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International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems

Professor Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Exeley Inc. (New York)

Subject: Computational Science & Engineering , Engineering, Electrical & Electronic

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eISSN: 1178-5608

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FEATURED ARTICLES

Touch fingerprint sensor based on sensor cell isolation technique with pseudo direct signaling
HYBRID DATA APPROACH FOR SELECTING EFFECTIVE TEST CASES DURING THE REGRESSION TESTING
PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMATIC LICENSE PLATE LOCALIZATION AND RECOGNITION FROM VIDEO SEQUENCES

VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 5 (December 2014) - List of articles

Special issue ICST 2014

Comparison and overview of Wireless sensor network systems for Medical Applications

Avijit Mathur/ Thomas Newe

The need for technology to assist in medical monitoring applications is becoming more necessary in society as the number of patients in hospital and clinics continues to grow. The demand on staff to monitor every individual consistently becomes necessary. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are now being used to facilitate this on-demand monitoring both at the patients home and in the hospital/clinic environment. This paper looks at the basic parameters necessary for a medical based WSN with particul(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-014

Thin Film Coated QCM-Sensors and Pattern Recognition Methods for Discrimination of VOCs

Omar C. Lezzar/ A. Bellel/ M. Boutamine/ S. Sahli/ Y. Segui/ P. Raynaud

Discrimination and quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a non-selective sensor requires a combination of sensors followed by pattern recognition methods. Based on this concept, this paper deals with the discrimination of gas from the responses of several gas sensors coated with different type of polymer. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrodes were coated from hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSN) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) for the elaboration of (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-015

Marine based Wireless Sensor Networks: Challenges and Requirements

Walid Elgenaidi/ Thomas Newe

Marine environmental monitoring based on wireless sensor networks (WSN) is a challenging area of research due to the instability of the water field. Due to the characteristics of the water environment, there are certain considerations which must be taken into account before the establishment of marine based wireless sensor networks. These include the deployment of wireless nodes (WNs), energy consumption, network connectivity and security. This paper compares and contrasts the basic parameters r(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-016

Light-Weight Addressing and Routing Schemes for Resource-Constrained WPAN Devices

Uttam Kumar Roy

Traditional heavyweight routing algorithms are not suitable for resource constrained IEEE 802.15.4 [15] complaint devices. Although, ZigBee [21] provided an addressing scheme and a table-free Tree routing algorithm for such devices, it has several limitations [6, 7, 8, 9]. In this paper, we have proposed a flexible, variable-length addressing scheme together with a new lightweight, table-free routing algorithm. The addressing scheme leverages the properties of prefix code and allows devices to h(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-017

Secure Hash Algorithm-3(SHA-3) implementation on Xilinx FPGAs, Suitable for IoT Applications

Muzaffar Rao/ Thomas Newe/ Ian Grout

Data integrity is a term used when referring to the accuracy and reliability of data. It ensures that data is not altered during operations, such as transfer, storage, or retrieval. Any changes to the data for example malicious intention, unpredicted hardware failure or human error would results in failure of data integrity. Cryptographic hash functions are generally used for the verification of data integrity. For many Internet of Things (IoT) applications, hardware implementations of cryptogra(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-018

Towards High-Speed Raman Spectroscopy for Industrial Sorting Applications

Martin de Biasio/ R. Leitner / D. Balthasar

A real-time Raman mapping system for detecting and discriminating a range of industrially relevant materials such as glasses and various minerals is presented. The system is built from components that are suitable for industrial conditions. Together with a signal processing and a chemo-metric model, the system was shown to be capable of discriminating between the test materials. We argue that the approach is a novel alternative to established sorting sensors.

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-019

Cross sensitivity of Ionic concentration on Admittance type measurement

Joyanta Kumar Roy/ Bansari Deb Majumder

An attempt has been made to study theoretically electrical admittance type level measurement and its cross sensitivity with ionic concentration of liquid. The analysis has been made for single and double electrodes and found there is significant cross sensitivity which varies with the ionic concentration of the liquid. This study will help further to design and develop continuous level measurement transmitter in Boiler drum.

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-020

Fabrication and Characterization of High Performance Micro Impedance Inclinometer

Chia-Yen Lee/ Lung-Ming Fu

In the study, a novel micro impedance inclinometer is presented, consisting of a glass substrate, Cr electrodes and a mercury pendulum. The output signal of the proposed inclinometer is read from the moving metal pendulum based on an LED array measurement scheme. A mercury pendulum mass is used for the inclinometer. The adhesion between the liquid metal and the substrate surface is reduced by etching or sandblasting the substrate surface. Experimental results show the developed inclinometer has (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-021

A Fuzzy Based Predictive Cluster Head Selection Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

Hemavathi Natarajan/ Sudha Selvara

Clustering, an energy efficient approach is used in Wireless Sensor Network. Clustering involves cluster formation and Cluster Head Selection. As the Cluster Head is involved in carrying out the entire communication, a high energy node has to be selected as Cluster Head. In this paper, a novel predictive Fuzzy based Cluster Head selection algorithm is proposed. The proposal suggests a new input parameter, Rate of recurrent Communication apart from the standard parameters namely the Residual Powe(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-022

High Frequency Giant Magnetoimpedance Effect of amorphous microwires for magnetic sensors applications

Arkadi Zhukov/ A. Talaat/ M. Ipatov/ V. Zhukova

We studied the Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect and magnetic properties of amorphous Fe-Co rich magnetic microwires prepared by the Taylor-Ulitovski technique. We observed that these properties can be tailored either controlling magnetoelastic anisotropy of as-prepared Co-rich microwires or controlling their magnetic anisotropy by heat treatment. High GMI effect even at GHz frequencies has been observed in Co-rich microwires.

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-023

Magnetic and Transport properties of Co-Cu Microwires

Valentina Zhukova/ J. J. del Val/ M. Ipatov/ M. Ilyn / A. Granovsky/ Arkadi Zhukov

We report on the magnetic, transport and structural properties of Cox-Cu100-x (5≤x≤40) glass-coated microwires. For x=5 we observed the resistivity minimum at 40 K associated with the Kondo effect.  For x ≥ 10 we observed considerable magnetoresistance effect. Temperature dependence of susceptibility show considerable difference for x>10 and x≤ 10 attributed to the presence of small Co grains embedded in the Cu matrix for x≥ 10. Using X -ray diffraction we found, that the structure of Cox-Cu100-(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-024

An Experimental Assessment of PZT Patches for Impedance-Based SHM Applications

Vinicius Augusto Dare de Almeida / Fabricio Guimarães Baptista

In this paper, we present an alternative method for assessing the sensitivity of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramics for damage detection in structural health monitoring (SHM) systems based on the electromechanical impedance (EMI) principle. An assessment of the sensitivity is obtained experimentally using the pencil lead break (PLB) method, which is frequently used in acoustic emission (AE) systems. Tests were carried out on an aluminum beam, and the results show a clear relationship be(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-025

Modelling of Temperature Coefficient of Resistance of a Thin Film RTDTowardsExhaust Gas Measurement Applications

Anthony Maher/ Vijayalakshmi Velusamy/ Daniel Riordan/ Joseph Walsh

Current research in the automotive industry sector focuses on the application of platinum thin film sensors for exhaust temperature measurement. The prime intention of this paper is to pioneer the design and development of Platinum/Rhodium (Pt/Rh) sensors for exhaust gas temperature measurement. The developed sensors were able to endure harsh temperature environments (up to 950º C). In addition, the Pt/Rh sensors resistivity response to temperature increase was described by a second order polyno(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-026

New approaches for improving selectivity and sensitivity of resistive gas sensors: A review

Janusz Smulko/ Maciej Trawka/ Radu Ionescu/ Fatima E. Annanouch/ Eduard Llobe/ Claes G. Granqvist/ Laszlo B. Kish

Resistive gas sensors are very popular and reliable but suffer from low selectivity and sensitivity. Various methods have been suggested to improve both features without increasing the number of sensors in gas detection systems. Fluctuation enhanced gas sensing was proposed to improve gas detection efficiency by analyzing low-frequency resistance fluctuations, and noise parameters can be more informative than the single DC resistance and can advance gas detection systems by improving detection a(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-027

Magneto-optical study of microwire in presence of magnetic field of super high frequency

Alexander Chizhik/ Julian Gonzalez/ Arcady Zhukov/ Andrzej Stupakiewicz/ Andrzej Maziewski

The work is dedicated to the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) study of the magnetization reversal in the microwire in the presence of super high frequency (SHF) circular magnetic field. This study is important for elucidation of functioning of sensor based on giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect. Magnetic domains images have been obtained using MOKE polarizing microscopy. Hysteresis loops were obtained as a result of images processing. It was found that SHF magnetic field induces strong change(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-028

An all-fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluid clad microfiber knot resonator

Xianli Li/ Fangxing Lv/ Zhongying Wu/ Hui Ding

A novel optical current sensor based on microfiber knot resonator (MKR) with magnetic fluid (MF) as cladding is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. The operating principles, package technique and mounting method of the proposed sensor are introduced in detail. Moreover, the performances of the proposed sensor are demonstrated experimentally by detecting sinusoidal current with 50Hz and pulse current signals with rising time of 2.5μs respectively. The results have shown that the relationship(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-029

Fluctuation enhanced gas sensing using UV irradiated Au-nanoparticle-decorated WO3-nanowire films

Maciej Trawka/ Janusz Smulko/ Lech Hasse/ Radu Ionescu/ Fatima E. Annanouch/ Eduard Llobet/ Claes G. Granqvist/ Laszlo B. Kish

WO3 nanowires (WO3-NWs) decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were utilized in resistive gas sensor devices to detect ethanol by use of fluctuation enhanced sensing (FES).  The experimental system records both DC resistance and fluctuations of the sensing film. Our data verify that the sensitivity and selectivity of the gas sensor are improved by applying FES when the sensor is stimulated with a combination of UV light and heating. We conclude that UV light can produce improved gas sensing a(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-030

Ammonia sensing properties of ZnO nanoparticles on flexible substrate

M. Acuautla/ Sandrine Bernardini/ Marc Bendahan/ L. Gallais

We report the ammonia gas sensing properties of ZnO nanoparticles on flexible substrates. The flexible platform contains Ti/Pt interdigitated electrodes for gas detection and a micro heater device. The Ti/Pt film has been deposited by Magnetron Sputtering with thickness of 5nm and 100 nm respectively. The circuit patterning has been fabricated by standard photolithography and femtosecond laser ablation processes. ZnO thin film has been deposited by drop coating process with a thickness of 275 nm(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-031

Optical Detection of Herbicides in Water using Dye- Modified Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Hikmat Banimuslem/ Aseel Hassan/ Tamara Basova/ Asuman Dakoğlu Gülmez/ Mahmut Durmuş/ Ayşe Gül Gürek/ Vefa Ahsen

Hybrid materials were produced by mixing CuPcR4 with acidified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and characterised by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Thin films of pristine CuPcR4 and SWCNT/CuPcR4 were prepared by spin coating onto gold-coated glass slides and applied as active layers to detect pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2-chlorophenol, diuron and simazine in water utilizing Total Internal Reflection Ellipsometry (TIRE) as an optical (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-033

Quantitative Evaluation of an FPGA based Wireless Vibration Monitoring System in relation to Different Sampling Rates

Khurram Shahzad/ Bengt Oelmann

In order to achieve the high-processing performance  required in typical computationally intensive high-sample rate monitoring applications, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is often used as a hardware accelerator.  Given the design complexity, increased power consumption and additional cost of an FPGA, it is desirable to determine the sampling rates for which the use of an FPGA as hardware accelerator results in most effective solution. For this purpose, a computationally intensive applic(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-034

Numerical analysis of ultrasonic guided waves propagation in highly attenuative viscoelastic material

Li Hong/ Wang Qingfeng

The propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in viscoelastic isotropic material has been investigated. Based on the plane theory, a numerical model of the guided waves propagating is developed in the frequency domain by employing the SFEM (spectral finite element method). To verify the proposed method, thin bitumen on the steel substrate is examined and compared with the single plate in terms of the dispersion and attenuation. From the dispersion and attenuation of the displacement curves, the pro(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-035

Zirconia potentiometric oxygen sensor activation using NEMCA

Pavel Shuk/ Robert Jantzt

NEMCA known for the increasing the catalytic activity/selectivity of the gas exposed electrodes was investigated for the potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor activation. Electrochemical promotion of O2-sensors with Pt-cermet electrodes aged in the field was significant with up to 5 times in the impedance reduction. Stability test on the NEMCA activated O2-sensors was showing just a minor impedance increase. Sensor response time was reduced by NEMCA effect by ~5-10% with up to 3 times signal noi(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-036

Investigation of tissue bioimpedance using a macro-needle with a potential application in determination of needle-to-nerve proximity

Lisa Helen/ Walter Messina/ Eric Moor/ Brian O'Donnell

Our research is concentrated on development of a ‘smart’ needle which will improve the safety of ultrasoundguided peripheral nerve block (USgPNB) by providing the clinician with bioimpedance data to identify the type of tissue the needle tip is in contact with. This paper outlines a feasibility study performed to determine the electrical bioimpedance of a number of different tissue types and the extent to which they can be differentiated from each other based on this variable factor. All cells h(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-037

Understanding the decay of Proteins: A Study of Time dependent Microwave Response of pM concentration of Insulin in Buffer Solution

Ritika Verma/ K. S. Daya

Bio-molecule when isolated from its natural ecological condition is subjected to rapid decay. This decay leads to change in polarization of the molecule and the permittivity.  This study presents an experimental analysis of the decay pattern of pM concentration of insulin using whispering gallery mode (WGM) dielectric resonator method. Analysis is carried out by comparing the permittivity, relaxation time and time delay for three days. It is observed that different pM concentrations of insulin s(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-038

Design of magnetic field alarm  powered by magnetic energy harvesting

Kunihisa Tashiro/ Azusa Ikegami/ Syoichiro Shimada/ Hiroaki Kojima/ Hiroyuki Wakiwaka

This paper presents a design of magnetic field alarm powered by magnetic energy harvesting. It consists of an energy harvesting module, Cockcroft-walton circuit and piezo buzzer. The energy harvesting module is composed of coil and magnetic flux concentration core. It can generate 200 µW from an environmental magnetic field of 200 µT at 60 Hz. The Cockcroft-walton circuit can converts the ac voltage to a suitable dc voltage for the piezo buzzer.  This alarm can notice not only the magnetic field(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-039

Utilizing wave polarization in microwave characterization of heterogeneous anisotropic materials with application to the wood industry

Mirjana Bogosanović/ Grant Emms

This paper presents a novel approach to microwave non-contact, non-destructive testing of wood, investigating additional indicators of wood structure, in particular the significance of wave polarization in transmission measurements. Contribution of wave polarization to wood characterization is studied, considering detection of rapid and gradual variations in wood structure, determination of moisture content and density distribution along the sample, as well as bulk properties detection. A set of(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-040

Simulation and optimisation of homogeneous permanent magnet for portable NMR applications

Patrick Poulichet/ Abdennasser Fakri/ Christophe Delabie/ Hung Dang Phuc/ Tien Truong Cong/ Latifa Fakri-Bouchet

This paper focuses on the magneto static simulation of magnet arrangement used for portable NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) apparatus. In NMR experiments, a very homogeneous magnetic field is required in a large sample volume. In our case, NdFeB magnets are used to generate a homogeneous field, with a Halbach arrangement. The homogeneity of the magnetic field B0 can be improved by dividing a long configuration of magnets into several rings. The size of useful volume is dependent on both the gap(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-041

A Novel Fiber Bragg Grating Accelerometer Based on Fiber Vibrating Wire

Qi Jiang/ Minghao Yu/ Xin Zhou/ Tengyun Guo/ Jinxue Song

A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) accelerometer based on fiber vibrating wire is presented. Finite element analysis has been done and experiments are carried out to demonstrate the performance of this FBG accelerometer. The seismic simulation experimental results indicate that the system has a good response to the 50–400 Hz vibration signal. What more, the accelerometer has a high sensitivity which can reach 108.6 pm/G at 100Hz. The linear responsivity and repeatability are also tested. The responsivi(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-042

Nanoparticle based Amperometric Biosensor for the Quantitative Determination of Cholesterol in Human Blood

Nasser Al Jarallah/ Raid Al Baradie/ Mohmmed Aljamal/ Anandh Bose/ Hamed Al Anazi/ Abdulrahman Alatram/ Mohammed Al Aboody/ Ayman Algohary

Total cholesterol monitoring in human blood serum is one of the most important routine analysis performed in clinical laboratory. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between coronary heart disease and blood cholesterol level. There is need for a method that is sufficiently flexible to yield good results in clinical laboratory. Numbers of cholesterol biosensors have been developed over the past 30 years. Fibre-optic fluorescence, Fibre-optic luminescence, Potentiometric, Spect(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-043

Radio Interferometric Object Tracking

Gergely Zachár/ Gyula Simon/ Miklós Maróti

This paper proposes a novel object tracking method using radio interferometry. The proposed low cost solution is able to track objects, equipped with a radio receiver, in real time, using only simple infrastructure nodes with radio transceivers at fixed and known locations. The localization method has low computational requirements and does not require any preliminary knowledge of, or measurements in the space where tracking is performed. The paper introduces the novel method and preliminary tes(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-044

Wavelet Transform Smoothing Filters for Metal Oxide Gas Sensor Signal Cleaning

Enobong Bassey/ Jacqueline Whalley/ Philp Sallis/ Krishnamachar Prasad

This paper reports on a series of experiments to evaluate the methods for feature extraction and denoising the digital signal from thin film zinc oxide-tin dioxide composite gas sensor devices. The aim was to find a method that not only cleaned the signal but also maintained the shape, precision and resolution of the signal. It was found that the Savitzky–Golay smoothing filter method gave the best, smoothed and cleaned, approximation of the sensor response regardless of the thin film compositio(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-045

Image Quality Testing: Selection of Images for Assessing Test Subject Input

John Jendzurski/ Nicholas G. Paulter/ Francine Amon/ Eddie Jacobs/ Al Bovik/ Todd Goodall

Determining image quality is dependent to some degree on human interpretation.  Although entirely subjective methods of evaluating image quality may be adequate for consumer applications, they are not acceptable for security and safety applications where operator interpretation may lead to missing a threat or finding threats where they do not exist.  Therefore, methods must be developed to ensure that the imagery used in security and safety applications are of sufficient quality to allow the ope(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-046

Performance Study of Virtual Fence Unit Using Wireless Sensor Network

H.T Chan/ T.A Rahman/ A. Arsad

This paper presents the experiments and performance analysis of virtual fence unit consists of microwave motion detector and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor network (WSN) for maximum sensing range. In particular, the analysis is focusing on the maximum sensing range in terms of azimuth angle, height, sensitivity level for indoor and outdoor implementation. The WSN platform is developed using Octopus II sensor nodes while the microwave motion detector is HB100 which detects the movement using Doppl(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-047

Numerical Terrain Modelling for Wireless Underground Sensor Networks

Vinod Parameswaran/ Zhongwei Zhang/ Hong Zhou

Underground terrain poses a highly intricate and challenging environment to the propagation of waves carrying information from sensor to the sink nodes.  Due to the complexity and level of detail, it is often difficult to realistically model such an environment for conducting tests. However, using numerical methods, the environment characteristics could be translated to a compatible framework, for testing complex networking models such as Wireless Underground Sensor Network (WUSN). Such transfor(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-048

Thickness Measurement of Aluminum Thin Film using Dispersion Characteristic  of Surface Acoustic Wave

Ik Keun Park/ Tae Sung Park

In this study, we suggest a method to measure the thickness of thin films nondestructively using the dispersion characteristics of a surface acoustic wave propagating along the thin film surface. To measure the thickness of thin films, we deposited thin films with different thicknesses with range of 200~1000 nm on a Si(100) wafer by controlling the deposition time by DC sputtering technique. The thickness of the thin films was measured using a scanning electron microscope. Subsequently, the surf(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-049

Feasibility Study on Estimating Visual Attention using Electrodermal Activity

Ryuichi Yoshida/ Tomohiro Nakayama/ Takeki Ogitsu/ Hiroshi Takemura/ Hiroshi Mizoguchi/ Miki Namatame/ Etsuji Yamaguchi/ Shigenori Inagaki/ Yoshiaki Takeda/ Masanori Sugimoto/ Fusako Kusunoki

Electrodermal Activity (EDA) refers to change in the electrical properties of skin during mental exertion caused by tension and agitation. In recent studies, it has been revealed that there is an overlap between the brain activation area where emotion occurs and the brain activation area responsible for attentiveness. Consequently, in this paper we test our hypothesis that, given these findings, visual attention can be estimated via EDA. The results of experiments conducted verify that EDA can b(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-050

Novel Application  of Spherical Microphone Array Sensor  with Three-Dimensional Directivity

Takahiro Nakadai/ Tomoki Taguchi/ Hiroshi Mizoguchi/ Ryohei Egusa/ Etsuji Yamaguchi / Shigenori Inagaki/ Yoshiaki Takeda/ Miki Namatame/ Masanori Sugimoto/ Fusako Kusunoki

Mixed sounds can be separated from multiple sound sources by utilizing a microphone array and signal processing. We believe that promotion of interest in this technique can lead to significant developments in future science and technology.  Consequently, in order to experience this technique, we designed a language game for children called “KIKIWAKE 3D” that uses a sound source separation system with the aim of arousing children's interest in this technology. In this paper, we discuss the develo(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-051

What happens at the aroma of coffee beans after roasting?

Veronica Sberveglieri/ Andrea Pulvirenti/ Elisabetta Comini/ Estefania Nunez Carmona

The coffee aroma is one of the most important quality evaluation criteria employed for coffee commercialization and consumption. The purpose of this study was following the roasting process VOCs creations with the novel Electronic Nose equipped whit 2 of 6 MOX nanowire sensors. The nanowires exhibit exceptional crystalline quality and a very high length-to-width ratio, resulting in enhanced sensing capability as well as long-term material stability for prolonged operation. Four different methods(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-052

A design of PID controllers using FRIT-PSO

Takehito Azuma/ Sohei Watanabe

This paper proposes the Fictitious Reference Iterative Tuning-Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO-FRIT) method to design PID controllers for control systems. The proposed method is an offline PID parameter tuning method and it is not necessary to derive any mathematical models of objected control systems. The proposed method is demonstrated by comparing with the FRIT method in numerical examples.

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-053

Detection of microbial contamination in potable water by Nanowire technology

Estefanía Núñez Carmona / Veronica Sberveglieri/ Andrea Ponzoni/ Dario Zappa/ Andrea Pulvirenti

It is well known that the lack of control and sanitation of water in developing countries has cause very significant epidemiological events. In the last decades the situation of water supplies and sanitation has improve all over the world.  Despite of it, in the European Union there are a considerable number of confirmed cases of water-borne infections even though the restrictive law.  Electronic Noses (ENs) has shown to be a very effective and fast tool for monitoring microbiological spoilage a(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-054

Laser Profilometry Aiding Smart Vehicle Control

Cosimo Patruno/ Roberto Marani/ Massimiliano Nitti/ Tiziana D’Orazio/ Ettore Stella

In this paper a fast method based on laser triangulation for the estimation of the pose of a mobile robot is presented. The system is made of a camera and a laser source, placed on the front side of a robot, the Smoov ASRV, which is an autonomous vehicle able to carry, store and retrieve pallets in a smart warehouse constituted by metallic shelves. Therefore, the movements of the robot are constrained into allowed paths made of rails, arranged with several apertures that allow the robot change o(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-055

Inspection of Packaged Integrated Circuits using Terahertz Radiation

Andreas Fritz/ Thomas Arnold

A non-destructive, non-contact inspection system for packaged integrated circuits using terahertz (THz) radiation is tested. Our results show that we are able to reconstruct the internal structure of the IC, like the microelectronic chip and the interconnections. Due to the limitation of the system and the wavelength of THz radiation the fine bonding wires could not be detected. However, we show that the THz technology will be a valuable tool for the automatic online inspection of packaged integ(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-056

Sensor Technology For Animal Health Monitoring

Amruta Helwatkar/ Daniel Riordan/ Joseph Walsh

The scale of dairy farming worldwide has changed significantly over recent years, with a move towards larger, more intensive, profit-driven enterprises, primarily due to market pressures. This change has resulted in demand for technologies that can reduce costs and labour inputs while increasing farm productivity. This is mainly achieved through the use of farm automation and advanced technological techniques.   An important aspect of farm automation that is currently being researched is the are(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-057

Development of thermostable FBG optical sensor for oil and gas applications

Dennis J. M. Snelders/ Arjen Boersma

Important progress has been made towards the expanding of the limits of applicability of Fiber Bragg Grating optical sensors. The development of new thermostable coatings has opened up the possibility towards the use of this technology under extreme conditions, i.e. at high temperatures and pressures. The developed sensors have been tested for adsorption of a range of gaseous analytes and exhibit a sensitivity towards linear alkanes. Preliminary tests at high temperature in liquid phase indicate(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-058

Particle characterization system for industrial and naval applications

Eric Ebert/ Willfried Kröger/ Kay Domke/ Nils Andreas Damaschke

The Interferometric Particle Imaging (IPI) technique was modified and adapted to provide particle size and particle concentration measurements in harsh environments. The development was forced by the challenge of nuclei concentration measurement in cavitation tunnels and full scale measurements in the wake flow of a vessel. Because only bubbles act as cavitation nuclei, discrimination between bubbles and other solid particles in the multi-phase flow is necessary. The size measurement and classif(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-059

A promising optoelectronic clock solution for  time-interleaved ADC

Zhongying Wu/ Fangxing Lv / Hui Ding

A promising optoelectronic clock solution with low jitter, high bandwidth and accurate delay for a TIADC is proposed by exploiting optical pulses and tunable optical delay lines. It is feasible to construct the optoelectronic clock system with optical pulse source, dispersive medium, tunable delay line in optical domain and conditioning circuits in electronic domain while photodiodes as the bridge. The testing result of the designed conditioning circuit shows that using electronic method to adju(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-060

Effect of TiO2 nano-overlays deposited with atomic layer deposition on refractive index sensitivity of long-period gratings

Krzysztof Krogulski/ Mateusz Śmietana/ Bartosz Michalak/ Anna K. Dębowska/ Łukasz Wachnicki / Sylwia Gierałtowska/ Marek Godlewski/ Magdalena Szymańska/ Predrag Mikulic/ Wojtek J. Bock

This paper we discusses an effect of coating longperiod gratings (LPGs) with a thin titanium dioxide (TiO2) overlays on refractive index (RI) sensitivity of the LPG. The overlays have been obtained using atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The method allows for deposition well-controlled in thickness, well defined in optical properties, high-RI and very conformal thin films as required for optical fiber sensors. For the investigated LPGs we obtained sensitivity of 3490 to 6471 nm per RI unit d(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-061

Information and Assisted Navigation System for Blind People

Karen Duarte/ Jose Cecilio/ Jorge Sa Silva/ Pedro Furtado

Nowadays public buildings are changing constantly, often people have to take different routes to reach known destinations. At the same time, new services and places are made available to attract more people to the shopping center. This dynamic environment is usually signalled and labelled with visual marks and signs which are not appropriated for blind persons. Therefore, blind users are unintentionally deprived of a full participation in the society. With the purpose of equalize the access to s(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-062

A Novel Approach To Improve Vehicle Speed Estimation Using Smartphone’s INS/GPS Sensors

Arijit Chowdhury/ Tapas Chakravarty/ P. Balamuralidhar

In recent times, number of researchers have investigated vehicle tracking applications by fusing the measurements done by accelerometers, as part of inertial navigation system (INS), and GPS (Global Positioning System). However, the sensors in recreational devices like mobile phone have limitations in measurement accuracy and reliability. Usually, sudden changes in vehicle speed are not always captured well by GPS. Accelerometers, on the other hand, suffer from multiple noise sources. In this pa(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-063

Fabrication of gold nanopillars on gold interdigitated impedance electrodes for biological applications

Walter Messina/ Michelle Fitzgerald/ Una Crowley/ Eric Moore

Gold nanopillars have been successfully fabricated on top of interdigitated gold electrodes deposited on a Pyrex substrate and these were used for cytotoxicity monitoring on immortalized cells through the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. These nanopillars were fabricated via contact metal deposition. E-beam lithography was used to define the pattern of nanopillars with dimensions of 150nm diameter and 500nm of distance between their edges in a honeycomb-like structure. These dim(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-064

Computational Model Of Plasma-Organic-Polymer-Film-Coated QCR Sensor For Analysing Its Dynamic Response

Kazuhiko Takahashi/ Naoki Nishiwaki/ Iwao Sugimoto

This paper proposes a computational model of the mass-sensitive chemical sensor with plasma-organic-polymerfilm-coated quartz crystal resonators for use in sensor signal processing to develop a high-performance electronic nose system. Assuming one-dimensional Fickian diffusion of sample gas molecules, diffusion equation is applied to sample gas molecules in the sensor film bulk to describe the responses of the chemical sensor to the sample gas. Green’s function is introduced to solve the diffusion(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-065

Monitoring of the lung fluid movement and estimation of lung area using Electrical Impedance Tomography: A Simulation Study

Deborshi Chakraborty/ Madhurima Chattopadhyay

Patients suffering from the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requires thoracic electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for the monitoring their conditions ranging from dynamic shifting of body fluids to lung aeration right at the bedside.  More objectively, EIT-derived numeric parameters would help the physician to evaluate the state of the lung. Thus, here we have performed a Finite Element Method based simulation study for monitoring the condition of lungs and heart of ARDS patients.  (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-066

Development of a Focal Point Positioning System for Laser Sensing Instruments using Galvano Mirrors and Tunable Lens

Satoshi Ikezawa/ Toshitsugu Ueda

We developed a focal positioning system for laser sensing instruments. The positioning system consists of x- and yaxis galvano mirrors and a high-speed response tunable lens. It allows for quick adjustment of the measuring position with high resolution and repeatability afforded by the galvano mirrors, which enable the plotting of 10,000 focal points per second, and the tunable lens, which allows adjustment of the focal length within 2.5 ms (10%–90% step). For laser measurements, the location in(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-067

Acoustic emission testing of electrical stressed copper trace

Daniela Florian/ Thomas Wiesner/ Bernhard G. Zagar

Copper becomes more and more important in the electronic industry. This metal is more resilient than conventional materials (like aluminium) due to the higher electrical and thermal conductivity. During several electrical stress pulses the copper changes. The surface can melt up and cracks and voids can develop inside the copper specimen. In this paper we use acoustic emission testing to analyse copper degradation especially of copper and copper traces. It is evaluated if an acoustic wave excite(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-068

Automated Monitoring of Foraging Behaviour in Free Ranging Sheep Grazing a Bio-diverse Pasture using Audio and Video Information

J. Sneddon/ A. Mason

Non-invasive methods for monitoring foraging choice in free ranging grazing animals are largely limited to accelerometers and video calibration. Acoustic data from a wireless microphone attached to the skull has been used to distinguish between resting and feeding bouts in free ranging cattle, sheep and goats. Similar data has been reported in restrained sheep presented with forage of differing dry matter content.  We take these approaches further by using a small video camera attached to a halt(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-069

Dual Slope Direct Digital Converter for Bridge Connected Resistive Sensors

Ponnalagu R. N/ Boby George/ Jagadeesh Kumar V

A dual slope direct digital converter (DSDDC) suitable for resistive sensor elements already connected in a bridge form is presented. A conventional dual slope analog to digital converter (DS-ADC) is altered with an intentionally introduced instrumentation amplifier (INA) to realize the proposed DDC. The DSDDC accepts bridge connected resistive sensor elements as input and provides a digital output that is proportional to the quantity being sensed by the sensor elements. The results obtained fro(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-070

Signature Extraction from 3D Point Clouds using Frame Theory for Environmental Modeling

Fabio Martino/ Cosimo Patruno/ Roberto Marani/ Ettore Stella

In this paper a method based on the well-known frame theory is presented for the identification and classification of objects inside a scene. Three-dimensional (3D) point clouds have been firstly acquired using a laser triangulation system exploiting a high resolution camera, in order to derive accurate datasets for the method validation. The method performs a quadratic fit on the acquired samples and then extracts local curvatures from the analytical reconstructed surfaces. Such information is (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-071

A multi-wavelength discriminating sensor with a wireless mote interface for aquatic pollution monitoring

Eoin O’Connell/ Sinead O’Keeffe/ Thomas Newe/ Elfed Lewis/ Damien Meere

The system presented in this paper demonstrates how a novel fibre optic based sensing platform, capable of detecting minute changes in the level of impurity in a liquid, can be incorporated onto a Mote based platform enabling real time monitoring of a body of water. How these features can be used to detect a representative sample of chlorophyll within a aquatic environment, will be demonstrated. Systems currently deployed worldwide include satellite mapping technology and high cost water monitor(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-072

In Situ Monitoring of Temperature Rise in Friction Surface Using Ultrasonic Technique

I. Ihara/ S. Aoki

In this work, the feasibility of the use of ultrasonic thermometry for in situ monitoring of temperature rise in friction surface has been examined. The ultrasonic thermometry that is a method providing internal temperature measurements by ultrasound is applied to temperature measurements of a friction surface at which temperature rise occurs due to friction, and an attempt is made to demonstrate in situ monitoring of transient variations in the friction surface temperature and temperature distr(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-073

The use of neuromonitoring in descending and thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. Literature Review

Matthew Fok/ Mohamad Bashir/ Thomas Kennedy/ Mark Field/ Alex Mason

Without surgical repair thoracic aortic aneurysms are a lethal disease with poor prognosis. An extensive major operation is required to correct an aneurysm that involves the descending or thoracoabdominal aorta. Particular considerations must be made to protection of all abdominal organs, the brain and the spinal cord which are all at risk. Consequently there is a risk that these patients post operatively wake up paraplegic from spinal cord ischaemia due to the nature of the surgery. Certain tec(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-074

Magnetoelastic Biosentinels for the Capture and Detection of Low-Concentration Pathogens in Liquid

Shin Horikawa/ Yating Chai/ Howard C. Wikle/ Bryan A. Chin

This paper investigates phage-coated magnetoelastic (ME) biosentinels that capture and detect low-concentration pathogenic bacteria in stagnant liquid. These biosentinels are composed of a freestanding ME resonator platform coated with a landscape phage that specifically binds with the pathogens of interest. These biosentinels can be moved through a liquid by externally applied magnetic fields. When a time-varying magnetic field is applied, the ME biosentinels can be placed into mechanical reson(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-075

Time Domain Reflectometry Measurements of Road Basecourse Moisture Content

Ian G. Platt/ Ian Woodhead/ Sean Richards/ Adrian Tan/ Michael Hagedorn/ Phil Herrington/ Shaun Cook

This paper describes an empirical transform between the propagation time (tp) data obtained from a non invasive Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensor to the percentage moisture content . θv within two different road making basecourse aggregate material. Results show that a simple quadratic fit between tp and θv can be given leading to a maximum error in the estimate of 0.55%. It is also shown that the dielectric model underlying each of the basecourses is different enough to warrant the use of (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-076

Overcoming Long Recovery Time of Metal-Oxide Gas Sensor With Certainty Factor Sensing Algorithm

Kok Seng Eu/ Kian Meng Yap

Gas leaking in gas production industry is a serious issue which could cause explosion or pose a high risk to human life. The searching of leaking gas can be performed by robots. It is better than using human beings because searching of leaking gas is a high risk task. Most of the gas sensors used in industries is semiconductor metal-oxide (MOX) type due to its low cost, ease of use, high sensitivity and fast response time in gas sensing, and ability to detect large number of gases. However, ther(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-077

Reprogramming Embedded Systems at Run-Time

Richard Oliver/ Adriana Wilde/ Ed Zaluska

The dynamic re-programming of embedded systems is a long-standing problem in the field.  With the advent of wireless sensor networks and the ‘Internet of Things’ it has now become necessary to be able to reprogram at run-time due to the difficulty of gaining access to such systems once deployed.  The issues of power consumption, flexibility, and operating system protections are examined for a range of approaches, and a critical comparison is given.  A combination of approaches is recommended for(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-078

Physiological bending sensor based on tilt angle loss measurement using dual optical fibre

M. A. Zawawi/ S. O’Keeffe/ E. Lewis

This paper presents the development of an extrinsic optical fibre sensor for continuous measurement of the human spine bending movement based on intensity modulation technique. Using the investigated sensor configuration, the bending angle was measurable in both flexion and extension direction with a maximum range of motion of 18o and -10o, respectively. From the output drift assessment of the sensor, bending accuracy of up to 0.5o was achievable, thus making it suitable for clinical environment(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-079

A method to determine the parameters of the double layer of a planar interdigital sensor

Thanh-Tuan Ngo/ Hamidreza Shirzadfar/ Ayoub Bourjilat/ Djilali Kourtiche/ Mustapha Nadi

In this work, we present a new method for a planar interdigital transducer to determine the electrical parameters (relative permittivity, capacitance and thickness) of the double layer (DL) on the surface of the electrode loaded by a biological medium. A theoretical approach has been proposed to define these parameters. The CoventorWare software was used to simulate the model design of interdigital transducer. The simulation results show that the method can determine the parameters of double lay(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-080

A New Landslide Inclinometer Using  Highly Sensitive Gauges

Cristian Fosalau/ Cristian Zet/ Daniel Petrisor

The paper presents a device devoted to detect and measure earth displacements produced by landslides. It is part of inclinometer type geotechnical instruments and is based on measuring the deformation produced to a rod vertically mounted into the ground during soil layers sliding. With respect to other commercial devices, our inclinometer is characterized by high sensitivity to very small deformations owing to special strain gauges utilized in its construction, and also by possibility of 3D meas(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-081

Thermopile power measurement for heat balance calorimetry

Callum M. Johnston/ Bryan P. Ruddy/ Poul M. F. Nielsen/ Andrew J. Taberner

Very high resolution power sensors are required for measuring the rate of heat production (~10 µW) of small samples of heart muscle (rat cardiac trabeculae, ~2 mm long and ~200 µm diameter). In this paper, we examine the design criteria for thermopiles to maximize their signal-to-noise ratio for heat balance calorimetry. We found that those thermopiles with a high thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) are the best for power measurements. An initial prototype with a resolution of 53 nW has been bui(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-082

A New Scheme for Determination of Respiration Rate in Human Being using MEMS Based Capacitive Pressure Sensor: Simulation Study

Madhurima Chattopadhyay/ Deborshi Chakraborty

In this paper, a MEMS based capacitive nasal sensor system for measuring Respiration Rate (RR) of human being is developed. At first two identical diaphragm based MEMS capacitive nasal sensors are designed and virtually fabricated. A proposed schematic of the system consists of signal conditioning circuitry alongwith the sensors is described here. In order to measure the respiration rate the sensors are mounted below Right Nostril (RN) and Left Nostril (LN), in such a way that the nasal airflow (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-083

Microfluidic biosensor for single cell high speed flow impedance spectroscopy

J. Claudel/ M. Nadi/ O. Elmazria/ D. Kourtiche

This paper presents a micro-biosensor based on Electrical Bio-Impedance Spectroscopy (EBIS), applied to blood cells characterization and diagnosis. This sensor uses microfluidic flow, coupled to EBIS system to perform cell by cell measurements at high flow rate, up to several hundred cells per second. Two devices were realized with different materials, SU_8 resin and polydimethylsyloxane PDMS to structure the microchannel. PDMS device stand higher pressure than SU_8, permitting to improve sensor(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-084

Inspection of Solid Dosage Forms using  THz Imaging Spectroscopy

T. Arnold/ M. De Biasio/ A. Fritz/ R. Leitner

The present work describes a laboratory terahertz (THz) imaging spectroscopy system and its possibilities to inspect solid dosage forms in the form of coated tablets and capsules. Moreover, the chemical composition and layer structure of coated pharmaceutical tablets are investigated. These chemical and physical properties of solid dosage forms can be used for the detection of counterfeit drugs. Preliminary results show that THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging is a promising technology for (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-085

Automated Traffic Analysis in Aerial Images

Tom Hößler/ Tom Landgraf

In this work an automated traffic analysis in aerial image sequences recorded by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been developed, which provides the trajectories of the vehicles especially during overtaking. Methods of photogrammetry and image processing are used to detect the vehicles and to determine and track their positions. Camera calibration is necessary in order to transform image coordinates into world coordinates.

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-086

Detection of P300 brain waves using a MagnetoImpedance sensor

K. Wang/ S. Tajima/ Y. Asano/ Y. Okuda/ N. Hamada/ C. Cai/ T. Uchiyama

We have previously reported a study on brain activity detection in occipital region using a picotesla-scale MagnetoImpedance (MI) sensor. Based on past studies, the target of the present study was to review the performance of MI sensor on parietal region brain activity detection. Human brain magnetic field is extremely weak, in order to detect the faint magnetic field, we constructed an MI measurement system that can cancel out the background noise (e.g., geomagnetic field) instead of using a ma(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-087

A Method for Improving Conversion Rate and Accuracy of a Capacitance-to-Digital Converter

Prashanth Vooka/ Boby George

Capacitance-to-Digital Converter (CDC) ICs available in the market use square wave excitation signals but a sinusoidal excitation is preferred in various applications, such as ice detection, liquid level measurement, humidity measurement, proximity sensing, etc. A dual slope technique based CDC that employs a sinusoidal excitation has been reported recently, but it requires a large number of excitation cycles, to complete an accurate conversion. This paper presents an improved CDC that employs a(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-088

Optimisation  of solar power intake for wireless sensor networks at temperate latitudes

Ralph Stevenson-Jones/ Med Benyezzar/ Patricia Scully

In many outdoor locations solar power provides the greatest power densities for energy harvesting to power wireless sensor networks in comparison to other practical alternative such as wind, vibrations or temperature gradients. Since solar power is highly variable with location and time, it is necessary to optimise the sensor nodes for individual locations.  Presented here, is an assessment of the solar power availability in Manchester, UK (53°28′N, 2°14′W). Wireless sensor nodes are typically l(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-089

Designing a Wireless Sensors Network for  Monitoring and Predicting Droughts

A Gaddam/ M Al-Hrooby/ W F Esmael

Global warming and lack of rain were the main problems that caused increased drought around the world. In New Zealand, according to National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) the drought in 2012 and 2013 was the worst drought in the last 70 years. Therefore, there is a need for technological intervention to monitor basic information about the weather and soil condition in order to identify and predict drought conditions. Initial experiments have shown that the proposed wireless (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-090

A Capacitance-to-Digital Converter with Sinusoidal Excitation Suitable for Series RC Sensors

Prashanth Vooka/ Boby George

A new Capacitance-to-Digital Converter (CDC) applicable for series RC sensors that requires/prefers sinusoidal excitation is proposed in this paper. The CDC presented works based on a dual-slope technique and it gives a digital output as a function of unknown capacitance of a series RC sensor, i.e., a capacitive sensor with a capacitor and a resistor in series in its electrical equivalent circuit. Output of the CDC is not sensitive to the series resistor. The CDC is useful for grounded as well a(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-091

Feasibility Evaluation on an Instant Invader Detection System with Ultrasonic Sensors Scattered on the Ground

Ami Iokibe/ Masanori Hashimoto/ Takao Onoye

Increasing interest in security demands privacyaware security systems, which do not use camera, especially for personal home security. As a candidate for this purpose, this paper presents an instant invader detection system that finds an invader by using small sensor nodes distributed on the ground. Once a sensor node detects a suspicious phenomenon, thisinformationiswirelesslytransmittedtothebaseinthehouse. Thispaper,asafirststep,evaluatesthefeasibilityoftheproposed systemintermsofinvaderdetectio(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-092

Study on Monitoring Method for Laser Welding Process by using UV and IR sensors

Heeshin Kang/ Jiyeon Choi

This paper presents a process inspection technology for laser and laser hybrid welding processes. It proposes a quality monitoring method and the laser hybrid welding system with industrial robot for approving the welding speed and accuracy of conventional spot and laser welding systems. The laser hybrid welding process is consisted of the laser and arc welding process. The hybrid welding system has the cost efficiency of arc welding and good performance of laser welding. The laser generator, ar(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-093

MEMS-based miniature near-infrared spectrometer for application in environmental and food monitoring

S.I. Hintschich/ T. Pügner/ J. Knobbe/ J. Schröder/ P.Reinig Reinig/ H. Grüger/ H. Schenk

We present a hybrid MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) based spectrometer of the size of a sugar cube, fabricated at the clean room facilities of Fraunhofer IPMS, Dresden. This SGS (scanning grating spectrometer) is designed for integrated spectroscopic applications in the field of food quality analysis and food processing technology. Using another, larger, MEMS-based scanning grating spectrometer, we perform a series of test measurements of the absorption of different types of oil. Thereby,(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-094

Palladium Nanotubes for Optical Hydrogen Sensing

M. B. McAuley/ A. Murphy/ R. Pollard

Arrays of freestanding upright palladium nanotubes have been fabricated using a bottom-up method of electrodepositing into anodised alumina pores. Optical transmission measurements carried out with a range of postfabrication treatment methods suggest that hydrogen diffuses into both the inner and outer surface areas of the tube structure. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy of the same sample before and after cycling hydrogen exposure show that the structures appear undamaged by the repeat(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-095

A Microcontroller Sensor Interface Suitable for Resistive Sensors with Large Lead Resistance

Ponnalagu R. N./ Boby George/ Jagadeesh Kumar V

A direct resistive sensor interface to a microcontroller reported earlier, works well only if the sensor element is very close to the micro-controller pins. If the sensor element is at a distance from the micro-controller then the lead resistance due to connecting wires between resistive sensor element and the micro-controller introduces appreciable errors in the output. A modified scheme of direct sensor interface to micro-controller is presented here. In the proposed scheme, the effect of lead(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-096

Schottky Diode Graphene Based Sensors

A. Ashour/ M. Saqr/ M. AbdelKarim/ A. Gamal/ A. Sharaf/ M. Serry

In this paper, we aim to demonstrate a novel scheme for integration of nanostructured semiconductor Graphene Oxide (GO) shottky diodes on flexible substrate for a wide range of sensing applications. The platform introduces a novel flexible GO/Pt/n-Si and GO/Pt/SiN composite structures which provides excellent optical and electrical properties, while maintaining an acceptable mechanical, biocompatibility, and return loss performance. The new structure was investigated for glucose, radiation, and (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-097

A Capacitive Sensing System for Non-Contact Detection of Ice

Cyril Baby K./ Boby George

This paper presents a capacitive sensing system for non-contact detection of ice from a distance of 8 to 10 cm and distinguishes it from water. It is well known that the Relative Permittivity (RP) of ice and water are almost equal at low frequencies, in the range of a few kHz. At a high frequency of excitation, i. e., about 100 kHz and above, the RP of water remains same, but that of ice substantially reduces. A capacitive sensor, wherein, the ice or water layer forms part of the sensing volume (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-098

Study of the sensitivity and stability of a landslide sensor based on magnetic amorphous wires

Cristian Zet/ Cristian Foşalău/ Daniel Petrişor

The paper presents a study on the measurement stability of a landslide sensor based on four magnetic amorphous wire strain gauges used in an Wheatstone bridge configuration. The sensor is aimed for in-situ monitoring using a distributed sensor network. The experiment has been performed in the lab using a test stand, while a time step progressive deformation has been applied to the sensor. Results show a good stability of the measurement and a variable sensitivity with respect to the bending poin(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-099

An Improved Capacitance-Based Intentionally Imperfect Sensor for Measuring Mechanical Parameters

Cyril Baby K./ Norbert Schwesingerv

In this paper, details of an improved imperfect sensor for measuring mechanical parameters is presented. A PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) membrane filled with randomly distributed conductive balls is the sensing element. The random distribution of the balls make the sensor imperfect and unique, like sensors in nature. Mechanical forces such as pressure, tilt and acceleration deform the membrane. Capacitive electrodes transform the movement of the membrane filled with conductive balls into change in(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-100

A New Method for Interference Reduction in the Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville Distribution

Stanislav Pikula/ Petr Beneš

This article presents a new method facilitating interference reduction in the Wigner-Ville distribution, which is used for nonstationary signal analysis, for example in machine condition monitoring. The algorithm is based on multiple Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville distributions: differently smoothed time-frequency planes are compared and, for every point, a cross-term free value is calculated on the basis of optimal smooth estimation. The proposed approach is compared with the Gabor-Wigner transfo(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-101

Theoretical models and simulation of optoelectronic properties of a-Si-H PIN photosensors

Wagah F. Mohammed/ Munther N. Al-Tikriti/ Alhan M. Aldabag

This research aims to study and discuss the theoretical models and simulation of optoelectronic properties of a-Si-H PIN photosensors based on Shockley–Read-Hall assumptions. The variation of carrier life time, recombination and generation rates as a function of the intrinsic layer (I-layer) thickness will be simulated using MATLAB program. The effects of intrinsic layer thickness on electrons and holes concentration, collection efficiency and short circuit current density have been studied and (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-102

Organoleptic Properties Remote Sensing and LifeTime Prediction along the Perishables Goods Supply-Chain

V.F. Annese/ G.E. Biccario/ S. Cipriani/ D. De Venuto

Nowadays, two of the most compelling challenges in the field of food safety and certification are the reduction of the multitude of food losses and wastes in the supply chain and the improvement of certification and monitoring procedures during each stage of production. The aim of this paper is to propose an effective solution to both problems: a wireless sensor network (WSN) combined with a further data processing for real-time monitoring and shelf life prediction.

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-103

Polymer Optical Fibre Sensor for Measuring Breathing Rate of Lying Person

Nabeel Ahmed/ Patricia Scully/ John Vaughan/ Christine Brown Wilson/ Krikor Ozanyan

A physiological sensor enabling measurement of one of the vital signs (breathing rate) of a person without direct contact with the person is presented. Compared to current vital signs measuring devices we present a much simpler and less time consuming method of measuring vital signs with the potential for applications in hospitals and homes. A practical prototype sensor, based on polymer optical fibre (POF) sensor instrumentation was fabricated using Toray specific grade fibre exhibiting an incr(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-104

Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis of Steam Traps with Wireless Smart Sensors

Joana R. C. Faria/ Sónia M. V. Semedo/ Francisco J. A. Cardoso/ José Oliveira

An autonomous, wireless and self-powered smart sensor is described, addressing the condition monitoring and diagnosis of steam traps, whose performance degradation impairs energy efficiency in most of the process industries. The diagnostic criteria in the two possible failure modes of steam traps are presented, as well as the structure and technologies of the embedded devices for sensing, communication, and power supply, special attention being paid to the capability to run the system on the the(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-105

Development of Miniature Modular Digital Altimeter

Cristina Maria Fratila/ Andrew Jason Tickle

Altimetry is defined as the method of measuring heights above sea level. Measuring height has been achieved by various methodologies in the past, ranging from U-shaped columns of mercury or water, sealed pressurized balloons of air or more modern approaches such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). However, all these methods are either quite bulky or power hungry and so a low cost, light weight unit would be useful for various applications. Shown here is a small microprocessor controlled syst(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-106

Method to Convert a Horizontal Furnace to Grow ZnO Nanowires for Gas Sensing by the VLS Method

Sushma Nandhyala/ Michael Haji-Sheikh/ Martin Kocanda/ Suma Rajashankar

Zinc oxide (ZnO), II-VI compound semiconductor with a wide band gap (3.4ev), has a stable wurtzite structure with lattice spacing a=0.325 nm and c=0.521nm. Its properties and potential for applications in photovoltaics, LED’s, spin electronics, ultraviolet light emitters, chemical sensors and transparent electronics has attracted intensive research. The objective of this thesis is to fabricate ZnO nanowires on gold coated silicon substrates using the chemical vapor transport (CVT) method. Under (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-107

A Wireless Wearable Human Jump Analysis System

Penghai Wang/ Haiyang Quan/ Lidong Lan

In most sports, the vertical jump is one of the most basic actions. Jumping force and explosive power are two specific indicators to reflect the ability of the muscles in one vertical jump. This paper presents a light-weight and easy-to-use wireless system to analyze the process of human vertical jumping up through the use of a Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) accelerometer and a MEMS gyroscope. The system allows the users to be able to measure the jump parameters, including jumping force (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-108

As-growth and Annealing Porous Silicon Mirrors for Optical Applications in the UV

F. Morales Morales/ G. García Salgado/ J. A. Luna López/ T. Díaz/ E. Rosendo/ H. Juárez/ K. Monfil Leyva/ D. Hernández de la Luz

This work presents a study of the evolution of the reflectance spectra of porous silicon as-growth and with thermal oxidation under controlled conditions. Porous silicon layers were prepared by electrochemical anodization of a silicon substrate p+ in an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and ethanol. Multilayer structures were formed on the basis of porous silicon, two different layers were realized by controlling the refraction index of each one of the layers using the Bruggemann model, in t(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-109

Polypyrrole Based Nano-Biosensor for Sensing Low Concentrations of Hydrogen Peroxide

D.M.G. Preethichandra/ M. Onoda

This paper discuss about a novel technique of developing a nano-structured polypyrrole biosensor for measurement of very low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in liquid media. The proposed fabrication method is very effective in growing a nano-structured conducting polymer layer on a planar conducting substrate. In addition enzyme loading was done under a high electric field of 1000V/m. The developed sensor provides a liner range of 0-200µM of hydrogen peroxide and a measurement sensitivity of(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-110

Dynamically Reconfigurable Routing Protocol Design for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network

Beenish Ayaz/ Alastair Allen/ Marian Wiercigroch

Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) share the common challenges of terrestrial Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), however they are significantly different from terrestrial WSN. Mainly, because acoustic wireless communication is the main physical layer technology in UWSN. Acoustic communication offers longer range, but has limitations due to low speed of sound, high error probability, limited bandwidth capacity, node mobility and 3-dimensional network architecture. Most of the ground based WSN(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-111

Proof-of-Concept Development for a Weight-toSpeed System on Heavy Goods Vehicles

Sam Soar/ Adam Cassity/ Andrew Jason Tickle

Heavy Good Vehicles (HGVs) can cause several problems for road user’s world-wide. One of the main issues found in the UK is that when one HGV is trying to overtake another on a motorway (freeway), the 56mph speed limit imposed means that the time to complete this task is substantial. This forces other road users to use the overtaking lane and causes a bottleneck, increasing road rage and the risk of accidents. Presented here is a proof-of-concept system that could theoretically allow a lighter l(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-112

Application of Microwave Spectroscopy Analysis on Determining Quality of Vegetable Oil

S. B. Osman/ O. Korostynka/ A. Mason/ J. D. Cullen/ A. I. Al-Shamma’a

Recently there has been an increasing interest in the classification of edible oils as an effective means to examine authenticity and to detect possible adulteration of virgin olive oils with seed oils or low-quality olive oils. Classical methods based on gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are too expensive for widespread industrial use and require samples to be analysed in dedicated laboratories thus incurring a significant time penalty.  This paper demons(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-113

COMMON SENSE

John Barton/ Cliona Ni/ Paolo Magni/ John Cleary/ Javier Vilallonga/ Joanna Piwowarczyk/ Carles Pizarro/ Emma Moynihan/ Jose Alberto Sáez Zamora/ Jordi Salat/ Pablo Fanjul/ Anita Grozdanov/ Fabio Confalonieri/ Yassine Lassoued/ Saskia Heckmann/ Mike Challiss

COMMON SENSE is a new project that supports the implementation of European Union marine policies such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The project, which was launched in November 2013, is funded by the EC Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) and has been designed to directly respond to requests for integrated and effective data acquisition systems by developing innovative sensors that will contribute to our understanding of how the marine envi(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-114

Linear and Angular Position Sensing for TwoDegrees-of-Freedom Motor

Yoshiki Kanno/ Yasukazu Sato

A linear and rotational two-degrees-of-freedom switched reluctance motor (2DOF-SRM) has been developed to independently control linear and rotational actuation on one actuator. The 2DOF-SRM drive system requires information on the linear and angular positions of the rotor for its control. The approximate angular position of the prototype 2DOF-SRM rotor was detected by the built-in photo-switches that utilize the salient pole of the rotor as the sensor target. The linear position of the rotor was(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-115

Effects of Seasonal Growth Rings on the Microwave Measurement of Wood

W.S. Holmes/ M. Bogosanović/ G. Emms/ S.C. Mukhopadhyay

In order to determine more accurate indicators of wood structure obtained by microwave sensing and improve our understanding of plane wave propagation through this complex material, we have undertaken a permittivity survey and  experimentally investigated scattering of a plane wave, measuring its transmission over two non-parallel surfaces of a rectangular lumber sample. This novel non-destructive testing techn-ique offers results which may significantly contribute in a more accurate propagation(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-116

Modeling and Prediction of Surface Water Contamination using On-line Sensor Data

Tochukwu K. Anyachebelu/ Marc Conrad/ Tahmina Ajmal

Water contamination is a great disadvantage to humans and aquatic life. Maintaining the aesthetics and quality of water bodies is a priority for environmental stake holders. The water quality sensor data can be analyzed over a period of time to give an indication of pollution incidents and could be a useful forecasting tool. Here we show our initial finding from statistical analysis on such sensor data from one of the lakes of the river Lea, south of Luton. Our initial work shows patterns which (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-117

Smart Home: Recognition of activities of elderly for 24/7; Coverage issues

Anindya Nag/ Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhya

A smart home has been designed and developed to monitor elderly people who lives alone and needs assistance to perform their daily living activities. The system monitors different activities of the elderly and determine the wellness of the person. It is a challenge to recognize different activities of the elderly over 24 hours for the seven days a week. The coverage issues in terms of monitoring the elderly are discussed in the paper.

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-118

Analysis of Foot-pressure Data to Classify Mobility Pattern

Goutam Chakraborty/ Tetsuhiro Dendou

The pressure exerted by foot, while a person is standing still for a while or moving or doing any physical activity, is a rich source of information. The continuous signal obtained throughout the day, collected by pressure-sensors on shoe sole, could be analyzed to obtain simple to complex facts about the person’s health conditions and habits. It could be used to measure body-weight and balance, while the person is standing. It could as well be used to find the total calorie burnt during movement(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-119

A Proposal for Classification of Multisensor Time Series Data based on Time Delay Embedding

Basabi Chakraborty

Multisensor time series data is common in many applications of process industry, medical and health care, biometrics etc.Analysis of multisensor time series data requires analysis of multidimensional time series(MTS) which is challenging as they constitute a huge volume of data of dynamic nature. Traditional machine learning algorithms for classification and clustering developed for static data can not be applied directly to MTS data. Various techniques have been developed to represent MTS data i(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-120

Investigations on the Leakage Effect in Capacitive Sensing

Thomas Schlegl/ Thomas Bretterklieber/ Stephan Mühlbacher-Karrer/ Hubert Zangl

In the measurement of mutual capacitance between electrodes both the coupling and the leakage effect contribute to the measurement result whereas the leakage mode is dominant in the self capacitance mode. While the coupling effect is mainly defined by the geometry and material distribution close to the electrodes, the root cause or modulation of the leakage effect may be far away from the electrode. It is shown that utilizing both effects may lead to an improvement of an ECT-like scenario recons(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-121

Annealing Effect on the Structural and Optical properties of SiOx films deposited by HFCVD

J. A. Luna López/ A. Benítez Lara/ G. García Salgado/ D. Hernández de la Luz/ M. Pacio/ A. Morales Sanchez/ S. A. Perez Garcia

Non-stoichiometric silicon oxide (SiOx) with embedded Si nanoparticles (Si-nps) shows novel physical characteristic, which permits its use in optoelectronic devices as photodetectors and light emitters. In this work, a detailed analysis of the structural and optical properties of silicon rich oxide films deposited via hot filament chemical vapor deposition is done. SiOx films with different Si content were obtained at different hydrogen flow. FTIR spectra show vibrational bands related to the pr(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-122

Novel Application of Kinect Sensor for Children to Learn Paleontological Environment

Tomohiro Nakayama/ Takahiro Nakadai/ Ryuichi Yoshida/ Takeki Ogitsu/ Hiroshi Takemura/ Hiroshi Mizoguchi/ Kaori Izuishi/ Fusako Kusunoki/ Keita Muratsu/ Shigenori Inagaki

The authors are developing a simulation-based environmental learning support system using Kinect sensors. Obviously, it is impossible for learners to experience the actual paleontological environment, and it is therefore difficult for them to learn about the environments and lives. Then, we proposed an immersive animation display system using Kinect sensors and their human skeleton-tracking function. The system animates paleontological animals and their environment on the screen and displays inf(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-123

On Evolution of CMOS Image Sensors

Luiz Carlos Paiva Gouveia/ Bhaskar Choubey

CMOS Image Sensors have become the principal technology in majority of digital cameras. They started replacing the film and Charge Coupled Devices in the last decade with the promise of lower cost, lower power requirement, higher integration and the potential of focal plane processing. However, the principal factor behind their success has been the ability to utilise the shrinkage in CMOS technology to make smaller pixels, and thereby have more resolution without increasing the cost. With the mar(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-124

Analyzing and Processing EEG-based Multichannel Signals Acquired during Sleeping

P. Vergallo/ A. Lay-Ekuakille/ N.I. Giannocaro/ A. Trabacca/ R. Della Porta/ M. De Rinaldis

Processing of signals acquired from sensor systems needs accurate algorithms to extract information of interest concerning the problem under study. In this work Empirical Mode Decomposition method is used on EEG signals obtained during polysomnography examination, when electromyographic (EMG) signals are acquired too. EMD method decomposes a signal into components named Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) which can exhibit important time-frequency information related to signals under observation. Sin(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-125

WSN and M2M for cycling performance assessment

José Barreiro/ Octavian Postolache/ Pedro Passos

Cycling assessment to increase performance during sport training is an important issue. In this article presents a wireless sensor network including multi-sensing channels for dynamic and cinematic measurement during cycling training. The Smart Mountain Bike is a system that includes the bicycle and the associated sports equipment, such as gloves, shoes and chest strap. The system is characterized by sensing channels as part of wireless sensor network which base station is expressed by embedded (..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-126

Detection of adsorbed cytochrome c on hydroxyapatite thick films using a microwave sensor

M. Salazar-Alvarez/ S.A.M. Tofail/ E. Magner/ O. Korostynska/ A. Mason/ A. Al-Shamma'a

An interdigitated microwave sensor was used to detect the adsorption of cytochrome c on hydroxyapatite thick films. Changes in the microwave spectral response were indicative of the presence of adsorbed cytochrome c. The sensitivity of the system was also evaluated using different protein loadings on the e films. The results suggest that the microwave sensor can be utilized to detect protein.

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-127

NTC Thermistors of Y-Al-Mn-Fe-Ni-Cr-O Ceramics for Wide Temperature Range Measurement

Woonyoung Lee/ Jinseong Park

NTC thermistors of Y-Al-Mn-Fe-Ni-Cr-O systems were fabricated by using normal ceramic processing for wide temperature range measurement. Pt-Rh alloy as electrodes was inserted into the body during the forming process to increase the reliability of high temperature and to decrease the contact resistance. The properties were analyzed by XRD, SEM and resistance measurement. There are no distinct XRD patterns between Y0.2Al0.1Mn0.27Fe0.16Ni0.27Ox and Y0.2Al0.1Mn0.264Fe0.16 Ni0.264Cr0.012Ox because o(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-128

Mechanical structures for smart-phone enabled sensing

S. Lawes/ P. Kinnell

The paper presents a new strategy for sensor design that is made possible by the usage of ubiquitous mobile devices for signal capture, digitization, and data processing. The approach taken is to design simple mechanical sensor elements such that they produce a sensor output that is easily acquired by a mobile smart device such as a phone or tablet computer. To illustrate this concept, two mechanical displacement transducers have been designed and tested. These sensors make use of displacement a(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-129

Analysis of Frequency Channel Division Strategy for CSMA/CA with RTS/CTS Mechanism

Baher MAWLAWI/ Jean-Baptiste DORÉ/ Nikolai LEBEDEV/ Jean-Marie GORCE

In this work we study the collision probability, saturation throughput and statistical delay for the carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol with request to send and clear to send (RTS/CTS) mechanism in the case of frequency channel division. We propose in this paper a modified version of CSMA/CA-RTS/CTS to be compatible with thechannelrepartitiontechniqueandweprovethatanimportant gain is introduced in terms of system performance especially for loaded networks. Simula(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-130

Kinect Based System and Serious Game Motivating Approach for Physiotherapy Assessment and Remote Session Monitoring

Francisco Cary/ Octavian Postolache/ Pedro Silva Girão

This paper describes a framework focused on being a health monitoring platform as well as a source of entertainment for physiotherapy patients, particularly stroke survivors. Using the Microsoft Kinect sensor a serious game captures 3D data during the patient’s session and sends it to a server. Through a web application these data can be further visualized by the physiotherapists on their assessments. Moreover, this framework intends to be a useful and effective tool for remote physiotherapy ses(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-131

Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria in Aqueous Media: Assessing the Potential of Real-Time Electromagnetic Wave Sensing

I. Nakouti/ O. Korostynska/ A. Mason/ A. I. Al-Shamma’a

This paper reports on the capabilities of a novel electromagnetic wave sensing method to detect and identify the presence of various pathogenic bacteria in aqueous media. In particular, the change in the electromagnetic wave signal in microwave frequency range is used as an indicator of bacteria presence. The assessment was conducted by recording reflected signal spectra when the sensor was in contact with deionised water, Escherichia coli, sterile nutrient broth and Pseudomonas aeruginosa solut(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-132

Real-time monitoring of meat drying process using microwave spectroscopy

Magomed Muradov/ Jeff D. Cullen/ Badr Abdullah/ Muhammad Ateeq/ Alex Mason/ Andy Shaw/ Ahmed I. Al-Shamma’a

The objective of this investigation is to monitor the meat drying process and try to analyse the changes of the electromagnetic (EM) signature from a patch antenna during the process. The antenna has been modelled using High Frequency Structure Simulation Software (HFSS) and then constructed. The experimental work carried out by placing a meat sample on a scale inside the fridge and recording reflection coefficient (S11) and weight measurements 24 times (every hour) a day during one month at the(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-133

Load-Balancing Enhancement by a Mobile Data Collector in Wireless Sensor Networks

Ahmad Patooghy/ Meisam Kamarei/ Ali Farajzadeh/ Fatemeh Tavakoli/ Mehdi Saeidmanesh

 Decrease in the time interval between the first node death and the last node death, due to the completion of their energy supply, is the main goal of load-balancing methods in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). This paper proposes a Load-Balancing Enhancement (LBE) method, in WSN. LBE method uses a mobile data collector to data gathering from sensor nodes. The mobile data collector can directly communicate with the base station. Indeed, the mobile data collector acts as an interface between sensor(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-134

Assessing Water Activity in Dry-Cured Ham using Microwave Spectroscopy

Stefania G. Bjarnadottir/ Kathrine Lunde/ Ole Alvseike/ Alex Mason/ Ahmed I. Al-Shamma’a

Microwave spectroscopy have been applied in numerous applications in the non-food industry, and recently also in the food industry, for non-destructive measurements. In this study, a dry-cured ham model was designed and water activity, water content and salt content (sodium chloride) were determined for all samples using chemical analysis. The water activity was also measured using microwave spectroscopy, with a rectangular microwave cavity resonator. Attained results indicate that microwave spe(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-135

The feasibility of using electromagnetic waves in determining the moisture content of building fabrics and the cause of the water ingress

P. Kot/ A. Shaw/ K. O. Jones/ J. D. Cullen/ A. Mason/ A. I. Al-Shamma’a

In this paper, the feasibility of using electromagnetic (EM) waves is determining the moisture content of building fabrics and the case of water ingress in experimentally assessed. This paper will concentrate on investigating the propagation of EM waves through typical structures and their interaction with concealed pipework, wiring and timber. All current methods are overviewed and analysed. Novel microwave sensor described in this paper operates in 6 GHz to 12 GHz frequency range using Marconi(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-136

Development and Evaluation of Portable Low Cost Testing System for Phthalates

Asif I. Zia/ S.C. Mukhopadhyay/ P.L. Yu/ I. H. Al-Bahadly/ C. Gooneratne/ Jǘrgen Kosel

A portable low-cost microcontroller based testing system was designed and constructed to detect phthalates in aqueous media. Phthalates, especially di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is the most ubiquitous endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) posing highest reproductive toxicity threat to all living species on earth. Frequency response analyser (FRA) approach was used to develop the rapid response, non-invasive electrochemical impedimetric system for detection. A smart thin film gold interdigital electr(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-137

Modular Multi-Channel GPS Environmental Logger

P. Kot/ J.D. Cullen/ M. Al Jader/ A. Shaw/ A. Mason/ A. Al-Shamma’a/ T. Cockcroft/ S. Jackson/ M. Cleave

In this paper, an experimental methodology for the modular multi-channel GPS environmental logger is presented, and the preliminary real route test is demonstrated. The paper concentrates on methods used for transmitting real time data from electrochemical analyser and GPS unit into Graphical User Interface. Test was made in environmental conditions and route of the vehicle was plotted on the map with the data from emission analyser. All results are presented and concluded.

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-138

The Three-Dimensional Temperature Indication for the Reactor Core by Using Multiple Thermocouples

Song Hae Ye/ Sooill Lee/ Heetaek Lim/ Joon Lyou/ Sungjin Kim

The premise of accident mitigation lies in the accurate diagnosis of the accident. The serious accident, in which the core of the nuclear reactor at the nuclear power plant (NPP) is melted, is a very serious problem. Examples of this kind of accident may be found in the Fukushima accident. Therefore, a rapid incident response and accurate diagnosis is more important than anything. The ultimate goal of severe accident mitigation at a nuclear reactor is to maintain the confidentiality of the conta(..)

DOI: 10.21307/ijssis-2019-032

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