Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment

Silesian University of Technology

Subject: Architecture , Civil Engineering , Engineering, Environmental


ISSN: 1899-0142





Volume / Issue / page

Related articles

VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 4 (December 2017) > List of articles


Adam GUMIŃSKI / Marcin KŁOS / Jolanta GUMIŃSKA

Keywords :  Economic effectiveness, Granular activated carbon adsorption, Pretreatment systems

Citation Information : Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment. Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 123-131, DOI:

License : (BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Published Online: 28-August-2018



Granular activated carbon (GAC) is used for removing an excessive amount of organic contaminants causing undesirable taste, odour or colour of water, and refractive micropollutants, such as heavy metals or toxic organic compounds. However, adsorption is one of the most expensive unit processes used in treatment and renewal of water. This is due to the high cost of granular active carbon and the necessity of its frequent exchange or regeneration. In the paper the authors present the results of the technological and economic analysis of preliminary water treatment systems before GAC filters. The analysis enabled to determine the profitability of these investments taking into account raw water quality and the life of carbon between regenerations. The simulation results showed that it is economically profitable to apply preliminary water treatment independently of analysed pretreatment systems.

Content not available PDF Share



[1] Kim, J., Kang, B. (2008). DBPs removal in GAC filter-adsorber. Water Research, 42(1-2), 145-152.

[2] Randtke, S. (1998). Organic contaminant removal by coagulation and related process combinations, Journal - American Water Works Association, 80(5), 40-56.

[3] Simpson, D. (2008). Biofilm processes in biologically active carbon water purification. Water Research, 42(12), 2839-2848.

[4] Nishijima, W., Speitel Jr., G. (2004). Fate of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon produced by ozonation on biological activated carbon, Chemosphere, 56(2), 113-119.

[5] Han, L., Liu, W., Chen, M., Zhang, M., Liu, S., Sun, R., Fei, X. (2013). Comparison of NOM removal and microbial properties in up-flow/down-flow BAC filter, Water Research, 47(14), 4861-4868.

[6] Ho, L., Hoefel, D., Bock, F., Saint, Ch., Newcombe, G. (2007). Biodegradation rates of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin through sand filters and in bioreactors. Chemosphere, 66(11), 2210-2218.

[7] Simpson, D. (2008). Biofilm processes in biologically active carbon water purification, Water Research, 42(12), 2839-2848.

[8] Matilainen, A., Vieno, N., Tuhkanen, T. (2006). Efficiency of the activated carbon filtration in the natural organic matter removal, Environment International, 32(3), 324-331.

[9] Haberkamp, J., Ruhl, A., Ernst, M., Jekel, M. Impact of coagulation and adsorption on DOC fractions of secondary effluent and resulting fouling behaviour in ultrafiltration, Water Research, 41(17), 3794-3802.

[10] Velten, S., Knappe, D., Traber, J., Kaiser, H., von Gunten, U., Boller, M., Meylan, S. (2011). Characterization of natural organic matter adsorption in granular activated carbon adsorbers, Water Research, 45(13), 3951-3959.

[11] Nawrocki, J., Biłozor, S. (2000). Water treatment. Chemical and biological processes, PWN, Warsaw- Poznań.

[12] McCreary, J., Snoeyink, V. (1980). Characterization and Activated Carbon Adsorption of Several Humic Substances, Water Research, 14(2), 151-160;

[13] Weber Jr., W., Voice, T., Jodellah, A. (1983). Adsorption of Humic Substances: The effects of heterogeneity and system characteristics. Journal - American Water Works Association, 75(12), 612-619.

[14] Semmens, M., Norgaard, G., Hohenstein, G., Staples, A. (1986). Influence of pH on the removal of organics by granular activated carbon. Journal - American Water Works Association, 78(5), 89-93.

[15] Kłos, M., Latawiec, E., Gumińska, J. (2010). The influence of technological parameters on the course of coagulation and dissolved air flotation. Instal, 10, 57-61.

[16] Kłos, M., Tokarczyk, J. (2010). The use of dissolved air flotation treatment of surface water - the application process on a technical scale. Instal, 2, 32-36.

[17] Gumińska, J., Kłos, M. (2011). Evaluation of optimization of coagulation - experience with the operation of technological systems with sedimentation and dissolved air flotation, Gas Water & Sanitary Technics, 5, 194-197.

[18] LeChevallier, M., Becker, W., Schorr, P., Lee, R. (1992). Evaluating the performance of biologically active rapid filters. Journal - American Water Works Association, 84(4), 136-146.

[19] Wang, J., Summers, R., Miltner, R. (1995). Biofiltration performance: Part 1, relationship to biomass. Journal - American Water Works Association, 87(12), 55-63.

[20] Yin, C., Aroua, M., Daud, W. (2007). Review of modification of activated carbon for enhancing contaminant uptakes from aqueous solutions. Separation & Purification Technology, 52(3), 403-415.

[21] Klimenko, N., Savchina, L, Kozyatnik, I., Goncharuk, V., Samsoni-Todorov, A. (2009). The effect of preliminary ozonization on the bioregeneration of activated carbon during its long-term service. Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology, 31(4), 220-226.

[22] Chang, H., Rittmann, B. (1998). Comparative study of biofilm shear loss on different adsorptive media. Journal - Water Pollution Control Federation, 60(3), 362-368.

[23] Speitel, G., DiGiano, F. (1987). Biofilm shearing under dynamic conditions. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 113(3), 464-475.

[24] Jans, U., Hoigne, J. (1998). Activated carbon and carbon black catalyzed transformation of aqueous ozone into OH-radicals. Ozone Science and Engineering, 20(4), 67-90.

[25] Volk, C., Renner, P., Paillard, H., Joret, J. ( 1993). Effect of ozone on the production of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) during water treatments. Ozone Science and Engineering, 15(5), 389-404.

[26] Nishijima, W., Kim, W., Shoto, E., Okada, M. (1998). The performance of an ozonation-biological activated carbon process under long term operation. Water Science and. Technology, 3(6),163-169.

[27] Yan, M., Wang, D., Ma, X., Ni, J., Zhang, H. (2010). THMs precursor removal by an integrated process of ozonation and biological granular activated carbon for typical Northern China water. Separation & Purification Technology, 72(3), 263-268.

[28] Chang, E., Chiang, P., Ko, Y., Lan, W. (2001). Characteristics of organic precursors and their relationship with disinfection by-products. Chemosphere, 44(5), 1231-1236.

[29] Zhang, X., Ni, Y., Van Heiningen, A. (2001). Effect of temperature on the kinetics of pulp ozonation. Journal of Pulp and Paper Science, 27(8) 279-283.

[30] Richardson, S., Thruston, A., Caughran, T., Chen, P., Collette, T., Floyd, T., Schenck, K., Lykins, B., Sun, G., Majetich, G. (1999). Identification of new ozone disinfection byproducts in drinking water. Environmental Science & Technology, 33(19) 3368-3377.

[31] Tan, L., Amy, G. (1991). Comparing ozonation and membrane separation for colour removal and disinfection by-product control. Journal - American Water Works Association, 83(5), 74-79.

[32] Najm, I., Krasner, S. (1995). Effects of bromide and natural organic matter on the formation of ozonation by-products. Journal - American Water Works Association, 87(1), 106-115.

[33] Crosson, K. (2005). The use of analytical techniques for the characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) and the assessment of NOM’s transformations, interactions, and removal during drinking water treatment, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, USA.

[34] Camel, V., Bermond, A. (1998). The use of ozone and associated oxidation processes in drinking water treatment. Water Research, 32(11), 3208-3222.

[35] Lee, L., Ng, H., Ong, S., Hu, J., Tao, G., Kekre, K., Viswanath, B., Lay, W., Seah, H. (2009). Ozone-biological activated carbon as a pretreatment process for reverse osmosis brine treatment and recovery. Water Research, 43(16) 3948-3955.

[36] Carlson, K., Amy, G. (1995). The relative importance of HLR and EBDT on the removal of BOM during biofiltration, in: Proceedings of the Water Quality Technology Conference, American Water Works Association, New Orleans, LA.

[37] Rittmann, B., McCarty, P. (2001). Environmental Biotechnology: Principles and Applications, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

[38] Hooper, S., Summers, R., Solarik, G., Owen, D. (1996). Improving GAC performance by optimized coagulation. Journal - American Water Works Association, 88(8), 107-120.

[39] Sierpińska, M., Jachna, T. (2005). Rating of companies according to world standards, PWN, Warsaw.

[40] Berens, W., Hawranek, P. (1993). Guide for preparation of the analysis of industrial feasibility studies, UNIDO, Information Centre Engineer, Warsaw.

[41] Accounting Act amended on 9 November 2000 (Journal of Laws No. 113, item 1186).