western North America. Infect. Genet. Evol. 2, 14 (2014)

3. Castilla-Guerra L., Martin-Martin J., Colmenero-Camacho M.A.: Tick-borne relapsing fever, Southern Spain, 204–2015. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 22, 2217–2219 (2016)

4. Christensen A.M., Pietralczyk E., Lopez J.E., Brooks C., Schriefer M.E., Wozniak E., Stermole B.: Diagnosis and management of Borrelia turicatae infection in febrile soldier, Texas, USA. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 883–884 (2017)

5. Cutler S.J., Ruzic-Sabljic E., Podkonjak A.: Emerging borreliae – expanding beyond Lyme borreliosis. Mol. Cell. Probes. 31, 23–27 (2017)

6. Cutler S.J., Moss J., Fukunaga M., Wright D.J.M., Fekade D., Warrell D.: Borrelia recurrentis characterization and comparison with relapsing-fever, Lyme – associated, and other Borrelia spp. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47, 958–968 (1997)

7. Elbir H., Fotso-Fotso A., Diatta G., Trape J.F., Armathau C., Renaud F., Durand P.: Ubiquitous bacteria Borrelia crocidurae in Western African ticks Ornithodoros sonrai. Parasit. Vectors. 8, 477 (2015)

8. Evans N.J., Bown K., Timofte D., Simpson V.R., Birtles R.J.: Fatal borreliosis in bat caused by relapsing fever spirochete, United Kingdom. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15,1331–1333 (2009)

9. Fiecek B., Chmielewski T., Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S.: Borrelia miyamotoi – new etiologic agent of neuroborreliosis. Przegl. Epidemiol. 71, 531–538 (2017)

10. Fotso-Fotso A., Drancourt M.: Laboratory diagnosis of tick-borne African relapsing fevers: latest developments. Front. Public. Health. 3, 251, (2015)

11. Fukunaga M., Takahashi Y., Tsuruta Y., Matsushita O., Ralph D., McClelland M., Nakao M.: Genetic and philogenetic analysis of Borrelia miyamotoi sp. nov. isolated from the ixodid tick Ixodes persulcatus, the vector of Lyme disease in Japan. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45, 804–810 (1995)

12. Henry R.: Etymology: Borrelia miyamotoi. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 20, 1390 (2014)

13. Johnson Jr. W.D.: Borrelia species (Relapsing fever) (w) Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, red. Mandell G.L., Douglas R.G., Bennett J.E., Churchill Livingstone Inc., New York, 1995, s. 2141–2143

14. Jordan B.E., Onks K.R., Hamilton S.W., Hayslette S.E., Wright S.M.: Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia lonestari in birds in Tennessee. J. Med. Entomol. 46, 131–138 (2009)

15. Koetsveld J., Draga R.O.P., Wagemakers A., Manger A., Oei A., Visser C.E., Hovius J.W.: In vitro susceptibility of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi to antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. DOI:10.1128/AAC.00535-17 (2017)

16. Krause P.J., Fish D., Narasimhan S., Barbour A.G.: Borrelia miyamotoi infection in nature and in humans. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 7, 631–639 (2015)

17. Kumsa B., Socolovschi C., Raoult D., Parola P.: New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia. Ticks. Tick. Borne. Dis. 6, 401–407 (2015)

18. Lee J.K., Smith W.C., Mcintosh C., Ferrari F.G., Moore-Henderson B., Varela-Stokes A.: Detection of a Borrelia species in questing Gulf Coast ticks, Amblyomma maculatum. Ticks. Tick. Borne. Dis. 5, 449–452 (2014)

19. Leen I., Bruynseels P., Mukandi B.K., van Oort M., van den Akken M.: A 13-year old girl with pancytopenia at the presentation of a Borrelia hispanica infection: a case report and review of the literature. J. Medical. Case. Reports. 11, 51 (2017)

20. Magnarelli L.A., Anderson J.F., Johnson R.C.: Cross-reactivity in serological tests for Lyme disease and other spirochetal infections. J. Infec. Dis. 156, 183–188 (1987)

21. McCoy B.N., Maiga O., Schwan T.G.: Detection of Borrelia theileri in Rhipicephalus geigyi from Mali. Ticks. Tick. Borne. Dis. 5, 401–403 (2014)

22. McDowell J.V., Tran E., Hamilton D., Wolfgang J., Miller K., Marconi R.T.: Analysis of the ability of spirochete species associated with relapsing fever, avian borreliosis, and epizootic bovine abortion to bind factor H and cleave C3b. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41, 3905–3910 (2003)

23. Nunes M., Parreira R., Maia C., Lopes N., Fingerle V., Vieira M.L.: Molecular identification of Borrelia genus in questing hard ticks from Portugal: phylogenetic characterization of two novel relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. Infect. Genet. Evol. 40, 266–274 (2016)

24. Platonov A.E., Karan L.S., Kolyasnikova N.M., Makhneva N.A., Toporkova M.G., Maleev V.V., Fish D., Krause P.J.: Humans infected with relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, Russia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17, 1816–1823 (2011)

25. Sarksyan D.S., Maleev V.V., Platonov A.E., Platonova O.V., Karan L.S.: Relapsing (recurrent) disease caused by Borrelia miyamotoi. Ter. Arkh. 87, 18–25 (2015)

26. Schwan T., Anderson J.M., Lopez J.E., Fischer R.J., Raffel S.J., McCoy B.N., Safronetz D., Sogoba N., Maiga O., Traore S.F.: Endemic foci of the tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia croicidurae in Mali, West Africa, and the potential for human infection. Plos Negl. Trop. Dis. 6, 11 (2012)

27. Socolovschi C., Tahar Kernif T., Didier Raoult D., Philippe Parola P.: Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia Species in Bat Ticks, France, 2010. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 18, 1966–1975 (2012)

28. Toledo A., Monzón J.D., Coleman J.L., Garcia-Monco J.C., Benach J.L.: Hypercholesterolemia and ApoE deficiency result in severe infection with Lyme disease and relapsing-fever Borrelia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112, 5491–5496 (2015)

29. Wagemakers A., Staarink P.J., Sprong H., Hovius J.W.: Borrelia miyamotoi: a widespread tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete. Trends. Parasitol. 31, 260–269 (2015)

30. Wang G., Schwartz I.: Genus II. Borrelia Swellengrebel 1907, (w) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, red. Goodfellow M., Kampfer P., Chun J., De Vos P., Rainey F.A., Whitman W.B., Springer, New York, 2011, s. 484–498

31. Wilder H.K., Wozniak E., Huddleston E., Tata S.R., Fitzkee N.C., Lopez J.E.: Case report: a retrospective serological analysis indicating human exposure to tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes in Texas. Plos Negl. Trop. Dis. DOI:10.137/journal.pntd. 0003617 (2015)