Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology

Polish Society of Microbiologists

Subject: Microbiology


ISSN: 0079-4252
eISSN: 2545-3149





Volume / Issue / page

Related articles

VOLUME 57 , ISSUE 1 (June 2018) > List of articles


Michał Wiciński / Mateusz Maciej Węclewicz / Bartosz Malinowski / Jarosław Żak / Elżbieta Grześk / Grzegorz Grześk / Kamil Leis *

Keywords : Nocardia spp., nocardiosis, Madura foot

Citation Information : Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology. Volume 57, Issue 1, Pages 68-75, DOI:

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Published Online: 23-May-2019



Nocardia spp. bacteria are Gram-positive aerobes occurring worldwide. They cause nocardiosis, of which the most common forms are pulmonary nocardiosis and cutaneous nocardiosis. The pulmonary form progresses as a result of aspiration of pathogens into the respiratory tract, whereas the cutaneous nocardiosis, can spread to other organs (often to CNS) and includes Madura foot, both mycetoma and systemic. Infections usually affect people with immunodeficiency, for example infected with HIV or after immunosupression therapy. Nocardia asteroides is responsible for the majority of infections in humans. Diagnostic methods include cell culture and PCR. The symptoms vary depending on the form of the illness. Cough and hemoptysis are characteristic for pulmonary nocardiosis, while abscesses are typical for the cutaneous form. When the illness spreads, the symptoms vary depending on the organ. The treatment of choice is sulfonamide.

Content not available PDF Share



1. Andrejzewski J., Müller G., Röhrscheidt E., Pielkiewicz D.: Isolation, characterization and classification of a Nocardia asteroides bacteriophage, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. Abt. I, 6, 319–326 (1978)

2. Aoki H., Sakai H.I., Kohsaka M., Konomi T., Hosoda J.: Nocardicin a, a new monocyclic. BETA.-lactam antibiotic. I. Discovery, isolation and characterization. J. Antibiot. 29, 492–500 (1976)

3. Barka E.A., Vatsa P., Sanchez L., Gaveau-Vaillant N., Jacquard C., Klenk H.P., Clément C., Ouhdouch Y., van Wezel G.P.: Taxonomy, Physiology, and Natural Products of Actinobacteria, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 80, 1–43 (2016)

4. Beaman B.L., Beaman L.: Nocardia Species: Host-Parasite Relationships, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7, 213–264 (1994)

5. Bell M., McNeil M.M., Brown J.M.: Nocardia species (Nocardiosis). (01.02.2017)

6. Brown-Elliott B.A., Brown J.M., Conville P.S., Wallace Jr R.J.: Clinical and Laboratory Features of the Nocardia spp. Based on Current Molecular Taxonomy, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19, 259–282 (2006)

7. Bruguera-Àvila N., Becker C., Garcia-Olivé I., Ruiz-Manzano J.: Pulmonary Nocardia: A single-center experience, J. Pulm. Respir. Med. 4 (2014)

8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: (01.02.2017)

9. Celmer W.D., Chmurny G.N., Moppett C.E., Ware R.S., Watts P.T., Whipple E.B.: Structure of natural antibiotic CP-47, 444. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102, 4203–4209 (1980)

10. Christova N., Lang S., Wray V., Kaloyanov K., Konstantinov S., Stoineva I.: Production, Structural Elucidation, and In Vitro Antitumor Activity of Trehalose Lipid Biosurfactant from Nocardia farcinica Strain, J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 25, 439–447 (2015)

11. Chun J., Seong C.N., Bae K.S., Lee K.J., Kang S.O., Goodfellow M., Hah Y.C.: Nocardia flavorosea sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48, 901–905 (1998)

12. Conville P.S., Brown J. M., Steigerwalt A.G., Lee J.W., Anderson V.L., Fishbain J.T., Holland S.M., F.G. Witebsky F.G.: Nocardia kruczakiae sp. nov., a pathogen in immunocompromised patients and a member of the “N. nova complex”. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42, 5139–5145 (2004)

13. Ercibengoa M., Bell M., Vincente D., Marimón J.M.: First isolation of Nocardia granadensis, from a clinical sample. JMM Case Reports, 1–3 (2016)

14. Errington J.: L-form bacteria, cell walls and the origins of life. Open Biol. 3, 1–7 (2013)

15. Fukuda H., Saotome A., Usami N., Urushibata O., Mukai H.: Lymphocutaneous type of nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis: A case report and review of primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis reported in Japan. J. Dermatol. 35, 346–353 (2008)

16. Gao B., Gupta R.S: Phylogenetic Framework and Molecular Signatures for the Main Clades of the Phylum Actinobacteria. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 76, 66–112 (2012)

17. Gliński Z., Kostro K.: Zagrożenie zoonozami od zwierząt towarzyszących. Część I. Wścieklizna, choroba ptasia, erlichioza, leptospiroza, kampylobakterioza, salmoneloza i listerioza. Życie Wet. 88, 835–841 (2013)

18. Hidri N., Farina C., Szponar B., Paściak M., Grzegorzewicz A., Mordarska H., Gamian A., Boiron P.: Nocardia i Nokardiozy. Pneumonol. Alergol. Pol. 69, 677–686 (2001)

19. Hoshino Y., Watanabe K., Iida S., Suzuki S., Kudo T., Kogure T., Yazawa K., Ishikawa J., Kroppenstedt R.M., Mikami Y.: Nocardia terpenica sp. nov., isolated from Japanese patients with nocardiosis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57, 1456–1460 (2007)

20. Hoshino Y., Watanabe K., Iida S., Suzuki S., Kudo T., Kogure T., Yazawa K., Ishikawa J., Kroppenstedt R.M., Mikami Y.: 2007. Nocardia terpenica sp. nov., isolated from Japanese patients with nocardiosis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57, 1456–1460 (2007)

21. Ikeda T., Nakanishi H., Morishita Y., Houdai K., Ito J., Gonoi T.: (2016). First case report of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia mexicana. JMM Case Reports, 3, DOI 10.1099/jmmcr.0.005054 (2016)

22. Ishikawa J., Yamashita A., Mikami Y., Yoshino Y., Kurita H., Hotta K., Shiba T., Hattori M.: The complete genome sequence of Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101, 14925–14930 (2004)

23. Kaewkla O., Franco C.M.M.: Nocardia callitridis sp. nov., an endophyte isolated from surface sterilized roots of an Australian native pine tree. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60, 1532–1536 (2010)

24. Kageyama A., Yazawa K., Nishimura K., Mikami Y.: Nocardia inohanensis sp. nov., Nocardia yamanashiensis sp. nov. and Nocardia niigatensis sp. nov., isolated from clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54, 563–569 (2004)

25. Kämpfer P., Huber B., Buczolits S., Thummes K., Grün-Wollny I., Busse H.J.: Nocardia acidivorans sp. nov., isolated from soil of the island of Stromboli. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57, 1183–1187 (2007)

26. Kandi V.: Human Nocardia Infections: A Review of Pulmonary Nocardiosis, Cureus, 7, e304 (2015)

27. Kasweck K.L., Little M.L.: Genetic recombination in Nocardia asteroids. J. Bacteriol. 149, 403–406 (1982)

28. Kita J., Maciołek H.: Nokardioza zwierząt. Medycyna Wet. 52, 73–77 (1996)

29. Lasker B.A., Bell M., Klenk H.P., Spröer C., Schumann P., Brown J.M.: Nocardia vulneris sp. nov., isolated from wounds of human patients in North America. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 106, 543–553 (2014)

30. Le Roes M., Meyers P.R.: Nocardia gamkensis sp. nov. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 90, 291–298 (2006)

31. Lechevalier H.A., Solotorovsky M., McDurmont C.I.: A new genus of the Actinomycetales: Micropolyspora gen. nov. J. Gen. Microbiol. 26, 11–18 (1961)

32. Lee S.D.: Nocardia jejuensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a natural cave on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56, 559–562 (2006)

33. Lerner P.I.: Nocardiosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22, 891–905 (1996)

34. Liu Z., Ruan J.S., Yan X.C.: The new species of Nocardia. Acta Microbiol. Sinica, 23, 298–304 (1983)

35. Luo Q., Hiessl S., Steinbüchel A.: Functional diversity of Nocardia in metabolism. Environ. Microbiol. 16, 29–48 (2014)

36. Maggiorelli C., Di Pierro I., Manta C., Maccari U., Galanti I., Scala R.: Nocardia and Lungs in COPD: Beyond Immuno-deficiencies. J. of Chron. Obst. Pulmon. Dis. 12, 321–326 (2015)

37. Owen H., Buckle K., Olm J., Leitner M., Pandey S., Gaughan J.B., Sullivan M.L., Lees A.M., Gibson J.S.: Isolation of Nocardia mexicana from focal proliferative tenosynovitis and arthritis in a steer. Aust. Vet. J. 93, 170–173 (2015)

38. Ozdemir-Kocak F., Saygin H., Saricaoglu S., Cetin D., Pötter G., Spröer C., Guven K., Isik K., Klenk H., Sahin N.: Nocardia zapadnayensis sp. nov., isolated from soil. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 109, 95–103 (2016)

39. Poisnel E., Roseau J.B., Landais C., Rodriguez-Nava V., Bussy E., Gaillard T.: Nocardia veterana: disseminated infection with urinary tract infection. Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 19, 216–219 (2015)

40. Prauser H.: Host-phage relationships in nocardioform organisms. In The Biology of the Nocardiae (edited by Goodfellow, Brownell and Serrano). Academic Press, New York, 266–284 (1976)

41. Rodríguez-Nava V., Couble A., Molinard C., Sandoval H., Boiron P., Laurent F.: Nocardia mexicana sp. nov., a new pathogen isolated from human mycetomas. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42, 4530–4535 (2004)

42. Rodriguez-Nava V., Khan Z.U., Pötter G., Kroppenstedt R.M., Boiron P., Laurent F.: Nocardia coubleae sp. nov., isolated from oil-contaminated Kuwaiti soil. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57, 1482–1486 (2007)

43. Rucker R.R.: A streptomycete pathogenic to fish. J. Bacteriol. 58, 659–664 (1949)

44. Sazak A., Sahin N., Camas M.: Nocardia goodfellowii sp. nov. and Nocardia thraciensis sp. nov., isolated from soil. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 62, 1228–1234 (2012)

45. Seo J.P., Lee S.D.: Nocardia harenae sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from beach sand. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56,
2203–2207 (2006)

46. Stackebrandt E., Rainey F.A., Ward-Rainey N.L.: Proposal for a new hierarchic classification system, Actinobacteria classis nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47, 479–491 (1997)

47. Vohra P., Sharma M., Yadav A., Chaudhary U.: Nocardiosis: A review of clinicomicrobiological features. Int. J. Life Sc. Bt & Pharm. Res. 2, 20–29 (2013)

48. Wang H.L., Seo Y.H., LaSala P.R., Tarrand J.J., Han X.Y.: Nocardiosis in 132 Patients With Cancer. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 142, 513–523 (2014)

49. Wang L., Zhang Y., Huang Y., Maldonado L.A., Liu Z., Goodfellow M.: Nocardia pigrifrangens sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a contaminated agar plate. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54, 1683–1686 (2004)

50. Wiciński M., Malinowski B., Grześk E., Szadujkis-Szadurska K., Czeczuk A., Michalska A., Klonowska J., Wójtowicz-Chomicz K., Ostrowska J., Stolarek W., Grześk G.: Czynniki biologiczne w etiopatogenezie schizofrenii. Post. Mikrobiol. 53, 328–334 (2014)

51. Wiciński M., Sopońska P. Brzoszczyk B., Malinowski B., Michalska A., Grześk E., Szadujkis-Szadurska K., Kornatowski T., Czeczuk A., Grześk G.: Udział ludzkiego cytomegalowirusa w mechanizmach karcynogenezy glejaka wielopostaciowego. Post. Mikrobiol. 52, 355–361 (2013)

52. Wiciński M., Sopońska P., Brzoszczyk B., Malinowski B., Grześk E., Michalska A.: Rola czynników zakaźnych w chorobach neurodegeneracyjnych. Post. Mikrobiol. 52, 93–103 (2013)

53. Williams S.T., Wellington E.M.H., Tipler L.S.: The taxonomic implications of the reactions of representative Nocardia strains to actinophage. J. Gen. Microbiol. 119, 173–178 (1980)

54. Wilson J.W.: Nocardiosis: Updates and Clinical Overview. Mayo Clin. Proc. 87, 403–407 (2012)

55. Xu P., Li W.J., Tang S.K., Jiang Y., Chen H.H., Xu L.H., Jiang C.L.: Nocardia polyresistens sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55, 1465–1470 (2005)

56. Xu P., Li W.J., Tang S.K., Jiang Y., Gao H.Y., Xu L.H., Jiang C.L.: Nocardia lijiangensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete strain isolated from soil in China. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 29, 308–314 (2006)

57. Yamamura H., Hayakawa M., Nakagawa Y., Tamura T., Kohno T., Komatsu F., Iimura Y.: Nocardia takedensis sp. nov., isolated from moat sediment and scumming activated sludge. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55, 433–436 (2005)

58. Yamamura H., Tamura T., Sakiyama Y., Harayama S.: Nocardia amamiensis sp. nov., isolated from a sugar-cane field in Japan. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57, 1599–1602 (2007)