HOTELS IN OBJECTS OF ADAPTIVE ARCHITECTURE: DESIGN AS A MEANS OF TRANSFERRING THE IMAGE OF THE PAST

Publications

Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment

Silesian University of Technology

Subject: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Engineering, Environmental

GET ALERTS

ISSN: 1899-0142

DESCRIPTION

18
Reader(s)
18
Visit(s)
0
Comment(s)
0
Share(s)

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue / page

Related articles

VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 1 (Apr 2021) > List of articles

HOTELS IN OBJECTS OF ADAPTIVE ARCHITECTURE: DESIGN AS A MEANS OF TRANSFERRING THE IMAGE OF THE PAST

Iryna BONDARENKO * / Xingyi HE

Keywords : Hotel, Revitalization, Design, Architecture, Interior, Transformation

Citation Information : Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment. Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 5-14, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ACEE-2021-001

License : (CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 03-November-2020 / Accepted: 23-February-2021 / Published Online: 17-April-2021

ARTICLE

ABSTRACT

The search for new solutions for identification, identity and individuality in the hotel industry has led to creation of hotels in buildings, the original function of which has been exhausted. Such an approach to modern adaptation of degraded objects is important both for their effective use and for successful development of urban environment. Hotels created in redesigned facilities are interesting because their design solution preserves evidence of previous function of structure and this fact forms a sense of time travel in the visitors’ view. An analytical study was carried out at the following hotel industry facilities: Hotel Emma (USA), which was renovated from the brewery; 21c Museum Hotels Oklahoma City (USA) located at the premises of the Ford Motor Company plant; Hotel Cycle (Japan) is located in the former marine warehouse, as well as Hotel Waterhouse (China) opened in the warehouse building and Hotel Alila Yangshuo (China) was created on the site of an abandoned sugar mill. The paper reveals design solutions that convey specifics of old buildings in their new function.

Graphical ABSTRACT

1. INTRODUCTION

Modern development of the hospitality industry is characterized by the search for identity and individuality of architectural and design solutions of hotels. This fact meets current social and cultural needs of consumers. Positioning a hotel as unique gives it a huge competitive edge [1]. Based on indicated trend, boutique hotels are gaining more and more popularity in the hotel industry. They not only provide an opportunity for a comfortable stay, but are also focused on creating such impressions among guests that they cannot get anywhere else. These hotels are endowed with the characteristics of authenticity and can offer the narration of stories about the building, society, people [2].

Hotels created in architectural structures that have lost their original function have an opportunity to form a genuine dialogue with history. The process of adaptive-reuse opens up unique possibilities for creativity within the existing architectural envelope, where the designer can achieve great results and get creative by juxtaposing an authentic exterior and a new interior [1].

Tourists are looking for a local unique experience in modern globalized world. So, vintage interiors in these hotels allow them to represent regional identity through history of structure and its authentic details. Presence of evidence of previous use of both the building itself and its interiors introduces a special sensory layer of perception for guests and forms a sense of time. Rejection of standard hotel template allows you to get unexpected solutions that reflect rich history of the building and its character.

According to experts, it is often faster and cheaper to re-plan an existing building than to build a new one. Even when the cost is higher, “tax advantages equalize it”, says Janis Milham, senior vice president at Marriott International [3]. Therefore, the past as the basis for organization of symbolic space and resource for constructing identity is increasingly becoming the object of creative attention in the process of creating new hotels. In recent years, interest of investors in degraded industrial areas in post-industrial countries has grown significantly. The revitalization process is used as a mechanism for the revival of territories. Implementation of projects for modern adaptation of degraded industrial zones plays an important role not only for efficient use of abandoned industrial facilities and territories, but also for successful development of social, cultural, domestic and communication environment of the city.

On the other hand, in recent decades, an increase in interest in local and national culture has been observed in the world and renovation process focused on preserving historical buildings of cities forms environment for restoring architectural memory. Today, authenticity is becoming more and more appreciated according to demands of society. Current situation shows that thanks to restructuring of unused facilities, there is an opportunity to create an innovative and culturally significant object.

Development of such industrial zones as the Center of Arts and Media Technologies in Karlsruhe (Germany), Gazometres in Vienna (Austria), Melbourne Central Office Tower (Australia), multifunctional complex Xintiandi Factory in Guangzhou China) are well-known examples of rational solutions of redeveloped areas in the world of project practice. In developed countries of the world, the tendency of moving industrial zones outside large cities and renovating industrial buildings has prevailed for several decades. Variants of repurposing of such territories are different, business or residential development can be organized, green zones can be created.

Pierre Francesco Cerci, architect, assistant professor at the University of Cagliari (Italy) in his publication “Adaptive reuse of abandoned monumental buildings as a strategy for urban life” notes that under the pressure of the economic crisis, European cities have suspended active occupation of the surrounding areas and returned to their forgotten. Today, cities pay great attention to their available resources. Therefore, an important strategy for sustainable development has been the reuse of buildings that are functionally obsolete [4].

Rethinking the role and purpose of buildings or territories from perspective of introducing a new function leads to flow of funds, investors and tenants which makes it possible to recreate and maintain original appearance of the building. This fact allows to maintain interest for tourists, to individualize it and demonstrate respect for historical heritage and culture of the region.

The method of transforming a viable environment in the context of preserving and promoting the cultural value of historical buildings is understood as revitalization [5]. The basic principle of revitalization is to uncover new capabilities of old forms, taking into account their modern functions. In the process of revitalization, an integrated approach is used to preserve the identity, authenticity and identity of historical resources of urban environment. The task of revitalization is socialization of space, development of infrastructure elements that activate tourism, caring for the environment and as a result attracting investments. Most attention is paid to the development of tourism infrastructure [6].

This approach implements the concept of sustainable development of territories, where heritage is considered as a “resource”. It is the first step towards the establishment of a new paradigm for integrating cultural heritage into modern social context.

According to ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites) Burra Charter1), conservation is based on a respect for the existing fabric, use, associations and meanings; cultural significance is embodied in the place itself, its fabric, setting, use, associations, meanings, records, related places and related objects [7]. Thus, we can say that both scientific and everyday interest in the past is caused not by a separate aspect of the development of modern socio-cultural situation but by its complex state. The crisis of identity, rapid pace of progress and their consequences, global problems turn into a need for a deep, systematic understanding of the past. But it is most likely the past as reverse side of the present. It can play the role of a mirror, which reflects modernity, in which one can see his own problems and ways to overcome them. We can say that there is a great struggle for the past as a national resource, it is powerful but limited and therefore gaining more and more value [8]. In this process, architecture is used as a marketing device. Its communicative and symbolic role in society can form a significant competitive advantage in hotel business. Architecture can be utilized as a basic instrument to stimulate the tourism development in particular regions. Distinctive, emblematic architecture can be a travel destination itself [9]. An important aspect of architectural influence on tourist attraction of a place is the phenomenon of the place identity reconstruction. These characteristics are important for travelers looking for accommodation that reveals history and culture of the region. Adapting old buildings for new purposes is an opportunity to offer something special to hotel guests, as well as to save land, to reduce growth of cities and to preserve originality of historical buildings. For the hotel business, it is important that buildings with a rich history and unique architecture form an unforgettable experience for visitors [1].

2. MATERIALS AND RESEARCH METHOD

Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the number of hotels located in refurbished properties, in some cases due to the limited space available for new construction. For the research work, examples of hotel complexes designed and built during the specified period were taken. The principal criterion for selecting objects for research was the presence in the design solution of such professional techniques that made it possible to convey the historical, cultural and functional characteristics of the repurposed object. The research work was carried out on the basis of a number of scientific methods:

  • analysis of literature and graphic materials to determine the impact of the structural and functional features of these buildings on the design decisions in the process of their conversion;

  • structural and analytical method and method of compositional analysis to identify the characteristics of the original object and determine the degree of its influence on the architectural and design solution of the hotel;

  • the method of associations for determining the system of semantic associative links between an object that has lost its original function and a new object;

  • a method of semantic analysis to identify links between design approaches in creating new interiors and interpretations of ideas about the object, the formation of which they are focused on.

3. ANALYSIS

Given examples allow us to demonstrate success of this approach in solving problems facing modern hotel industry. So, Hotel Emma in San Antonio (Texas, USA) was constructed in the building of the former Pearl Brewery. This brewery was built in 1881 by the Chicago architect August Maritzen and by 1916 became the largest in the state [10]. It prospered for 25 years. But because of national ban on sale, production and transportation of alcohol in 1920 the company avoided breakdown only thanks to its owner Emma Köhler. Modern hotel is named after her. In 1985, the Pearl Brewing Company was acquired by Pabst and moved production to Fort Worth and the San Antonio plant was finally closed in 2001. The building acquired the function of a hotel in 2015. It has 147 rooms, including seven suites, each of which has its own distinctive character.

Expressive architecture of the building is determined by brick facades with a central tower and huge arched windows. The concept of the hotel’s design solution was the idea of translating the place identity through inclusion in the subject-spatial environment of authentic elements that reflect constructive solution of the old building and production processes that took place in it. Specific character of the last function is clearly and expressively conveyed by central public areas of the hotel. First of all, entering people are impressed by cast-iron tanks and equipment of the brewery which are stored and left in their original place. Original brick walls support amazing industrial atmosphere of the enterprise at the end of the 19th century. But feeling of comfort is reported by caramel-colored leather sofas and carpets on polychrome tiled floors, contrasting with industrial environment.

A library has been created near the lobby for hotel guests, two levels of which are connected by a metal staircase. The lounge area is particularly attractive. It is organized in niches that are housed in old fermentation tanks. The rooms also retain a peculiar eccentric industrial chic typical for public areas. They create an atmosphere of secrecy and solitude for guests. Their design retains a sense of history, creating an impression of adventure among visitors. Thus expressive and stylish design created an amazing effect of organic combination of the old and the new style.

Figure 1.

Preservation of traces of time on the columns in the library area of the Emma Hotel. Photo by Jim_Nix is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/b7b52277-e762-4a56-b665-59dc0d7b7eea

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-f001.jpg
Table 1.

Methods of presenting the characteristics of the identity of the place in the Emma hotel (USA), which is located in the building of the former brewery

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-tbl1.jpg

Another example is the 21c Museum Hotels Oklahoma City (Oklahoma, USA, 2006), which is housed in the old factory building of Ford Motor Company. The historic building was restored with participation of Deborah Berke Partners and it became one of the best new hotels in the world.

At the beginning of the 20th century, a car from a technical miracle turned into an object of consumer demand. The Ford Motor Company developed a mass production conveyor system that led to nationwide distribution of the Ford Model T. A network of regional assembly plants was created to meet an increasing demand. The Oklahoma City Ford assembly plant was opened in 1916 to serve growing markets in the southwestern United States. In addition to production facilities on the second floor of the factory building there were administrative offices and on the first floor there was a showroom in the corner lounge. As demand for automobiles increased dramatically after World War I, the Ford Oklahoma City plant was expanded with a two-story building. At the peak of production, its 1,400 workers produced 200 cars per day. But from the late 1930s until 1967, the plant turned into a regional branch for sale of spare parts for the company.

Architecture of the factory structure designed by renowned architect Albert Kahn expressed progressive industrial nature of the production. The building is a reinforced concrete structure with curtain walls. Long spaces of workshops with large windows in metal binders are divided by octagonal columns with large faceted capitals, which made them look like silhouettes of trees. Thanks to strong structural materials factory building survived decades after its initial mission. Today, the former Ford factory has become a special place that combines a boutique hotel with a restaurant and art galleries. Concrete pillar structures, terrazzo floors and large strips of industrial glazing stand out in modern guest rooms, restaurant and exhibition space. These distinctive features of industrial architecture inform travelers of the unique historical character of the hotel [11].

Architectural team (Deborah Berke Partners) restored and recreated symbolic original elements of the plant such as entryway, floor and showcase for Model T, as well as outdoor lighting and signs (Fred Jones Manufacturing) [12]. The exhibition hall for car demonstration was rethought as a bar and lounge in the process of space adaptation. The original canopy for the train which delivered sets of car parts in the past has become an open bar and dining area. It is important that in all areas of the hotel with a characteristic appearance, columns are painted in white and layers of old paint are preserved in the bar interior. So they not only contrast expressively with environment but also visually connect the past and the present. The main seating area is divided by two-tone blue sofas. Quilted stripes of their upholstery cause associations with seats of American cars of the late 1950s [13].

To improve illumination of interior space during the adaptation process, three light wells were made through concrete floor slabs to give natural light to rooms located in the middle of the building. Spacious living rooms with high ceilings and large windows receive plenty of daylight. Architectural minimalism that is typical for industrial buildings is transferred to residential area. Steel window covers preserve original profile and remind of industrial past of these interiors. Connection with the past in the design of rooms is clearly demonstrated by individual pieces of furniture, such as a desk, the frame of which is made of dark metal. The color scheme is dominated by white and gray, these are walls, ceiling, floor and individual surfaces of furniture. But against this neutral background, a sense of comfort is created by expressive accents indicated by light wood at the head of beds and bright color of fabrics of upholstered furniture. High ceilings, curtains from floor to ceiling and unique works of contemporary art on the wall create an atmosphere of modernity in space.

Figure 2.

Accentuated column with expressive surface texture, on which traces of time have been preserved, in the hotel 21c Museum Hotels bar area Photo by Kool Cats Photography is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/4ce8d5dd-6208-4d3b-8687-70d1690cb9a8

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-f002.jpg

But an important component of the complex is the art museum where the hotel itself is seen as its continuation. The museum manager Michaela Slavid said that guests “sleep with art” to help build a relationship between the audience and art [14]. According to CEO Matt R. Cowden, 21c Museum Hotels is rethinking the standards of the hotel experience. Not only the atmosphere of hospitality is important for him, but also the beauty of art and the emotional connection with it. Therefore, the unique integration of contemporary art into the hotel environment should provide an unprecedented experience for its guests [15].

The design feature of the hotel is that its space directly includes modern artworks that refer to industrial past of the building. First of all, on the street at the entrance visitors are met by perforated steel skeleton of the Woozy Blossom tree created by Matthew Geller. This technocratic sculpture unexpectedly releases steam puffs and becomes the first hint that the Museum Hotel Oklahoma City seeks to surprise. In lounge area next to the bar, there is another kinetic sculpture called the River of Time, created by artist James Clar specifically for the hotel in Oklahoma City. It is a moving conveyor belt covered with translucent sheets of blue and white acrylic to create the illusion of running water. Amazing river “flows” first horizontally and then rises up and like a waterfall falls down through the center of installation. Behind the waterfall there is a large clock that shows time through LED lights that shine through acrylic panels. According to the artist’s plan, this installation should reflect the history of the building through materials. The combination of old and new materials forms a link to the past, present and future. Such work activates the hotel lobby and generates reflection and discussion [15].

The museum hotel has over 14,000 square feet of exhibition space. According to Michael Bendure communications director at Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art, the goal of creating a museum in 21c is to give visitors an opportunity to experience art and possibly even change their worldview [14]. The museum is open to the public year-round, offering curatorial exhibitions and placing interactive installations in separate areas of the hotel.

This example clearly demonstrates possibilities of filling the structure with a new function, while restoring its historical features. The design solution inspired by conveyor technology and technical achievements of automotive industry, allowed us to create a unique multifunctional boutique hotel.

Table 2.

Techniques for representing characteristics of the identity of a place in 21c Museum Hotels Oklahoma City (USA), which is located in the building of the former Ford Motor Company plant

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-tbl2.jpg

Design experience of Japanese designers to transform marine warehouse in Hiroshima (Japan) into a modern hotel for cyclists is also interesting. Hotel Cycle is located in the Onomichi U2 in the former marine warehouse which has been converted into a complex of apartments, restaurants and bicycle shops. The hotel was opened in 2014. It is conveniently located at the beginning of the 45-mile bike path that connects the mainland of Honshu with seven islands in the Seto Inland Sea through a series of impressive bridges. Onomichi is attractive to tourists, especially cyclists. They are fascinated by beautiful hills and “mahiya” – old houses in the Japanese style [16].

Figure 3.

Preservation of the structural basis of the warehouse building on the facade of the Hotel Cycle entrance area “10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-unfig2.jpg ONOMICHI U2” by lohasteru is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/29d7ef7c-09aa-4a61-a048-8456e66df813

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-f003.jpg

Residential rooms occupy about a third of the building and they are located at one end and on the other hand there is a giant store where cyclists can buy new equipment or rent road bikes. Harbor accessible to the public is a space between them.

Architects exposed original brickwork and concrete. “We incorporated elements into the recreation of the seaside warehouse that were reminiscent of the character of Onomichi itself. Our building materials – wood, mortar, and steel – recall the old houses of Onomichi and the shipbuilding that’s been such a longstanding tradition there”, they said [16]. Architects Makoto Tanjiri and Ai Yoshida of Suppose Design Office in Hiroshima preserved concrete walls of the facade and massive storage steel doors on rails that are constantly open. In public areas exposed steel beams and brass lamps remind us of industrial past of the building, while dim lights create an atmosphere of quiet privacy. The hotel is located at one end of the central lobby and has 28 suites on two levels.

Figure 4.

Preservation and designation of the building structures of the warehouse building in the transit area of the Hotel Cycle. “10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-unfig3.jpg ONOMICHI U2” by lohasteru is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/742547e2-e8b4-4b95-87c0-bc1399a86b54

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-f004.jpg

On the other side of the lobby there is an open-plan area for shops and restaurants which occupies the entire height of the building. Concrete supports allow zoning of the space. But the main feature of space organization is the ability to ride a bicycle almost everywhere. You can ride a bicycle to reception and cafe provides a path for cyclists to get their coffee without leaving the bike.

Unusually wide bed located in the center is the accent of living rooms. Its white linen almost glows against the background of dark gray walls and dark wooden furniture. A feature of the design of these interiors is that special hooks for bicycles are placed on the walls. This solution allows you to perceive a bicycle as a work of art.

Table 3.

Techniques for representing characteristics of the identity of a place in Hotel Cycle (Japan), located in the building of the marine warehouse

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-tbl3.jpg

Work on adaptation of old buildings into hotel complexes are distinguished by expressiveness of design solutions. Design solution of the Waterhouse Hotel located in Shanghai, in a district that was a commercial area and a port 200 years ago is distinguished by accented preservation of old building’s signs. In the warehouse building of 1930, design and research bureau Neri & Hu housed a boutique hotel with 19 rooms. The concept of design solution was to create an expressive contrast between preserved fragments of old building and new elements that appeared as a result of changes in the building’s function.

Figure 5.

Preservation of authentic materials and traces of time on the supporting structures in the Waterhouse Hotel lobby “如恩10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-unfig4.jpg Neri & Hu – 10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-unfig5.jpg WaterHouse – Photo 15.jpg” by 10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-unfig6.jpg Forgemind ArchiMedia is licensed under CC BY 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/bd06715c-b981-481d-9f20-3ffc286f3337

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-f005.jpg

The facade of the structure which received additional structure of the fourth floor generally retained its original appearance, bearing characteristics of a brutal industrial structure. This design solution is justified, because this part of Shanghai is represented by low-rise buildings, and the most part of architectural heritage of the city has been preserved. The dominant theme of industrial past unfolds in an interior space of the lobby and staircases, where roughness of concrete walls are complemented by black metal constructions of beams and fences and huge entrance storage gates are preserved. They are contrasted insignificantly with smooth white surfaces of structural elements that appeared to provide a new function. Replicas of industrial past are visible in hotel rooms. Here, fragments of preserved brickwork are contrasted with white walls, smooth surfaces of light wood and black and white furniture, some examples of which are represented by works of such famous designers as Arne Jacobsen and Antonio Citterio. A distinctive feature of the hotel’s design organization is blurring of boundaries between interior and exterior, between its public and private spaces.

Figure 6.

The use of authentic brick walls in hotel room design “如恩10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-unfig7.jpg Neri & Hu – 10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-unfig8.jpg WaterHouse – Photo 51.jpg” by 10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-unfig9.jpg Forgemind ArchiMedia is licensed under CC BY 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/16b2f2bb-1ec3-4016-a3cf-ef7e2d11d6d8

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-f006.jpg
Table 4.

Techniques for representing the characteristics of the identity of a place in the Waterhouse hotel (China), which is located in the building of an old warehouse

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-tbl4.jpg

The Hotel Alila Yangshuo located near the Karst Mountains in the Guangxi region was a significant development in the field of renovation for China. Beijing studio Vector Architects created a hotel on the site of an abandoned sugar mill, which was built in the 1960s. The project retains old buildings, which are supplemented by new residential buildings. The architectural solution of their facades supports industrial character of already existing structure and interior design uses approaches that form the link between the old and the new.

When creating new residential buildings authors went away from direct copying of a historical sample. They established a link between the old and the new through styling in formation and use of modern materials, which convey structure and character of masonry of the old building. The use of local materials has become one of the important characteristics of environmental approach implemented by the architect Gong Dong. Openwork facade walls of new buildings were created by hand from local sandstone and other materials mined in the process of excavation during construction of an underground spa center. Other local materials have been applied in the hotel’s interior design. First of all it is a red volcanic rock discovered during construction. It was used for floors and walls in the guest rooms, giving subtle shades of red to interiors, as well as for the manufacture of dishes for living rooms. Clay was another material that characterized the region. Decorative reliefs at the head of beds were made out of it and tiles with geometric patterns for walls decoration of bathrooms.

The hotel hall is located in the building of an old mill. It houses a cafe, a bar, a multifunctional hall, a gallery and a library. Expressive emphasis on preserving characteristics of the old building is made in the bar designed by Ju Bin. Modern bar is located in the former press room, where original sugar press was located. The designer kept intact the old base, over which he placed a glass floor with light. A special design solution of the floor, supplemented by preserved elements of old equipment allows visitors to feel specifics of industrial past of this place. An old dock of loading sugar cane received a new function which turned into a pool overlooking the River Lee.

Thus, reuse of buildings original function which is outdated is an important component of modern ecological approach in the environment formation. In contrast to reconstruction renovation uses the most environmentally sound form of transformation of objects with a change in their functional purpose. It makes it possible to maximize potential of unused industrial spaces. In this case, a combination of authenticity of object and its new functional purpose occurs.

It has been established that identification of architectural structures denoting character of an old building, preservation of the shape of window openings and bindings is one of the leading approaches demonstrating connection of repurposed object with its previous function. Material of wall structures primarily transfers authentic characteristics in interior design solutions. It can be a brick or concrete used both in a renovated state and with an actively identified nature of damage caused by time. Integration of remaining production equipment into a modern design is an additional expressive approach that clearly demonstrates industrial past of the building.

Figure 7.

Openness of the constructive basis of the building in the multifunctional hall of the hotel “IMG_7473” by trevor.patt is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/4531a970-6b38-4084-bdcb-36843f0dfd55

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-f007.jpg
Figure 8.

Mill floor conservation in the bar area “IMG_7470” by trevor.patt is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/4778f2ac-f433-4ea1-834c-4cf79f5bdb68

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-f008.jpg
Table 5.

Techniques for representing the characteristics of the identity of a place in the Alila Yangshuo hotel (China), located on the site of a sugar mill

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-tbl5.jpg

4. CONCLUSIONS

Thus, the process of revitalization of structures that have lost their original function contributes not only to the preservation of historical past, but also to social activation of areas. As a result, an obsolete object acquires cultural value and contributes to the tourism business development. Uniqueness of historical place with its ability to represent the lost past in cultural space of the present has gained an opportunity to be implemented in the hospitality industry. Historical past of the object had an opportunity to shape the identity of the new hotel. The old buildings, where the hotels are located, are a reliable historical fact. They preserve the original artifacts, which become the basis for the design of enterprises with a new function. Old buildings are the guardians of human experience: they constantly accumulate information, materialize and store it in real objects.

The analysis made it possible to determine a number of significant characteristics reflecting both historical and functional specifics of the old building, which are used in the process of its refunctionalization. These include authentic construction materials and technologies, as well as design features that characterize the construction time. Designer’s methods of adaptation of objects are aimed at preservation of forms of windows and their bindings, character of doorways, underlined revealing of wall material and building constructions. An important role is given to the old production equipment, which is located in public areas of hotels. The design solutions demonstrate options not only to preserve it in its original form, but also to adapt it to new functions. Design techniques that form the unique atmosphere of the place include: the accent preservation of the traces of aging on the surfaces, painting of old surfaces with preservation of their texture, the use of aged, used materials for the manufacture of new equipment.

As a result, the atmosphere defined by design creates special feelings and impressions for visitors, increasing customer satisfaction with the products of hospitality.

Table 6.

Design techniques in the solution of modern hotels that convey the image of the past function of the building

10.21307_ACEE-2021-001-tbl6.jpg

References


  1. Arlotta, C. (2017). Adaptive-reuse: Transforming old buildings to new hotels. Retrieved from https://www.hotelbusiness.com/adaptive-reuse-transforming-old-buildings-to-new-hotels/ (Accessed 7 January 2020)
  2. Cooper, E. (2017). Niche industry leader. Retrieved from http://www.virginiabusiness.com/regions/article/niche-industry-leader (Accessed 20 May 2020)
  3. Zipkin, A. (2014). Hotels Moving into Old Buildings. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/11/business/hotels-moving-into-old-buildings.html (Accessed 22 May 2020)
  4. Cherchi, P.C. (2015). Adaptive Reuse of Abandoned Monumental Buildings as a Strategy for Urban Live ability. Athens Journal of Architecture, 1(4), 253–270.
    [CROSSREF]
  5. Penića, M., Golovina, S., Murgul, V. (2015). Revitalization of Historic Buildings as an Approach to Preserve Cultural and Historical Heritage. International Scientific Conference Urban Civil Engineering and Municipal Facilities, SPbUCEMF-2015 Procedia Engineering, 883–890.
    [CROSSREF]
  6. Anokhin, A.Y. (2016). Modern technologies of revitalization and renovation of objects of historical and cultural heritage. Problems, experience and prospects of tourism, service and socio-cultural activities in Russia and abroad, 8. (In Russian).
  7. Sing, T. Y., Yoh, S. (2016). Rehabilitation Methods and Revitalization Strategies in the Old Inner-City Areas of Rapid Growth Cities in Asia. A comparison of four cities: Penang, Hanoi, Shanghai, and Tokyo. Urban and Regional Planning Review. 3, doi.org/10.14398/urpr.3.1
  8. Shub, M.L. (2018). The image of the past as a cultural phenomenon: conceptualization and forms of representation in the modern sociocultural space. (Doctoral dissertation). Chelyabinsk State Institute of Culture. Retrieved from http://chgik.ru/sites/default/files/dissovet01_shub_diss.pdf (In Russian).
  9. Piatkowska, K. K. (2012). Economy and architecture. The role of architecture in process of building the economic potential of space. Humanities and Social Sciences Review, 1(2), 549–555.
  10. Alarcón, C. (2019). This Iconic Brewery In San Antonio Is The City’s Most Romantic Hotel. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/claudiaalarcon/2019/02/10/this-iconic-brewery-in-san-antonio-is-the-citys-most-romantic-hotel/#3bb7c8376c66 (Accessed 03 May 2020).
  11. Lyon, D., Harris, P. (2016). This New Museum Hotel in Oklahoma City Promises to Surprise and Delight. Retrieved from https://robbreport.com/travel/destinations/new-museum-hotel-oklahoma-city-promises-surprise-and-delight-233021/ (Accessed 29 June 2020).
  12. Olivia, M. (2016). Deborah Berke redesigns an old Albert Kahn factory into a hip hotel. The architect’s newspaper. Retrieved from https://archpaper.com/2016/08/deborah-berke-oklahoma-city-21c-museum-hotel/#gallery-0-slide-0 (Accessed 02 June 2020).
  13. An Inside Look at Oklahoma City’s 21c Museum Hotel. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.travelzoo.com/blog/inside-look-oklahoma-citys-21c-museum-hotel/ (Accessed 9 August 2020).
  14. Weintraub, A. (2016). OU architecture alumnus helps convert OKC manufacturing plant to unique art museum, hotel. Retrieved from http://www.oudaily.com/a_and_e/ou-architecturealumnus-helps-convert-okc-manufacturing-plant-tounique/article_e2249830-bd8a-11e6-a1ea-cf525f50e01b.html (Accessed 02 June 2020).
  15. 21c Museum Hotels Appoints Matt Cowden General Manager of Oklahoma City Property (2016). Retrieved from https://www.21cmuseumhotels.com/oklahomacity/blog/2016/21c-museum-hotels-appoints-general-manager-21c-okc/ (Accessed 9 August 2020).
  16. Monroe, R. (2016). A Little R & Art at the 21c Museum Hotel in Oklahoma City. Retrieved from https://readartdesk.com/feature/a-modern-inn-artstay (Accessed 10 August 2020).
  17. Mairs, J. (2014). Suppose Design Office creates Hiroshima hotel complex targeted at cyclists. Retrieved from https://www.dezeen.com/2014/09/07/hotel-cycle-onomichi-u2-japan-suppose-design-office/ (Accessed 28 June 2020).
XML PDF Share

FIGURES & TABLES

Figure 1.

Preservation of traces of time on the columns in the library area of the Emma Hotel. Photo by Jim_Nix is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/b7b52277-e762-4a56-b665-59dc0d7b7eea

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 2.

Accentuated column with expressive surface texture, on which traces of time have been preserved, in the hotel 21c Museum Hotels bar area Photo by Kool Cats Photography is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/4ce8d5dd-6208-4d3b-8687-70d1690cb9a8

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 3.

Preservation of the structural basis of the warehouse building on the facade of the Hotel Cycle entrance area “ ONOMICHI U2” by lohasteru is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/29d7ef7c-09aa-4a61-a048-8456e66df813

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 4.

Preservation and designation of the building structures of the warehouse building in the transit area of the Hotel Cycle. “ ONOMICHI U2” by lohasteru is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/742547e2-e8b4-4b95-87c0-bc1399a86b54

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 5.

Preservation of authentic materials and traces of time on the supporting structures in the Waterhouse Hotel lobby “如恩 Neri & Hu – WaterHouse – Photo 15.jpg” by Forgemind ArchiMedia is licensed under CC BY 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/bd06715c-b981-481d-9f20-3ffc286f3337

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 6.

The use of authentic brick walls in hotel room design “如恩 Neri & Hu – WaterHouse – Photo 51.jpg” by Forgemind ArchiMedia is licensed under CC BY 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/16b2f2bb-1ec3-4016-a3cf-ef7e2d11d6d8

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 7.

Openness of the constructive basis of the building in the multifunctional hall of the hotel “IMG_7473” by trevor.patt is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/4531a970-6b38-4084-bdcb-36843f0dfd55

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 8.

Mill floor conservation in the bar area “IMG_7470” by trevor.patt is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/4778f2ac-f433-4ea1-834c-4cf79f5bdb68

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

REFERENCES

  1. Arlotta, C. (2017). Adaptive-reuse: Transforming old buildings to new hotels. Retrieved from https://www.hotelbusiness.com/adaptive-reuse-transforming-old-buildings-to-new-hotels/ (Accessed 7 January 2020)
  2. Cooper, E. (2017). Niche industry leader. Retrieved from http://www.virginiabusiness.com/regions/article/niche-industry-leader (Accessed 20 May 2020)
  3. Zipkin, A. (2014). Hotels Moving into Old Buildings. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/11/business/hotels-moving-into-old-buildings.html (Accessed 22 May 2020)
  4. Cherchi, P.C. (2015). Adaptive Reuse of Abandoned Monumental Buildings as a Strategy for Urban Live ability. Athens Journal of Architecture, 1(4), 253–270.
    [CROSSREF]
  5. Penića, M., Golovina, S., Murgul, V. (2015). Revitalization of Historic Buildings as an Approach to Preserve Cultural and Historical Heritage. International Scientific Conference Urban Civil Engineering and Municipal Facilities, SPbUCEMF-2015 Procedia Engineering, 883–890.
    [CROSSREF]
  6. Anokhin, A.Y. (2016). Modern technologies of revitalization and renovation of objects of historical and cultural heritage. Problems, experience and prospects of tourism, service and socio-cultural activities in Russia and abroad, 8. (In Russian).
  7. Sing, T. Y., Yoh, S. (2016). Rehabilitation Methods and Revitalization Strategies in the Old Inner-City Areas of Rapid Growth Cities in Asia. A comparison of four cities: Penang, Hanoi, Shanghai, and Tokyo. Urban and Regional Planning Review. 3, doi.org/10.14398/urpr.3.1
  8. Shub, M.L. (2018). The image of the past as a cultural phenomenon: conceptualization and forms of representation in the modern sociocultural space. (Doctoral dissertation). Chelyabinsk State Institute of Culture. Retrieved from http://chgik.ru/sites/default/files/dissovet01_shub_diss.pdf (In Russian).
  9. Piatkowska, K. K. (2012). Economy and architecture. The role of architecture in process of building the economic potential of space. Humanities and Social Sciences Review, 1(2), 549–555.
  10. Alarcón, C. (2019). This Iconic Brewery In San Antonio Is The City’s Most Romantic Hotel. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/claudiaalarcon/2019/02/10/this-iconic-brewery-in-san-antonio-is-the-citys-most-romantic-hotel/#3bb7c8376c66 (Accessed 03 May 2020).
  11. Lyon, D., Harris, P. (2016). This New Museum Hotel in Oklahoma City Promises to Surprise and Delight. Retrieved from https://robbreport.com/travel/destinations/new-museum-hotel-oklahoma-city-promises-surprise-and-delight-233021/ (Accessed 29 June 2020).
  12. Olivia, M. (2016). Deborah Berke redesigns an old Albert Kahn factory into a hip hotel. The architect’s newspaper. Retrieved from https://archpaper.com/2016/08/deborah-berke-oklahoma-city-21c-museum-hotel/#gallery-0-slide-0 (Accessed 02 June 2020).
  13. An Inside Look at Oklahoma City’s 21c Museum Hotel. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.travelzoo.com/blog/inside-look-oklahoma-citys-21c-museum-hotel/ (Accessed 9 August 2020).
  14. Weintraub, A. (2016). OU architecture alumnus helps convert OKC manufacturing plant to unique art museum, hotel. Retrieved from http://www.oudaily.com/a_and_e/ou-architecturealumnus-helps-convert-okc-manufacturing-plant-tounique/article_e2249830-bd8a-11e6-a1ea-cf525f50e01b.html (Accessed 02 June 2020).
  15. 21c Museum Hotels Appoints Matt Cowden General Manager of Oklahoma City Property (2016). Retrieved from https://www.21cmuseumhotels.com/oklahomacity/blog/2016/21c-museum-hotels-appoints-general-manager-21c-okc/ (Accessed 9 August 2020).
  16. Monroe, R. (2016). A Little R & Art at the 21c Museum Hotel in Oklahoma City. Retrieved from https://readartdesk.com/feature/a-modern-inn-artstay (Accessed 10 August 2020).
  17. Mairs, J. (2014). Suppose Design Office creates Hiroshima hotel complex targeted at cyclists. Retrieved from https://www.dezeen.com/2014/09/07/hotel-cycle-onomichi-u2-japan-suppose-design-office/ (Accessed 28 June 2020).

EXTRA FILES

COMMENTS