SELECTED ANALYSIS OF ENERGY-SAVING KINDERGARTEN IN ZŁOTY POTOK – COMMUNE OF JANOW, ALONG WITH ITS USAGE EVALUATION. A CASE STUDY

Publications

Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment

Silesian University of Technology

Subject: Architecture , Civil Engineering , Engineering, Environmental

GET ALERTS

ISSN: 1899-0142

DESCRIPTION

28
Reader(s)
110
Visit(s)
0
Comment(s)
0
Share(s)

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue / page

Related articles

VOLUME 12 , ISSUE 1 (May 2019) > List of articles

SELECTED ANALYSIS OF ENERGY-SAVING KINDERGARTEN IN ZŁOTY POTOK – COMMUNE OF JANOW, ALONG WITH ITS USAGE EVALUATION. A CASE STUDY

Ada KOŁODZIEJCZYK-KĘSOŃ *

Keywords : Air tightness, Energy efficiency, Energy-saving, Passive building, Thermal bridges, Thermal insulation, Warmth demand for heating

Citation Information : Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment. Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 19-32, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ACEE-2019-002

License : (CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 16-October-2018 / Accepted: 05-March-2019 / Published Online: 20-May-2019

ARTICLE

ABSTRACT

The paper analyses the energy-saving building – kindergarten in Zloty Potok. The project was analysed in terms of energy efficiency and meeting the requirements of the passive building. The results of this analysis showed that the building does not meet all of the criteria for a passive building. The next study was a survey of the tenants of the facility. The results obtained from the conducted research indicate very good building assessments. Users are satisfied and feel the comfort of staying in the building. It should be concluded that objects that have not obtained a passive building certificate, but are built in accordance with the passive construction concept, still show very high standards of energy-efficient construction and enjoy the recognition of users. The fulfilment of higher guidelines for thermal insulation and air tightness than those set out in the applicable Polish regulations result in better energy-saving parameters and user satisfaction. At the same time, the research revealed a contradiction between the passive housing guidelines and Polish legislation, especially in correlation with pre-school buildings.

Graphical ABSTRACT

1. INTRODUCTION

In the era of air pollution and too large production of carbon dioxide, the emphasis is put on energy-saving construction. [1] One of the types of such a trend in the construction industry is passive construction [2].

This paper presents the analysis of a kindergarten building project to show whether an object can be described as a passive building. It also includes a kindergarten user satisfaction survey to confirm the thesis about the comfort of the use of energy-saving and passive objects. A lot of emphasis in the research is put on demonstrating the compliance and differences between the construction project of the building and the components of passive construction.

A detailed analysis of the construction design in terms of comparison of individual coefficients and indicators, among others, thermal insulation and tightness was made. The focus was also on the energy performance of the building. The project assumptions were correlated with the actual state of the kindergarten that was built and put into use.

2. SIGNIFICANT ISSUES AFFECTING THE DESIGN OF THE OBJECT

Kindergarten in Zloty Potok, the commune of Janow was designed with the components of passive construction (Fig. 1). The building has not obtained the certification of a passive building.

Figure 1.

A case study building – kindergarten. (photo A. Kołodziejczyk-Kęsoń)

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f001.jpg

In 2015, the architekciPL, Gliwice company, designed a kindergarten building. Designers sought to make the building meet the requirements of passive construction and its assumptions.

No attempt was made to obtain a passive house certificate due to:

  • Very characteristic shape of the plot and its location in relation to the world sides. An elongated narrow plot, significantly narrowing towards the south-east. The neighbourhood with existing facilities and the related requirements of Polish fire regulations determined the location and shape of the facility.

  • The construction design was developed on the basis of the winning competition work, which did not establish a kindergarten as a passive building. The competition took place in 2007, the construction project was created in 2015. The facility was built and commissioned in February 2018.

These two issues are crucial. The initial design phase is very important when it comes to meeting the requirements for certification. The error made when determining the assumptions results in the lack of fulfilment of all parameters. Sometimes obtaining parameters is possible, but economically unjustified [3].

2.1. Assumptions of passive construction

In Poland, promotion and certification of passive buildings is carried out by the Polish Institute of Passive Construction and Renewable Energy named after Günter Schlagowski [4]. Research on passive housing is carried out by the Passive House Institute in Darmstadt [5]. The first passive building constructed, metered and tested is a residential building Kranichstein Darmstadt [6].

Passive construction is the term used to describe energy-efficient construction with an extremely low heating demand for warmth. Heating in such facilities is usually made only by warming the building’s ventilation air [7]. In countries with a milder climate – western, eg in Germany, this definition is correct. In Poland, due to the climate, applicable norms and law, in some facilities such solution is impossible to implement. The standard calculations often indicate that additional heating is necessary. They are usually made in the form of central heating with radiators or underfloor heating. This additional heating sometimes only has to comply with the normative conditions [8]. To a large extent, heating is not used.

Another element distinguishing passive buildings is the tightness and the use of mechanical ventilation with heat recuperation [9]. The use of such a solution eliminates the need to open windows. In passive construction, window opening is not necessary due to the supply of sufficient amount of filtered air through mechanical ventilation. Opening windows is not recommended because of the escape of valuable heat. In the kindergarten, the State Sanitary Inspection recommended daily airing of rooms by opening windows. It is based on the Regulation of the Minister of National Education and Sport of December 31, 2002. on health and safety in public and non-public schools and facilities. § 12 reads: “Rooms in which classes are held should be aired during each break, and if necessary also during classes” [10]. Because mechanical ventilation has been used in the building, it is not necessary to ventilate the rooms. The regulation is not adapted to new technical solutions. On this basis, the inspectors recommended airing the rooms.

This results in an increase in the energy demand needed to heat the building, however, the building is still very economical in this respect.

In order for the building to obtain a passive house certificate, it must meet certain criteria. Thanks to the well-chosen components of the passive building, it is possible to meet the criteria. It is possible not to use all components, but to obtain results that meet the criteria of passive construction. You can, for example, use fire-resistant joinery. It has much worse insulation parameters. It is necessary to install it in the wall, which generates significant thermal bridges. However, using other components, eg better recuperation, better tightness, better location in relation to the world sides, better insulation, it is possible to meet the criteria of a passive building and to balance the negative effects of using inferior parametrically joinery, but meeting the requirements related to fire protection of the building

Passive construction involves the application of six basic components [7] (Fig. 2):

Figure 2.

Components of passive house building. Source own study based on PHI

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f002.jpg
  • good thermal insulation of the object U ≤ 0.15 W/(m2K)

  • correct location of the object relative to the world sides

  • obtaining heat gains from solar energy,

  • building tightness at the level n50 ≤ 0.6 h-1 while using mechanical ventilation with a minimum of 75% heat recovery

  • the use of window joinery with an appropriate heat transfer coefficient. U ≤ 0.8W/(m2K) value of g-factor at 50–55%

  • creating objects without thermal bridges

At the time of building the facility it is possible to measure it and perform the “blowerdoor test” leak test. [11] Testing with a thermal imaging camera enables the detection of thermal bridges [3].

The criteria for a passive building are [3]:

  • warmth demand for heating ≤ 15kWh/m2a or thermal load of the building ≤ 10W/m2

  • energy demand for cooling ≤ 15kWh/m2a

  • primary energy demand ≤ 120 kWh/m2a (all-inclusive, including lighting, power supply for devices, etc.) [12]

  • building tightness ≤ 0.6 h-1

  • frequency of excessive temperatures ≤ 10%

For passive buildings, the tightness of the building is extremely important. It appears both in the components and in the passive house criteria. By improving the tightness component, a much lower heat demand is obtained. The tightness given in the criteria is additionally defined as a minimum of 0.6 h-1 below this value, it cannot be descended when you want to obtain a passive house certificate.

At the initial stage of the construction project of the kindergarten, the PHPP program was carried out, the building then had energy consumption for heating at 21 kWh/m2a. Due to the resignation from applying for building certification as a passive object, calculations in this program have been ended at this stage.

The above parameters can be checked at the design stage thanks to the use of tools such as the PHPP calculation program, modeling program and calculation of THERM linear thermal bridges, PH design program – 3d visualizer on the base of SKETCHUP – a design and analytical tool for developing the concept of passive buildings, [13] and a program that has a module for calculating and energy juxtaposition like archiCAD.

3. RESEARCH METHODS:

The research methods used in architecture applied in this paper are: [14]

  • a) logical argumentation – analysis and logical construction

  • b) experimental (research)

  • c) qualitative and quantitative, including statistical (survey)

  • d) case studies

Applied techniques:

  • Ad. a) description, explanation, logical interpretation, scaling of grades

  • Ad b) Observation, measurement, virtual modeling, parametric techniques

  • Ad c) Measurements, questionnaires, data analysis, observation, testing of traces of use and user behavior, local vision, documentation examination, interviews, survey

  • Ad d) Viewing the research object, documentation analysis, description, explanation, interpretation, measurement, survey, interview.

Due to the nature of the problem, the paper is based on indirect and direct studies. They use a method based on a critical analysis of the subject literature and project documentation. Direct research consists of conducting a survey.

The study method used a research method – a case study, allowing to draw conclusions referring to the characteristics of the selected building being characterised. Technical conditions and other causes and results regard its energy efficiency. This description is intended to indicate solutions that are worth using, and possible errors that should be avoided. The features of this method are analysing the issue in a broader context. In this paper, the “case study” concerns a kindergarten building, implemented in a standard similar to a passive building, taking into account the comfort of users.

In order to demonstrate the aptness of building objects in the passive construction standard, an analysis was carried out based on the documentation of the construction and executive project of the kindergarten [15].

The analysis aimed at demonstrating the compliance of the project with the passive construction assumptions.

In the first part of the analysis, it was examined whether all components of the passive building were used in the project. The heat transfer coefficients through the partitions were examined and their levels in correlation with the requirements of passive construction were checked. The location of the object relative to the world sides has been analysed, taking into account the number of glazings on individual elevations. The results of leak – proofness measurements made on the constructed object were confronted. The window joinery parameters were checked. Architectural details were examined for tightness and elimination of thermal bridges. Experiments were carried out related to the comparison of the attic detail used in the building with the traditional approach to the construction of such a detail.

Then, it was checked whether passive building criteria had been met after using these components. The values declared in the project resulting from the energy performance of the building were examined. The results of energy demand were compared. The results of the object tightness test were cited.

The detailed design was a continuation and detailing of the construction project, due to the very conscious Investor, no changes were made during construction, except for changing the lighting fittings. The change consisted in the use of lighting fittings with the same technical parameters, but with other aesthetic parameters.

A survey was conducted among users and the quality of use and satisfaction with pre-school were determined.

3.1. Assessment of project assumptions with passive housing components

Warming and heating of domestic hot water is guaranteed by a solid fuel boiler (pellets) with an automatic 50 kW hopper with high efficiency control. Mechanical ventilation is designed based on air handling units with recuperation (recovery efficiency in winter 87% in summer 84%). They are also used for space heating. In order to prevent overheating of rooms in the summer, in addition to the use of passive blinds, the investor also decided to perform air conditioning in the form of split cassette units installed in classrooms.

The windows are designed to be largely fixed, due to their greater insulation and smaller thermal bridges. In the upper expansions, the possibility of tilting the windows by means of electric actuators has been designed. In this way, the natural ventilation of the object takes place.

Natural lighting has been designed in every room intended for permanent stay of people, sanitary facilities next to the rooms and in the cloakroom.

Table 1.

Assessment of project assumptions with passive housing components – analysis, discussion of results and evaluation

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-tbl1.jpg
Figure 3.

Diagram of the location of the object on the building plot with reference to the world sides and other building objects. Source – own study based on a construction project and an executive project called “Construction of a kindergarten in Złoty Potok – Janów Commune, plot No. 910/2” made by a design studio architekciPL Jerzy Hnat [15]

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f003.jpg
Figure 4.

a) North-west elevation; b) North-eastern elevation c) South-west elevation d) Southeastern elevation fragments of the drawing taken from the detailed design under the name “Construction of kindergarten in Złoty Potok – Municipality of Janów, plot No. 910/2” made by the design studio architekciPL Jerzy Hnat [15]

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f004.jpg
Figure 5.

Function diagram. Source – own study Southeastern elevation, fragment of the drawing taken from the detailed design under the name “Construction of kindergarten in Złoty Potok – Municipality of Janów, plot No. 910/2” made by the design studio architekciPL Jerzy Hnat [15]

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f005.jpg
Figure 6.

Thermal insulation diagram. Source – own study Southeastern elevation, fragment of the drawing taken from the detailed design under the name “Construction of kindergarten in Złoty Potok – Municipality of Janów, plot No. 910/2” made by the design studio architekciPL Jerzy Hnat [15]

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f006.jpg
Figure 7.

Fragment of a detail drawing of the foundation of a freestanding structure under the blinds taken from the detailed design under the name “Construction of kindergarten in Złoty Potok – Janów Commune, plot No. 910/2” made by Jerzy Hnat, design studio architect [18]

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f007.jpg

Figures 8, 9, 10 show how the correct solution of the attic detail affects the elimination of the thermal bridge. In the traditional solution the attics of the building made with the use of reinforced concrete technology, the structure is extended to the attic height. Most designers try to insulate such an attic from every side, thinking that the problem has been solved. This is not a good solution (Fig 8).

Figure 8.

Classic attic thermal bridge. Despite the fact that all construction is covered with insulation the heat loss is very significant. Source – own elaboration prepared in the THERM program

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f008.jpg
Figure 9.

Solution for improving detail of attic and make cold bridge less significant is to make filling made of insulating material such as insulation block between attic construction. Point thermal bridge remain in places of structural pillars. Source – own elaboration prepared in the THERM program

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f009.jpg
Figure 10.

Solution for improving detail of attic and make cold bridge less significant is to make filling made of insulating material such as insuIn order to eliminate thermal bridge in this area the building obtained specific shape of roof without attic. This procedure enabled liquidation of thermal bridge. Source – own elaboration prepared in the THERM program

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f010.jpg

The following picture shows how the thermal bridge changes when using insulating material as a filling (Fig. 9). However, the constructor does not build up the attic without braces in the form of a reinforced concrete frame. In the place of reinforced concrete poles thermal bridges will occur as in Fig. 8.

On Fig. 10 a design solution is presented. The elimination of the attic and the design of an interesting architectural form without the attic allows the elimination of the thermal bridge.

3.2. Analysis with evaluation of project assumptions and research results of the object commissioned for use in terms of meeting passive building criteria

In order for an object to be certified, it must meet the criteria of a passive building. Not all of the components must be fully used, provided that the criteria of such a building are met. If the criteria are met, the building should be considered passive. Due to the decision not to attempt to certify the building as passive, no detailed calculations were made in PHPP programme. For comparison, the energy performance of the object was prepared for the purposes of the construction project based on regulation on the methodology for determining the energy performance of a building (Figure 11).

Figure 11.

Object rate chart. Source – own study

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f011.jpg

The table below shows the parameters of the kindergarten building declared in the project documentation in the left column, and the right column contains the parameters that should be met by the passive building.

3.3. Survey with results

A survey was conducted among the users of the facility. The respondents were employees including child carers, management and people involved in the maintenance of the facility and equipment. Ten people were examined. They knew the previous location of the kindergarten in a traditional building. The survey was conducted after several months of using the facility.

The following answers were received to the questions asked.

20% of respondents rated the object as 4 on a scale of 1 to 5, 5 was the best, 80% of the respondents rated the quality of use of the new kindergarten as the best (Fig. 11).

When asked about the lower illnesses incidence of children, 60% estimated that it was difficult to assess due to the short time of using the facility (the kindergarten has been operating since February 2018). 40% of the respondents confirmed the reduction of illnesses, of which 20% defined a reduction in incidence of 80% (Fig. 12). The level of morbidity was given by the educators and people employed in the kindergarten on the basis of their own observations of the respondents. Lack of access to presence logs prevents direct testing. The above is based only on the survey carried out. The reduction in the incidence rate was determined by the respondents, in relation to previous years, where the classes were held in an old building built in a traditional method with gravitational ventilation.

Figure 12.

Lower illnesses chart. Source – own study

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f012.jpg
Table 2.

Analysis with evaluation of project assumptions and research results of the object commissioned for use in terms of meeting passive building criteria – analysis, discussion of results and evaluation

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-tbl2.jpg

100% of respondents noticed the lack of draughts in the facility and positively assessed this fact.

Heating with ventilation, thanks to the use of a temperature control system in the facility using temperature sensors is set at a constant temperature of 200°C. The questionnaire asked about the subjective feeling of temperature. Heating and ventilation work automatically. In addition, each user can change the temperature setting – increase and decrease the room temperature.

When asked about turning on the heating in the winter period, 100% of respondents said that heating was turned on all the time. This answer is probably caused by two issues. The first is the responsibility of one boiler for space heating and domestic hot water heating. To provide hot utility water, continuous boiler operation is essential. It is often confused by users that the boiler works with real heating of underfloor heating. The second issue is the recommendation of the State Sanitary Inspection regarding the need to ventilate – opening windows, despite the use of mechanical ventilation of rooms with a heat recovery function with a 90% efficiency. The outside air cleaned additionally by the filters provides enough fresh air. Unnecessary heat loss results from needless, but in accordance with the regulations and recommendation, ventilation of rooms.

When asked about the need to increase the temperature in the rooms, 20% of respondents replied that the temperature in the rooms was always constant. 40% of respondents increased the temperature in the room several times, 40% of respondents said that once, while the outside temperature was – 20°C (Fig. 13) and half of the people who answered so said that the increase in temperature these days turned out to be unnecessary.

Figure 13.

Temperature stability chart. Source – own study

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f013.jpg

100% of the respondents confirmed that the technical use of the building is simple.

100% of respondents said that due to the recommendations of the State Sanitary Inspection, the rooms are air-conditioned every day by opening windows. Also all respondents confirmed comfort in air breathing in the kindergarten rooms.

100% of respondents confirmed the use of blinds on sunny days and when using multimedia devices.

They were asked to give 3 features of the new facility which are better than the old ones, in which classes were held so far. Respondents indicated the following features related to comfort of use in relation to the subject of this paper:

  • bright, sunny rooms, 60% of respondents

  • the right temperature in the rooms, heating, warmth – the same temperature of 80% of respondents

  • possibility of changing the size of rooms, changing arrangements, functionality of rooms 40% of respondents

  • modern boiler house, 20% of respondents

When asked about the discomfort in using the object, the respondents indicated (Fig. 14):

Figure 14.

Discomfort chart. Source – own study

10.21307_ACEE-2019-002-f014.jpg
  • 20% of respondents can not open windows in the director’s office and social room

  • 40% of respondents answered that they do not feel any discomfort while using the facility.

Other responses concerned minor inconveniences related to the equipment of the kindergarten that did not affect the contribution to this article.

Discussion of results and evaluation

THE RESULTS OF THE CONDUCTED SURVEY

The survey shows that users are very satisfied with the use of the object. They assess it positively and have no serious comments about it. The results of the survey also confirm the design assumptions – the facility exhibits high energy efficiency. Despite the short lifetime of the facility, a positive impact of the building’s tightness on children’s illnesses has been noticed. The elimination of draughts was the one of the cause of the decrease in number of diseases. Thanks to the fact that the interior has an even temperature, there is no discomfort of use. This effect was obtained due to the use of continuous insulation, windows with appropriate thermal insulation and thermal bridges removal. The respondents’ answers regarding the need to raise the temperature are satisfactory. They show that the building has been properly insulated, and achieves solar profits sufficient to cover losses. The myth that the technical use of an energy-saving facility is difficult is also disproved. The survey revealed that due to the recommendations of the State Sanitary Inspection in the matter of airing the object unforeseen heat losses arise. The respondents themselves gave the feature of the object, better than the one previously occupied, which is the right temperature – the same temperature. A not implied response appeared in as many as 80% of respondents.

3.4. Compare the object with other passive building

In Germany there was the Cepheus program [19] for the construction, measurement and observation of passive structures [5]. All buildings described in the Cepheus program turned out to be components and criteria for passive buildings. Their users have positively evaluated these objects. Thanks to the comments of users gathered since 1998, many errors and inconveniences have been eliminated. That is why buildings made 20 years later are already well-finished and do not contain negative comments in the surveys.

The most questionable for the first users in Germany was the issue of opening windows. It is possible to ventilate rooms by opening windows, however, it is not needed. Mechanical ventilation provides enough fresh air. Uncontrolled heat loss is created by opening windows.

Such a situation took place in the first nursing home for seniors in the passive house standard – the house of Caritas Neuwerk. The building has openable windows. For a passive house, it is better not to open them during the winter. Residents needed three months to get used to the new situation where ventilation through window opening is no longer necessary. Inhabitants with dementia did not change their habits. Based on the experience from the use of the house, despite an incorrect procedure regarding ventilation and window opening, it was found that the additional energy consumption was 15.2%, very small in relation to the calculated value. The 0.54-liter house has become a 0.62-liter house [20].

In Germany, a passive kindergarten was designed in Heidenau. The facility is located in a park, on a hill. Its shape fits into the terrain. It is a one-storey wave-shaped building. Building walls have U-value 0.11 W/(m2K). The windows and curtain wall have low energy triple glazing. The building meets low heating consumption of 15 kWh/m2a. The building is mainly heated with ventilation air with 90% recuperation efficiency. In addition, it also has heating surfaces, if necessary [21].

Also in Germany, in Lengdorf, a kindergarten with a heat demand of 15 kWh/m2a and a primary energy consumption of 80 kWh/m2a was built [22].

In Poland, more residential buildings and public utility buildings are being built in an energy-efficient manner [2, 23, 24, 25].

Kindergarten in Zloty Potok has very similar results in terms of the heat transfer coefficient through the U-partition for baffles as well as joinery and tightness. There are some slight differences due to the total primary energy consumption. This is due to the difference in function and method of heating. In the Hannover housing estate there was a wind power generator in the estate, which significantly reduced the level of primary energy. Different ratios for different energy sources are used.

In comparison with German investments, heat consumption compared to the requirements in a passive building is 15 kWh/(m²). Annual heat consumption in real estate in Hannover is lower than in the Polish kindergarten. This is basically related to the milder climate of Germany. When, during the implementation of the project, the kindergarten object was placed in the PHPP computer program in Germany, it obtained 15 kWh/(m²), but in Poland 21 kWh/(m²).

4. CONCLUSIONS

In reference to the experience in the first nursing home for seniors in the passive house standard – the house of Caritas Neuwerk, [20] one can observe analogies in window opening reluctance. The analyzed object also shows the resistance of people – inspectors of the State Sanitary Inspection. Recommendations were issued in the kindergarten, but not airing regulations based on an unadjusted legal provision [10].

In Germany, they have already accepted this state of affairs. Users only needed three months to get used to it. Polish regulations still do not keep pace with new technologies. Regulations still have provisions, e.g. regarding the need to ventilate educational institutions [10].

The analysis of the project documentation shows that the kindergarten building in Złoty Potok can be classified as energy-efficient building built using the components of passive construction. Users are satisfied and indicate numerous amenities and positive aspects of the use of the facility. Particularly satisfaction with the comfort of staying in the facility and improving the health of preschoolers is especially evident. Even after such a short period of time, users noticed a reduction in children’s illnesses in comparison to the situation in the old building. The causes of it were: lack of draughts, constant temperature throughout the room even in small distance to the windows. In addition, filters in mechanical ventilation treat the air that the users of the facility breathe. It should be stated that the use of a building designed and built to meet passive building guidelines is assessed positively and the components of this construction should be applied in all construction projects. Buildings that have different destiny and function, such as households, education buildings, hospitals and even sports halls all can be easily build in passive way. This sort of building should be applied in all European countries. In Germany and Austria this passive building is well known and used. In whole world this simple and energy-saving way of building should be applied.

References


  1. Mikoś J. (1996). Budownictwo ekologiczne (Ecological building). Gliwice, Poland: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej (Silesian University of Technology).
  2. Piotrowski, R. (2012). Eksperymentalny dom pasywny. Technologie zastosowane w pasywnych budynkach pokazowych zrealizowanych w Warszawie (Experimental passive house. Technologies used in passive demonstration buildings completed in Warsaw). Przewodnik Budowlany, 13, 17, 53.
  3. Joint work. (2016) Materiały do kursu CEPHD– Europejski, Certyfikowany Projektant (Course materials for Certified European Passive House Designer), Passive House Institute.
  4. http://www.pibp.pl/?page_id=99 access date 2018-05-13
  5. http://www.passiv.de/ access date 2018-05-13
  6. https://www.blowerdoor.com/fileadmin/Blower DoorEN/_Dokumente/2017_12_Report_25years_Kranichstein_.pdf access date 2018-11-10
  7. Schlagowski, G. (2010). Podstawy budownictwa pasywnego proste, genialne, komfortowe (Basics of passive house building simple, ingenious, comfortable). Gdańsk, Poland: Wyd. Polski Instytut Budownictwa Pasywnego (Polish Passive House Institute) Dipl.-Ing. Günter Schlagowski sp. z o.o.
  8. Szczechowiak, E. (2015). Parametry budynków niemal zero-energetycznych w warunkach polskich (Parameters of almost zero-energy buildings in Polish conditions), [in.] Wesołowska, M., Podhorecki, A. (eds.) Budownictwo energooszczędne w Polsce: stan i perspektywy (Energy-saving construction in Poland: condition and prospects). Bydgoszcz, Poland: Wydawnictwa Uczelniane Uniwersytetu Technologiczno-Przyrodniczego w Bydgoszczy (University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz).
  9. Krajowy Ruch Ekologiczno-Społeczny (2007). Budownictwo pasywne na Mazowszu aspekty ekologiczne, ekonomiczne i techniczne, seria Budynki pasywne – mistrzowie oszczędzania energii (Passive building in Mazovia ecological, economic and technical aspects, series Passive biuldings – energy saving masters). Warszawa, Poland: Krajowy Ruch Ekologiczno-Społeczny (Polish Association for Ecology and Society).
  10. http://prawo.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20030060069/O/D20030069.pdf access date 2018-11-10
  11. Węglarz, A., Stępień, R., (eds.) Sulejczak, E., Grzegrzółka, A. (2011). Z energetyką przyjazną za pan brat, dom pasywny (To be on friendly terms with friendly energetic, passive house). Warszawa, Poland: Instytut na rzecz ekorozwoju przy współpracy Krajowej Agencji Poszanowania Energii S.A. (Institute for Sustainable Development in collaboration with Polish National Energy Conservation Agency Inc.)
  12. http://pibp.pl/wp-content/uploads/dokumenty/Prezentacje_Budma_2014.pdf access date 2018-10-16
  13. Schlagowski G. (eds.). (2018). Budownictwo pasywne materiały konferencyjne IX Międzynarodowe forum wiedzy życie bez troski energetycznej – poprzez 2 równe filary Najwyższa Efektywność Energetyczna i Energia Odnawialna – Regionalna; (Passive building conference materials IXth International knowledge forum – life without energy care – due to two equal pillars – Highest Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy – Regional)[printed handouts]. Gdańsk, Poland: Wyd. Polski Instytut Budownictwa Pasywnego (Polish Passive House Institute) Dipl.-Ing. Günter Schlagowski sp. z o.o.
  14. Niezabitowska, E.D. (2014). Metody i techniki badawcze w architekturze (Research methods and techniques in architecture). Gliwice, Poland: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej (Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice)
  15. Zbiory pracowni projektowej architekciPL Jerzy Hnat. Projekt budowlany oraz wykonawczy pod nazwą: „Budowa przedszkola w Złotym Potoku – Gmina Janów Działka nr 910/2” (Collection of architekciPL Jerzy Hnat design bureau. Construction and executive design called: “Construction of a kindergarten in Złoty Potok – Janów Commune, plot No. 910/2”)
  16. Wołoszyn, M.A. (1991). Wykorzystanie energii słonecznej w budownictwie jednorodzinnym (The use of solar energy in one family houses). Warszawa, Poland: Centralny Ośrodek Informacji Budownictwa (Central Construction Information Center).
  17. Prus, S. (2017) Protokół z wentylatorowej próby szczelności powietrznej budynku zgodnie z PN-EN 13829, data wykonania 22.08.2017r. (Building air-tightness test protocol in compliance with PN-EN 13829, performed on 22.08.2017).
  18. http://www.bip.janow.akcessnet.net/index.php?idg=5&id=4669&x=10&y=10 access date 2018-10-16
  19. Feist, W., Peper, S., Kah, O., Von Oesen, M. (2005). Climate Neutral Passive House Estate in Hannover-Kronsberg: Construction and Measurement Results, a combination of the CEPHEUS reports Nr. 18 and Nr. 19. The Stadtwerke Hannover commissioned the combination in the framework of the European PEP project. Hannover, Germany: Passive House Institute
  20. http://klasteroze.it.kielce.pl/upload/DOKUMEN TY/SEMINARIA/11_05_2010/DOM%20CARITAS%20NEUWERK.pdf access date 2018-11-10
  21. https://passipedia.org/examples/non-residential_buildings/passive_house_kindergartens/central_europe/new_kindergarten_in_the_heidenau_city_park_germany access date 2018-11-10
  22. https://passipedia.org/examples/non-residential_buildings/passive_house_kindergartens/central_europe/lengdorf_nursery_school_germany access date 2018-11-10
  23. Lisik, A. (eds.). (2002). Odnawialne źródła energii w architekturze (Renewable energy sources in architecture). Gliwice, Poland: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej (Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice).
  24. Górecka M. (2004). Architektura energooszczędnego domu mieszkalnego polskiej wsi w aspekcie zrównoważonego rozwoju (Architecture of an energy-saving residential home in the Polish countryside in the aspect of sustainable development). Warszawa, Poland: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej (Warsaw University of Technology).
  25. Dębińska A. (eds.). (2015). Budownictwo energooszczędne Vademecum (Energy efficient building Vademecum, 36. Warszawa, Poland: Wydawnictwo Polskiej Izby Inżynierów Budownictwa sp. z o.o. (Polish Chamber of Civil Engineers).
XML PDF Share

FIGURES & TABLES

Figure 1.

A case study building – kindergarten. (photo A. Kołodziejczyk-Kęsoń)

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 2.

Components of passive house building. Source own study based on PHI

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 3.

Diagram of the location of the object on the building plot with reference to the world sides and other building objects. Source – own study based on a construction project and an executive project called “Construction of a kindergarten in Złoty Potok – Janów Commune, plot No. 910/2” made by a design studio architekciPL Jerzy Hnat [15]

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 4.

a) North-west elevation; b) North-eastern elevation c) South-west elevation d) Southeastern elevation fragments of the drawing taken from the detailed design under the name “Construction of kindergarten in Złoty Potok – Municipality of Janów, plot No. 910/2” made by the design studio architekciPL Jerzy Hnat [15]

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 5.

Function diagram. Source – own study Southeastern elevation, fragment of the drawing taken from the detailed design under the name “Construction of kindergarten in Złoty Potok – Municipality of Janów, plot No. 910/2” made by the design studio architekciPL Jerzy Hnat [15]

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 6.

Thermal insulation diagram. Source – own study Southeastern elevation, fragment of the drawing taken from the detailed design under the name “Construction of kindergarten in Złoty Potok – Municipality of Janów, plot No. 910/2” made by the design studio architekciPL Jerzy Hnat [15]

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 7.

Fragment of a detail drawing of the foundation of a freestanding structure under the blinds taken from the detailed design under the name “Construction of kindergarten in Złoty Potok – Janów Commune, plot No. 910/2” made by Jerzy Hnat, design studio architect [18]

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 8.

Classic attic thermal bridge. Despite the fact that all construction is covered with insulation the heat loss is very significant. Source – own elaboration prepared in the THERM program

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 9.

Solution for improving detail of attic and make cold bridge less significant is to make filling made of insulating material such as insulation block between attic construction. Point thermal bridge remain in places of structural pillars. Source – own elaboration prepared in the THERM program

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 10.

Solution for improving detail of attic and make cold bridge less significant is to make filling made of insulating material such as insuIn order to eliminate thermal bridge in this area the building obtained specific shape of roof without attic. This procedure enabled liquidation of thermal bridge. Source – own elaboration prepared in the THERM program

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 11.

Object rate chart. Source – own study

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 12.

Lower illnesses chart. Source – own study

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 13.

Temperature stability chart. Source – own study

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 14.

Discomfort chart. Source – own study

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

REFERENCES

  1. Mikoś J. (1996). Budownictwo ekologiczne (Ecological building). Gliwice, Poland: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej (Silesian University of Technology).
  2. Piotrowski, R. (2012). Eksperymentalny dom pasywny. Technologie zastosowane w pasywnych budynkach pokazowych zrealizowanych w Warszawie (Experimental passive house. Technologies used in passive demonstration buildings completed in Warsaw). Przewodnik Budowlany, 13, 17, 53.
  3. Joint work. (2016) Materiały do kursu CEPHD– Europejski, Certyfikowany Projektant (Course materials for Certified European Passive House Designer), Passive House Institute.
  4. http://www.pibp.pl/?page_id=99 access date 2018-05-13
  5. http://www.passiv.de/ access date 2018-05-13
  6. https://www.blowerdoor.com/fileadmin/Blower DoorEN/_Dokumente/2017_12_Report_25years_Kranichstein_.pdf access date 2018-11-10
  7. Schlagowski, G. (2010). Podstawy budownictwa pasywnego proste, genialne, komfortowe (Basics of passive house building simple, ingenious, comfortable). Gdańsk, Poland: Wyd. Polski Instytut Budownictwa Pasywnego (Polish Passive House Institute) Dipl.-Ing. Günter Schlagowski sp. z o.o.
  8. Szczechowiak, E. (2015). Parametry budynków niemal zero-energetycznych w warunkach polskich (Parameters of almost zero-energy buildings in Polish conditions), [in.] Wesołowska, M., Podhorecki, A. (eds.) Budownictwo energooszczędne w Polsce: stan i perspektywy (Energy-saving construction in Poland: condition and prospects). Bydgoszcz, Poland: Wydawnictwa Uczelniane Uniwersytetu Technologiczno-Przyrodniczego w Bydgoszczy (University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz).
  9. Krajowy Ruch Ekologiczno-Społeczny (2007). Budownictwo pasywne na Mazowszu aspekty ekologiczne, ekonomiczne i techniczne, seria Budynki pasywne – mistrzowie oszczędzania energii (Passive building in Mazovia ecological, economic and technical aspects, series Passive biuldings – energy saving masters). Warszawa, Poland: Krajowy Ruch Ekologiczno-Społeczny (Polish Association for Ecology and Society).
  10. http://prawo.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20030060069/O/D20030069.pdf access date 2018-11-10
  11. Węglarz, A., Stępień, R., (eds.) Sulejczak, E., Grzegrzółka, A. (2011). Z energetyką przyjazną za pan brat, dom pasywny (To be on friendly terms with friendly energetic, passive house). Warszawa, Poland: Instytut na rzecz ekorozwoju przy współpracy Krajowej Agencji Poszanowania Energii S.A. (Institute for Sustainable Development in collaboration with Polish National Energy Conservation Agency Inc.)
  12. http://pibp.pl/wp-content/uploads/dokumenty/Prezentacje_Budma_2014.pdf access date 2018-10-16
  13. Schlagowski G. (eds.). (2018). Budownictwo pasywne materiały konferencyjne IX Międzynarodowe forum wiedzy życie bez troski energetycznej – poprzez 2 równe filary Najwyższa Efektywność Energetyczna i Energia Odnawialna – Regionalna; (Passive building conference materials IXth International knowledge forum – life without energy care – due to two equal pillars – Highest Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy – Regional)[printed handouts]. Gdańsk, Poland: Wyd. Polski Instytut Budownictwa Pasywnego (Polish Passive House Institute) Dipl.-Ing. Günter Schlagowski sp. z o.o.
  14. Niezabitowska, E.D. (2014). Metody i techniki badawcze w architekturze (Research methods and techniques in architecture). Gliwice, Poland: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej (Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice)
  15. Zbiory pracowni projektowej architekciPL Jerzy Hnat. Projekt budowlany oraz wykonawczy pod nazwą: „Budowa przedszkola w Złotym Potoku – Gmina Janów Działka nr 910/2” (Collection of architekciPL Jerzy Hnat design bureau. Construction and executive design called: “Construction of a kindergarten in Złoty Potok – Janów Commune, plot No. 910/2”)
  16. Wołoszyn, M.A. (1991). Wykorzystanie energii słonecznej w budownictwie jednorodzinnym (The use of solar energy in one family houses). Warszawa, Poland: Centralny Ośrodek Informacji Budownictwa (Central Construction Information Center).
  17. Prus, S. (2017) Protokół z wentylatorowej próby szczelności powietrznej budynku zgodnie z PN-EN 13829, data wykonania 22.08.2017r. (Building air-tightness test protocol in compliance with PN-EN 13829, performed on 22.08.2017).
  18. http://www.bip.janow.akcessnet.net/index.php?idg=5&id=4669&x=10&y=10 access date 2018-10-16
  19. Feist, W., Peper, S., Kah, O., Von Oesen, M. (2005). Climate Neutral Passive House Estate in Hannover-Kronsberg: Construction and Measurement Results, a combination of the CEPHEUS reports Nr. 18 and Nr. 19. The Stadtwerke Hannover commissioned the combination in the framework of the European PEP project. Hannover, Germany: Passive House Institute
  20. http://klasteroze.it.kielce.pl/upload/DOKUMEN TY/SEMINARIA/11_05_2010/DOM%20CARITAS%20NEUWERK.pdf access date 2018-11-10
  21. https://passipedia.org/examples/non-residential_buildings/passive_house_kindergartens/central_europe/new_kindergarten_in_the_heidenau_city_park_germany access date 2018-11-10
  22. https://passipedia.org/examples/non-residential_buildings/passive_house_kindergartens/central_europe/lengdorf_nursery_school_germany access date 2018-11-10
  23. Lisik, A. (eds.). (2002). Odnawialne źródła energii w architekturze (Renewable energy sources in architecture). Gliwice, Poland: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej (Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice).
  24. Górecka M. (2004). Architektura energooszczędnego domu mieszkalnego polskiej wsi w aspekcie zrównoważonego rozwoju (Architecture of an energy-saving residential home in the Polish countryside in the aspect of sustainable development). Warszawa, Poland: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej (Warsaw University of Technology).
  25. Dębińska A. (eds.). (2015). Budownictwo energooszczędne Vademecum (Energy efficient building Vademecum, 36. Warszawa, Poland: Wydawnictwo Polskiej Izby Inżynierów Budownictwa sp. z o.o. (Polish Chamber of Civil Engineers).

EXTRA FILES

COMMENTS