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Journal of Nematology

Society of Nematologists

Subject: Life Sciences

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ISSN: 0022-300X
eISSN: 2640-396X

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FEATURED ARTICLES

Enhanced entomopathogenic nematode yield and fitness via addition of pulverized insect powder to solid media
Nematotoxic coumarins from Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan roots and their physiological effects on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
Broad-based root-knot nematode resistance identified in cowpea gene-pool two
Description of Pseudacrobeles (Pseudacrobeles) curvatus sp. n. (Cephalobidae: Rhabditida) in South Korea

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VOLUME 51 (2019) - List of articles

Survival of entomopathogenic nematodes in oil emulsions and control effectiveness on adult engorged ticks (Acari: Ixodida)

Teodulfo Aquino-Bolaños/ Jaime Ruiz-Vega/ Yolanda D. Ortiz Hernández/ Julio C. Jiménez Castañeda

Abstract Although their control is based on chemical products, the infestations by ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) are causing great losses and damages in the livestock production worldwide. In this study, the survival of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Steinernema websteri in vegetal oil suspension at concentrations of 13% and 33% and their effectiveness to control ticks at concentrations of 50 ± 5 and 100 ± 10 nematodes in oil suspension(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-001

First Report of the Peach Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis Infecting Almond on Root-Knot Nematode Resistant ‘Hansen 536’ and ‘Bright's Hybrid 5’ Rootstocks in California, USA

Andreas Westphal/ Zin T. Z. Maung/ David A. Doll/ Mohammad A. Yaghmour/ John J. Chitambar/ Sergei A. Subbotin

Abstract In April-August 2018, samples of galled roots with rhizosphere soil were collected from almond orchards in Atwater, Merced County and Bakersfield, Kern County, California. Almond trees (Prunus dulcis) grafted on ‘Hansen 536’ and ‘Brights Hybrid®5’ (peach-almond hybrid) rootstocks showed strong symptoms of growth decline. Extracted root-knot nematodes were identified by both morphological and molecular methods as M. floridensis. Meloidogyne floridensis was initially found in Florida, USA(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-002

Description of Oscheius indicus n. sp. (Rhabditidae: Nematoda) from India

Puneet Kumar/ Wajih Jamal/ Vishal S. Somvanshi/ Khushbu Chauhan/ Sabia Mumtaz

Abstract A new amphimictic species Oscheius indicus n. sp. is described and illustrated with morphological and molecular data. The species is characterized by a medium-sized and slender body (female: L = 1.1 to 1.5 mm; a = 16.8 to 20.6; b = 5.7 to 7.1; c = 7.5 to 10.4; c’ = 5.0 to 7.6; V = 45 to 51%), presence of four incisures each in the lateral fields with three minute warts, long rectum (2 to 3 anal body diameters), nine pairs of papillae arranged as 1+1+1/3+3 pattern, a prominent double-fla(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-004

Development of a decision support system for managing Heterodera schahtii in sugar beet production

Zahra S. Omer/ Jens Levenfors/ Susanne Andersson/ Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar

Abstract A decision support system, SBN-Watch, was developed to demonstrate the influence of crop rotation and the choice of sugar beets (Beta vulgaris) varieties on the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmidt (SBN) population and sugar beets yield. The database in SBN-Watch consists of a varietal unit with five sugar beet varieties representing the three categories “Standard,” “Tolerant” and “semi-tolerant.” Data of minimal yield (m), tolerance limit (T), and population dynamic pa(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-005

Dynamics of the impacts of Pratylenchus penetrans on Gisela® cherry rootstocks

Thomas Forge/ Denise Neilsen/ Gerry Neilsen/ Suzanne Blatt

Abstract Sweet cherry growers are increasingly using semi-dwarfing rootstocks, including the Gisela® series, when replanting orchards. Little is known of the susceptibility of these new cherry rootstocks to Pratylenchus penetrans, a recognized pest of temperate fruit trees worldwide. Two field experiments were planted in 2010, one in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia and one in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia. Each experiment was a factorial combination of three rootstocks (Gi.3, Gi.5,(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-008

Nematicide effects on non-target nematodes in bermudagrass

Benjamin D. Waldo/ Zane J. Grabau/ Tesfamariam M. Mengistu/ William T. Crow

Abstract In turfgrass systems, nematicides are a valuable tool for managing plant-parasitic nematode populations, but few studies have examined nematicide effects on non-target nematodes. The study evaluated effects of turfgrass nematicide formulations of abamectin (Divanem SC), fluopyram (Indemnify), furfural (MultiGuard Protect EC), and fluensulfone (Nimitz Pro G) on non-target nematode populations in bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.). Nematicides were applied at labeled rates every four weeks as a (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-009

Swine manure application enriches the soil food web in corn and soybean production

Zane J. Grabau/ Yong Bao/ Jeffrey A. Vetsch/ Senyu Chen

Abstract Strategies for managing plant-parasitic nematodes while promoting soil quality are needed in corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) cropping systems. Therefore, a series of two-year experiments were conducted in Minnesota to determine the simple and interactive effects of manure or conventional fertilizer and short-term crop rotation on the nematode community, a sensitive indicator of soil ecology. The two-year crop sequences were Sus-Sus, Res-Sus, and Corn-Sus, where Sus and Res are(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-014

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide induced resistance against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla is based on increased tomato basal defense

Noor Abdelsamad/ H. Regmi/ J. Desaeger/ P. DiGennaro

Abstract Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) are among the most damaging pests to tomato production in the USA and worldwide, with yield losses ranging from 25 to 100%. Host resistance conferred by the Mi gene in tomato is effective against some species of RKN (e.g. M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria); however, there are virulent species and lines including M. hapla and M. eterolobii that break Mi-mediated resistance. Plant innate immunity is another possible form of defense agai(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-022

Effect of spirotetramat and fluensulfone on population densities of Mesocriconema xenoplax and Meloidogyne incognita on peach

Andrew M. Shirley/ James P. Noe/ Andrew P. Nyczepir/ Phillip M. Brannen/ Benjamin J. Shirley/ Ganpati B. Jagdale

Abstract Management of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) on peach is needed for a longer period of time than is typically afforded by pre-plant fumigant nematicides. Two post-plant nematicides, spirotetramat and fluensulfone, were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne incognita and Mesocriconema xenoplax under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. In vitro assays were conducted to test the effect of spirotetramat at 0.017 and 0.026 kg a.i./ha and fluensulfone at 3.92 kg a.i./ha on the mobility of (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-012

First Report of Criconema demani from Russia

Sergei Tabolin/ Irina Markina

Abstract A population of the criconematid species, identified as Criconema demani (Micoletzky, 1925), is reported from a natural habitat in northwestern Russia. Measurements and morpho-anatomy obtained with light microscopy and molecular characterization of this population are included in this paper.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-019

First report of cultivated Cretan mountain tea (Sideritis syriaca) as a host of Meloidogyne hapla and M. javanica in Crete, with some additional records on the occurrence of Meloidogyne species in Greece

Emmanuel A. Tzortzakakis/ Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete/ Antonio Archidona-Yuste/ Maria Kormpi/ Juan E. Palomares-Rius/ Pablo Castillo

Abstract Cultivated Cretan mountain tea or Malotira (Sideritis syriaca L.) was found to be infected by Meloidogyne hapla and Meloidogyne javanica in the island of Crete. The authors provide the first molecular characterization of M. hapla in Greece and the first report of Cretan mountain tea or Malotira as a host of Meloidogyne species worldwide. In addition, Meloidogyne hispanica was found infecting aloe (Andros island) and corn (Drama, North Greece) consisting the first reports of natural infe(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-010

Description of a new dagger nematode, Xiphinema barooghii n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) and additional data on the three known species of the genus from northwest of Iran

Nasir Vazifeh/ Gholamreza Niknam/ Habibeh Jabbari/ Arezoo Naghavi

Abstract Xiphinema barooghii n. sp. collected from the rhizosphere of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Roodghat area, Sufiyan, East-Azarbaijan province, northwest of Iran, is described on the basis of the morphological, morphometric and molecular data. The new species belongs to morphospecies group 6 of the polytomous key prepared by Loof and Luc, 1990. Xiphinema barooghii n. sp. is characterized by having two almost equally developed female reproductive branches with spines in the tubular(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-007

A genomic resource for the sedentary semi-endoparasitic reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira

Kurt C. Showmaker/ William S. Sanders/ Sebastian Eves-van den Akker/ Brigitte E. Martin/ Roy N. Platt/ John V. Stokes/ Chuan-Yu Hsu/ Benjamin D. Bartlett/ Daniel G. Peterson/ Martin J. Wubben

Abstract The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is a sedentary semi-endoparasitic species that is pathogenic on many row crops, fruits, and vegetables. Here, the authors present a draft genome assembly of R. reniformis using small- and large-insert libraries sequenced on the Illumina GAIIx and MiSeq platforms.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-013

Fusarium wilt of cotton may commonly result from the interaction of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum with Belonolaimus longicaudatus

Mychele B. da Silva/ Richard F. Davis/ Hung K. Doan/ Robert L. Nichols/ Robert C. Kemerait/ Hannah C. Halpern/ Marin T. Brewer/ Ganpati Jagdale/ Peng W. Chee

Abstract The interaction between Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) and Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode) resulting in Fusarium wilt (FW) of cotton is well-known. Although Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode) can also interact with Fov and cause FW, it has long been believed that virtually all of the FW in Georgia is caused by the interaction of Fov with M. incognita. In recent years, FW has been reported more frequently in Georgia, which suggests that something affectin(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-015

Resistant Pepper Carrying N, Me1, and Me3 have Different Effects on Penetration and Reproduction of Four Major Meloidogyne species

Abolfazl Hajihassani/ William B. Rutter/ Xuelin Luo

Abstract Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) exhibits a substantial problem in pepper production, causing reduction in yield throughout the world. Continued assessment for root-knot resistance is important for developing new resistance cultivars. In this study, the effect of Me and N genes on the penetration and reproduction of M. incognita race 3, M. arenaria race 1, M. javanica, and M. haplanaria was examined under controlled greenhouse conditions using susceptible and resistant pepper lines(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-020

Nematicidal Activity of Fosthiazate Against Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines

Hai Yan Wu/ Man Luo/ Lu Yuan Zhang/ Xun Bo Zhou

Abstract Nematicidal activity at different concentrations of fosthiazate against soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) was evaluated in this paper. The mortality rates of second-stage juvenile (J2) reached 13.43, 48.39, 66.82, 79.77, and 86.35% at 12 hr after exposure to 2.18, 3.44, 5.45, 8.61, and 13.62 mg/l of fosthiazate, respectively, whereas cumulative hatching rates totaled 58.24, 53.88, 42.54, 24.11, and 13.69% at 18 days after exposure to concentrations. J2s dead by exposure to fos(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-021

DNA barcoding evidence for the North American presence of alfalfa cyst nematode, Heterodera medicaginis

Thomas Powers/ Andrea Skantar/ Tim Harris/ Rebecca Higgins/ Peter Mullin/ Saad Hafez/ Zafar Handoo/ Tim Todd/ Kirsten Powers

Abstract Specimens of Heterodera have been collected from alfalfa fields in Kearny County, Kansas & Carbon County, Montana. DNA barcoding with the COI mitochondrial gene indicate that the species is not Heterodera glycines, soybean cyst nematode, H. schachtii, sugar beet cyst nematode, or H. trifolii, clover cyst nematode. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees show that the alfalfa specimens form a sister clade most closely related to H. glycines, with a 4.7% mean pairwise sequence divergence ac(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-016

Description of Rotylenchus rhomboides n. sp. and a Belgian population of Rotylenchus buxophilus (Tylenchomorpha: Hoplolaimidae)

Huu Tien Nguyen/ Quang Phap Trinh/ Marjolein Couvreur/ Phougeishangbam Rolish Singh/ Wilfrida Decraemer/ Wim Bert

Abstract During a survey in the Botanical garden of Ghent University, a new species Rotylenchus rhomboides n. sp. and a population of Rotylenchus buxophilus were found. Rotylenchus rhomboides n. sp. is characterized by the presence of a rhomboid-like widening of the mid-ridge of lateral field at the level of vulva, a feature previously unknown within the genus. The population of the new species, composed only by females, has a rounded labial region with 4 to 5 annuli, robust stylet (31–37 μm lon(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-023

Two new Species of Pristionchus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) include the Gonochoristic Sister Species of P. fissidentatus

Matthias Herrmann/ Natsumi Kanzaki/ Christian Weiler/ Kohta Yoshida/ Christian RÖdelsperger/ Ralf J. Sommer

Abstract The genus Pristionchus (Kreis, 1932) consists of more than 30 soil nematode species that are often found in association with scarab beetles. Three major radiations have resulted in the “maupasi species group” in America, the “pacificus species group” in Asia, and the “lheritieri species group,” which contains species from Europe and Asia. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that a group of three species, including the gonochorists P. elegans and P. bucculentus and the hermaphrodite P. fissi(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-024

Agricultural intensification and urbanization negatively impact soil nematode richness and abundance: a meta-analysis

Satyendra K. Pothula/ Parwinder S. Grewal/ Robert M. Auge/ Arnold M. Saxton/ Ernest C. Bernard

Abstract Human activity has extensively transformed the land surface by agricultural intensification and urbanization. In soil, nematodes are the most abundant invertebrates. The effect of human interventions was assessed on overall richness, overall abundance, richness and abundance of nematodes of each trophic group and colonizer-persister (c-p) guild by comparing urban, agriculture and disturbed grassland (DGL) with natural grassland (NGL) and forest ecosystems. Meta-analyses were conducted t(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-011

Control of Meloidogyne incognita in sweetpotato with fluensulfone

Antoon Ploeg/ Scott Stoddard/ J. Ole Becker

Abstract In California, sweetpotato is mostly grown on light sandy soils in Merced County. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) can reduce sweetpotato yields and quality. Fluensulfone is the active ingredient of the new non-fumigant nematicide Nimitz. Unlike fumigant nematicides, toxicity toward non-target organisms is low, and it does not emit volatile organic compounds which negatively impact air quality. In two field trials, the effect of fluensulfone on M. incognita levels, and on the yiel(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-018

First report of Meloidogyne javanica on Ginger and Turmeric in the United States

Abolfazl Hajihassani/ Weimin Ye/ Brooke B. Hampton

Abstract Ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) are two her baceous perennial plant species with rhizomes that are commonly used for flavoring or medicinal purposes. In January 2018, stunting and poorly developed root systems typically associated with plant-parasitic nematode infection were observed on organically grown edible ginger and turmeric in a hoop house in Wheeler County, Georgia. Examination of soil and root samples from symptomatic plants revealed the presence(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-006

Effect of the trap crop, Solanum sisymbriifolium, on Globodera pallida, Globodera tabacum, and Globodera ellingtonae

L. M. Dandurand/ I. A. Zasada/ J. A. LaMondia

Abstract The effect of the nematode trap crop Solanum sisymbriifolium was assessed against three Globodera spp., the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida (in Idaho), the recently described Globodera ellingtonae (in Oregon), and the tobacco cyst nematode Globodera tabacum (in Connecticut) in field trials. At all locations the ability of S. sisymbriifolium to reduce Globodera encysted second-stage juveniles (J2) in egg densities compared to fallow was considered. For G. ellingtonae, the impact o(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-030

The draft genome of Ditylenchus dipsaci

Benjamin Mimee/ Etienne Lord/ Pierre-Yves Véronneau/ Rick Masonbrink/ Qing Yu/ Sebastian Eves-van den Akker

Abstract Ditylenchus dipsaci is a devastating pest to many crops worldwide. We present the first genome sequence for this species, produced with PacBio sequencing and assembled with CANU.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-027

Description of Geocenamus vietnamensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Merliniidae) from Vietnam

Huu Tien Nguyen/ Thi Mai Linh Le/ Thi Duyen Nguyen/ Gracia Liebanas/ Thi Anh Duong Nguyen/ Quang Phap Trinh

Abstract A new species of the genus Geocenamus was isolated from soil and root samples from the rhizosphere of Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarinaceae) in Quang Nam province, Vietnam. This species is characterized by a round-to-hexagonal labial disc, the presence of a labial region, which is continuous or slightly offset from the body with six sectors, lateral sectors of first labial annulus being smaller than the submedian sectors, the presence of six to seven labial annules; the absence of deir(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-025

First report of the dagger nematode Xiphinema pachtaicum on onion in Morocco

Fouad Mokrini/ Abdelfattah Dababat

Abstract In 2018, during a survey in Souss region of Morocco, the dagger nematode Xiphinema pachtaicum was found parasitizing onion, (Allium cepa L.). The populations of dagger nematode were identified on the basis of their morphological and morphometric characters and by sequencing and analysing the D2D2 region of 28S rRNA. Microscopic observation of females demonstrated the occurrence of Xiphinema pachtaicum on onion. The 28S D2D3 sequences shared 99 to 100% similarity with sequence correspond(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-028

PCR amplification of a long rDNA segment with one primer pair in agriculturally important nematodes

L. K. Carta/ S. Li

Abstract Ribosomal DNA has been a reliable source of taxonomic and phylogenetic markers due to its high copy number in the genome and stable variation with few polymorphisms due to the homogenizing effect of concerted evolution. Typically specific regions are amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with multiple primer pairs that generate often incomplete and overlapping regions between adjacent segments of 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and 28S rDNA nucleotide sequences when combined in tande(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-026

Field and greenhouse evaluations of soil suppressiveness to Heterodera glycines in the Midwest corn-soybean production systems

Weiming Hu/ Eyob Kidane/ Deborah A. Neher/ Senyu Chen

Abstract Soil suppressive to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), a major yield-limiting pathogen of soybean, plays an important role in biological control. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of tillage, crop sequence, and biocide application on SCN suppression in corn-soybean cropping systems in Minnesota. The experiment was a split-plot design with no-tillage and conventional tillage as main plots, and six crop-biocide treatments (CRCS, CSCS, SSSS, SSSS + strep(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-032

Morphological and molecular characterization of Labronema montanum sp. n. (Dorylaimida, Dorylaimidae) from Spain

R. Peña-Santiago/ J. Abolafia

Abstract A new species of the genus Labronema, collected in a natural mountain habitat of the southern Iberian Peninsula, in Spain, is studied, including its morphological and morphometric characterization, SEM observations, and D2-D3 28S-rRNA sequences. Labronema montanum sp. n. is distinguishable by its 1.56 to 2.08 mm long body, with lip region being offset by constriction and 19 to 24 µm broad, odontostyle 21 to 29 µm long, neck 417 to 551 µm long, pharyngeal expansion 205 to 272 µm long, th(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-029

New Hosts and Records in Portugal for the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne luci

Duarte Santos/ António Correia/ Isabel Abrantes/ Carla Maleita

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-003

Phylogenetic studies on three Helicotylenchus species based on 28S rDNA and mtCOI sequence data

K. Rybarczyk-Mydłowska/ E. Dmowska/ K. Kowalewska

Abstract To facilitate the process of spiral nematode species delineation, populations of Helicotylenchus canadensis, H. pseudorobustus, and H. varicaudatus deriving from various locations and diverse natural and anthropogenic environments from Poland were investigated and characterized. For the first time, 28S rDNA sequences are reported for H. canadensis and H. varicaudatus, whereas new mtCOI sequences were acquired for all three analyzed species. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the 28S rD(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-033

Molecular and morphological characterization of Paurodontella composticola n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerulariidae) from Iran

Mehrab Esmaeili/ Ramin Heydari/ Ahmad Kheiri/ Weimin Ye

Abstract A new species of the genus Paurodontella, P. composticola n. sp., collected from Nazar Abad City, Alborz Province, Iran, is described and illustrated. The new species has a body length of 803–1053 μ m (females n = 10) and 620 and 739 μ m (males n = 2). The cuticle is weakly annulated with four lateral lines. Cephalic region is annulated and continuous with body contour. The stylet is 8.0 to 9.0 μ m long with asymmetrical knobs. Esophageal basal bulb is present with a small posterior ext(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-034

Resistance and tolerance reactions of winter wheat lines to Heterodera filipjevi in Turkey

Abdelfattah A. Dababat

Abstract Nematodes attack cereal crops resulting in significant yield losses, estimated at 10%. The plant parasitic nematodes of the genus Heterodera attack cereals, particularly wheat, causing costly financial losses due to impact on yield. The soil borne pathogens program at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in Turkey has focused on screening wheat germplasm to identify sources of Heterodera resistant varieties for almost 20 years. The aim of this current study was (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-031

First report of Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from turfgrass in Portugal and in Europe

M. L. Inácio/ L. C. Rusinque/ M. J. Camacho/ F. Nóbrega

Abstract In Winter 2016, root and soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere soil at 10 to 15 cm depth of turfgrass, in the yard of a complex of houses in Caxias, a region near Lisbon, Portugal. The grass (dominated by tall fescue) showed yellow patches, stunting, and poor growth. Several specimens of a ring nematode (50-60 nematodes/100 ml soil) were recovered from soil and identified as Mesocriconema xenoplax (peach ring nematode) based on morphological and morphometrical analysis of fem(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-035

Fluensulfone and 1,3-dichloroprene for plant-parasitic nematode management in potato production

Zane J. Grabau/ Joseph W. Noling/ Pablo A. Navia Gine

Abstract Florida produces 35% of the spring potato (Solanum tuberosum) crop in the USA, but plant-parasitic nematodes suppress yield in the region. The stubby-root nematodes, Paratrichodorus (Nanidorus) spp. and Trichodorus spp., vectors for corky ringspot disease, and sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) are among the most damaging nematodes in Florida potato production. Nematicide application is an important component of nematode management in this system, but relatively few nematicides(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-038

A case study of soil food web components affected by Fallopia japonica (Polygonaceae) in three natural habitats in Central Europe

Andrea Čerevková/ Lenka Bobuľská/ Dana Miklisová/ Marek Renčo

Abstract This study determined the effect of the invasive plant Fallopia japonica on soil physical properties, microbial respiration, microbial biomass carbon content, enzymatic activities, and soil nematode communities. We established in total 30 plots in three natural habitats (forest, grassland, wetland) that were either uninvaded or mostly monospecifically invaded by F. japonica. The soil physical and microbial properties differed among the investigated plots, but the differences were observ(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-042

First report of the cactus cyst nematode, Cactodera cacti, from a cactus garden in Idaho

Andrea M. Skantar/ Zafar A. Handoo/ Mihail R. Kantor/ Maria N. Hult/ Saad. A. Hafez

Abstract In April 2018, a cyst nematode was discovered from soil samples collected from a cactus garden collection in Meridian, Ada County, Idaho, USA. The cactus garden collection field reported was observed with localized areas of heavily stunted plants. Roots from affected plants displayed moderate numbers of nematode cysts. Living nematode juveniles (J2) recovered from the cysts were examined morphologically and molecularly for species identification which indicated that the specimens were C(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-044

First report of Mesocriconema sphaerocephalum (Taylor, 1936) Loof, 1989 associated with carrot (Daucus carota subsp. Stativus) in Vietnam

Thi Duyen Nguyen/ Huu Tien Nguyen/ Thi Mai Linh Le/ Thi Tuyet Thu Tran/ Neriza Nobleza/ Quang Phap Trinh

Abstract Our study recorded the presence of Mesocriconema sphaerocephalum on carrot in Hanoi city and Hai Duong province in Vietnam. This species was identified by morphometric, morphological characterizations, and molecular characterization of D2D3 of 28S rDNA sequence. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. sphaerocephalum on carrot in Vietnam.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-048

Efficacy of Heterorhabdits indica LPP35 against Aedes aegypti in domiciliary oviposition sites

Bruna Silva/ Alexandre M. Almeida/ Claudia Dolinski/ Ricardo M. Souza

Abstract Entomopathogenic nematodes have been evaluated for control of mosquito species for decades. Depending on the nematode and mosquito involved, mortality rates of larvae (L) may reach 100% in vitro. Nonetheless, nematode efficacy at oviposition sites has rarely been assessed. Heterorhabditis indica LPP35 has been shown to kill over 75% of Aedes aegypti L3/L4 in cups and bottles outdoors. To assess its efficacy in indoor oviposition sites, different types/sizes of floor drains and pot sauce(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-050

The Draft Genome of Deladenus siricidicola

Alisa Postma/ X. Osmond Mlonyeni/ Frederick Clasen/ Fourie Joubert/ Bernard Slippers

Abstract The nematode Deladenus siricidicola is used as biological control agent against the invasive woodwasp Sirex noctilio, a serious invasive pest of Pinus plantations globally. The draft genome of this ecologically and economically important entomoparasitic nematode was determined.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-036

Integrative taxonomy of Xiphinema histriae and Xiphinema lapidosum from Spain

Ruihang Cai/ Antonio Archidona-Yuste/ Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete/ Juan E. Palomares-Rius/ Jingwu Zheng/ Pablo Castillo

Abstract Three populations of Xiphinema non-americanum group species were detected in agricultural and natural ecosystems, during routine surveys for plant-parasitic nematodes in Spain. Based on morphological and molecular analyses, the species were identified as Xiphinema histriae and Xiphinema lapidosum, being this the first record and molecular characterization of both species in Spain. The morphometrics and morphology of the Spanish populations agree with those of the original description an(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-037

Temporal expression patterns of Pasteuria spp. sporulation genes

Ruhiyyih Dyrdahl-Young/ Weiming Hu/ Peter DiGennaro

Abstract Endospore-forming bacterium in the genus Pasteuria spp. infect multiple agriculturally significant plant parasitic nematodes and has potential as a potent biological control. Success as a biological control requires not only spore attachment to the cuticle, but sporulation and reproduction within the nematode host. Tracking and identifying Pasteuria spp. development is then critical to demonstrating efficacy as a biocontrol. Microscopic observations suggest Pasteuria spp. follows the mo(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-039

Maternal Stress Reduces the Susceptibility of Root-Knot Nematodes to Pasteuria Penetrans

Chang Liu/ Pingsheng Ji/ Patricia Timper

Abstract Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Endospores of P. penetrans attach to the cuticle of second-stage juveniles (J2) and complete their life cycle within the nematode female body. Infected females will be filled with spores and will be sterilized. Studies with Daphnia magna and its parasite Pasteuria ramosa showed that a poor maternal environment can lead to offspring resistant to P. ramosa. Therefore, we hypothesized that Meloidogyne ar(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-040

Serendipitous identification of Pratylenchus curvicauda from the grainbelt of Western Australia

Farhana Begum/ John Fosu-Nyarko/ Shashi Sharma/ Bill Macleod/ Sarah Collins/ Michael G. K. Jones

Abstract A Pratylenchus species identified during a survey of Pratylenchus quasitereoides incidence at four locations of the grainbelt of Western Australia is described. Morphological and morphometric features indicated the previously undescribed morphotypes in nematode mixtures encountered were conspecific to P. curvicauda, and were clearly distinguishable from nine common Pratylenchus spp. Typical features of P. curvicauda were its body length (415–540 µm), which was curved to a c-shaped with (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-046

Description of Ektaphelenchus koreanus n. sp. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchidae) with morphometrical notes on the Ektaphelenchus species

Jianfeng Gu/ Munawar Maria/ Yiwu Fang/ Lele Liu

Abstract Ektaphelenchus koreanus n. sp. is isolated from Pinus packaging wood from Korea in Ningbo customs. The new species can be characterized by having four incisures in the lateral field, the excretory pore located posterior to nerve ring, female devoid of vulval flap, and having long post-vulval intestinal sac (55–106 μm), tail with a finely rounded terminus. Six caudal papillae in male and spicule short (12.7–13.7 μm), having broad squared to rounded condylus, triangular rounded rostrum, c(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-049

Movement of seed- and soil-applied fluopyram in soil columns

Travis R. Faske/ Katherine Brown

Abstract The movement of seed- and soil-applied fluopyram was evaluated in soil columns. The nematicide was sampled at three soil depths and used in a nematode motility bioassay. Based on Meloidogyne incognita mortality, the downward movement of soil-applied fluopyram was affected by soil type and application method. No nematode-toxic levels of soil-applied fluopyram were detected past 5 cm depth in sandy loam soil compared to 10 cm depth in sandy soil. A slower rate of water infiltration had li(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-045

Developing a real-time PCR diagnostic method for a potential threat to chrysanthemum, Paratylenchus dianthus

Masanori Kawanobe/ Koki Toyota/ Hidehito Uchihara/ Mikoto Takae

Abstract Chrysanthemum is a very popular flower in Japan and is known to be infected by many soil-borne plant pathogens including nematodes. A nematode survey in six chrysanthemum fields in Okinawa, Japan, found Pratylenchus, Meloidogyne, and Paratylenchus (P. dianthus). The first two genera are known as plant pathogens against chrysanthemum, however, Paratylenchus dianthus has not been reported previously. Chrysanthemum seedlings were grown in pots containing soil infected only with P. dianthus(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-043

Morpho-molecular characterization of Colombian and Brazilian populations of Rotylenchulus associated with Musa spp

Donald Riascos-Ortiz/ Ana Teresa Mosquera-Espinosa/ Francia Varón De Agudelo/ Claudio Marcelo Gonçalves de Oliveira/ Jaime Eduardo Muñoz-Flórez

Abstract Three populations, two from Colombia and one from Brazil, of Rotylenchulus reniformis associated with banana and plantain, were characterized using morphological, morphometric, and molecular methods. Morphometric data from these populations were similar to type and reference populations of R. reniformis. Partial sequences of both D2-D3 rDNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) regions had a strong affinity (99% similarity) to previously published sequences of R. reniform(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-047

New data on known species of Hirschmanniella and Pratylenchus (Rhabditida, Pratylenchidae) from Iran and South Africa

Ebrahim Shokoohi/ Joaquín Abolafia/ Phatu William Mashela/ Nafiseh Divsalar

Abstract Hirschmanniella anchoryzae from Iran and Pratylenchus hippeastri from South Africa were recovered during a survey of plant-parasitic nematodes belonging to the family Pratylenchidae. Both species were studied using morphological and molecular techniques. Hirschmanniella anchoryzae is identified based on the flattened head, short stylet (19–22 µm), excretory pore position (anterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction), spicule length (27–30 µm), and existence of an axial mucro at the tail en(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-041

Validation of the Chemotaxis of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Toward Host Root Exudates

Wenshan Liu/ Alexis L. Jones/ Heather N. Gosse/ Kathy S. Lawrence/ Sang-Wook Park

Abstract Plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) are microscopic soil herbivores that cause damage to many economic crops. For the last century, it has been proposed that chemotaxis is the primary means by which PPN locate host plant roots. The identities and modes of action of chemoattractants that deliver host-specific messages to PPN, however, are still elusive. In this study, a unique multidimensional agar-based motility assay was developed to assess the impacts of root exudates on the short-range m(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-063

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Oscheius saproxylicus sp. n. (Rhabditida, Rhabditidae) From Decaying Wood in Spain, With New Insights into the Phylogeny of the Genus and a Revision of its Taxonomy

Joaquín Abolafia/ Reyes Peña-Santiago

Abstract A new species of the genus Oscheius, O. saproxylicus sp. n., collected in decaying wood obtained from an orchard in Southern Iberian Peninsula, is reported. A detailed description, including morphometrics, LM and SEM images, and molecular (18S and 28S rDNA genes) information is provided. The female is characterized by a moderately long body, lateral field with three longitudinal ridges, midbody vulva, and conical tail with acute tip. It was distinguished from its closest relative, O. do(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-053

Screening of Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata Genotypes for Resistance Against Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. luci

Gökhan Aydınlı/ Ertan Sait Kurtar/ Sevilhan Mennan

Abstract The host response of fifteen winter squash (Cucurbita maxima) and five pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) dihaploid genotypes to Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. luci was screened in pot experiments. Root galling and nematode reproduction were detected in all combinations of plant genotype and nematode species. Ten genotypes of C. maxima and three genotypes of C. moschata were considered highly resistant (<10% of the susceptible genotype) or moderately resistant (<50% o(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-057

Hatching and Mortality of Meloidogyne enterolobii Under the Interference of Entomopathogenic Nematodes In vitro

Alixelhe Pacheco Damascena/ Júlio César Antunes Ferreira/ Marylia Gabriella Silva Costa/ Luis Moreira de Araujo Junior/ Silvia Renata Siciliano Wilcken

Abstract Plant parasitic nematodes have become one of the main problems in the tomato cultivation. Among these, Meloidogyne enterolobii presents great challenges to the farmer, since it is a polyphagous species and difficult to control. The entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) present as potential for biological control of this pathogen. The objective of the study was to evaluate the interference of EPNs S. brazilense, S. feltiae, S. rarum, H. amazonensis and H. bacteriophora on hatching and mortal(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-058

A Draft Genome Sequence of the Burrowing Nematode Radopholus similis

Reny Mathew/ Mark Burke/ Charles H. Opperman

Abstract Radopholus similis also known as the burrowing nematode is a devastating pest of banana (Musa spp.) and many economically important crops and ornamentals. In this publication, we present the genome assembly of R. similis.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-051

First Report of Meloidogyne ethiopica and M. javanica in Rumex spp. in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

L. A. Yánez Márquez/ M. Divers/ W. R. Silva/ J. V. de Araújo Filho/ C. B. Gomes

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-060

Genome Announcement: The Draft Genomes of Two Radopholus similis populations from Costa Rica

Catherine L. Wram/ Cedar N. Hesse/ Sulochana K. Wasala/ Dana K. Howe/ Amy B. Peetz/ Dee R. Denver/ Danny Humphreys-Pereira/ Inga A. Zasada

Abstract Radopholus similis is an economically important pest of both banana and citrus in tropical regions. Here we present draft genomes from two populations of R. similis from Costa Rica that were created and assembled using short read libraries from Illumina HiSeq technology.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-052

Data of an Iranian Population of L. proximus Sturhan & Argo, 1983, with taxonomic revision of L. israelensis Peneva, Orion, Shlevin, Bar-Eyal & Brown, 1998 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) and Proposal for a New Synonymy

Mazdosht Giti/ Leila Kashi/ Majid Pedram

Abstract The morphology and morphometric characteristics of a Longidorus population recovered from a wheat-potato field in Hamadan province, western Iran, fit well with those given for two species, L. proximus and L. israelensis. The Iranian population was characterized by 5.6 to 8.6-mm-long females having a 17 to 21-µm-wide lip region separated from the rest of the body by a shallow depression, pocket-shaped amphidial fovea with a simple base and a ventral enlargement, a guiding ring at 31 to 4(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-054

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Coslenchus paramaritus n. sp. and C. cancellatus (Cobb, 1925) Siddiqi, 1978 (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) from Iran

Manouchehr Hosseinvand/ Ali Eskandari/ Reza Ghaderi

Abstract Coslenchus paramaritus n. sp. and C. cancellatus were identified based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular characteristics. The new species, C. paramaritus n. sp., is characterized by its cuticle with 18 longitudinal ridges excluding lateral lines, wide cuticular annuli (2.6–3.0 µm), a long tail (94–128 µm), the presence of males and the absence of sexual dimorphism in head shape. Molecular phylogenetic studies of the new species using D2–D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA reve(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-059

First report of Longidorus mindanaoensis Coomans, De Ley, Jimenez and De Ley, 2012 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) From a Mangrove Forest in Vietnam

Thi Duyen Nguyen/ Huu Tien Nguyen/ Thi Mai Linh Le/ Neriza Nobleza/ Quang Phap Trinh

Abstract Longidorus mindanaoensis was recovered from a mangrove forest in Vietnam. The recovered population is in general morphological agreement with the type population, and the characters of pharyngeal bulb, i.e. the same unique pattern of pharyngeal glands nuclei as well as the lip region morphology, amphidial fovea shape and size and position of vulva corroborated its identity. Molecular studies of the recovered population using D2–D3 expansion segments of large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU r(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-064

First Report of the Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis Infecting Guardian® Peach Rootstock in South Carolina, USA

Gregory L. Reighard/ William G. Henderson/ Sarah O. Scott/ Sergei. A. Subbotin

Abstract In 2018 to 2019, soil and root samples from some declining peach orchards were collected in Edgefield County, South Carolina, USA. Excavated roots of Guardian® peach (Prunus persica) rootstock showed strong gall symptoms. Extracted root-knot nematodes (RKN) were identified by both morphological and molecular methods as M. floridensis. This is the first detection of the peach RKN in South Carolina and the third state in the USA after Florida and California.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-061

Updated description of Paratylenchus lepidus Raski 1975 and P. minor Sharma, Sharma and Khan, 1986 by integrating molecular and ultra-structural observations

Munawar Maria/ Wentao Miao/ Weimin Ye/ Jingwu Zheng

Abstract Two populations of Paratylenchus lepidus and P. minor were detected in the rhizosphere of Elaeocarpus sp. and Chinese red pine from Taizhou and Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Previously, P. lepidus has been reported from China whereas P. minor was originally described from India decades ago in the rhizosphere of peach but was never reported thereafter. In this study, both species were characterized morphologically and molecularly coupled with SEM observations. Morphologically, both(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-056

First Report of Scutellonema brachyurus (Steiner, 1938) Andrassy, 1958 and Occurrence of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 in Belgium

Huu Tien Nguyen/ Quang Phap Trinh/ Marjolein Couvreur/ Phougeishangbam Rolish Singh/ Wilfrida Decraemer/ Wim Bert

Abstract A study of plant-parasitic nematodes in the Botanical garden at Ghent University in Belgium revealed the presence of two tropical nematode species, i.e. Scutellonema brachyurus and Meloidogyne incognita. Scutellonema brachyurus was recovered, only once, for the first time in Belgium from Musa basjoo and is morphologically characterized. M. incognita, forming galls on Hedychium greenii, was recovered in all seasons over three consecutive years and is morphologically and molecularly chara(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-062

Identification of Suitable Meloidogyne spp. Housekeeping Genes

Weiming Hu/ Peter M. DiGennaro

Abstract Gene expression studies often require reliable housekeeping (HK) genes to accurately capture gene expression levels under given conditions. This is especially true for root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.), whose drastic developmental changes are strongly dependent upon their environment. Here we utilized a publicly available M. hapla RNAseq database to identify putative HK genes throughout the nematode lifecycle. We then validated these candidate HK genes on M. incognita in order(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-055

In vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes using Galleria mellonella: costs and effect of diets on nematode pathogenicity

Régina Kotchofa/ Hugues Baimey

Abstract Five separate diets – beeswax (BW), glycerol (Gly), and three types of dog croquettes (DC1, DC2, and DC3) – were used to rear larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. The larvae were later inoculated with five different isolates of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) emerging from the insect larvae reared on the five diets. Insect cadavers were then conserved for 1, 2, 3, and 4 wks (T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively) to evaluate the nematodes’ progeny production and to assess th(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-066

First record of Aphelenchoides stammeri (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) from Turkey

Mehmet Dayi/ Ece B. Kasapoğlu Uludamar/ Süleyman Akbulut/ İ. Halil Elekcioğlu

Abstract In previous surveys for the investigation of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Turkey, several Bursaphelenchus species, except B. xylophilus, were detected. To determine the insect vectors of these previously reported Bursaphelenchus species, trap trees of each pine species (Pinus brutia and P. nigra) were cut and kept in the field from April to September in 2011. Aphelenchoides stammeri was isolated from wood chip samples of P. nigra from Isparta (Sütçüler). A. stammeri was first identifie(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-070

Impact of Globodera ellingtonae on yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum)

Inga A. Zasada/ Russell E. Ingham/ Hannah Baker/ Wendy S. Phillips

Abstract Globodera ellingtonae was described from Oregon and Idaho in 2012. Due to the close phylogenetic relationship of this nematode to the potato cyst nematodes G. pallida and G. rostochiensis, and evidence that G. ellingtonae reproduces on potato (Solanum tuberosum), potential damaging effects to potato by this nematode are of great concern. To evaluate the pathogenic effects of G. ellingtonae on potato, five field and two microplot trials were conducted over a four-year period including co(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-073

Touch-stimulation increases host-seeking behavior in Steinernema Carpocapsae

Tiffany Baiocchi/ Lauren Braun/ Adler R. Dillman

Abstract Previous research demonstrated that Steinernema carpocapsae infective juveniles (IJs) exposed to a host cuticle were more attracted toward certain host-associated volatile odors. We wanted to test the specificity of attraction that results from exposure to host cuticle. Host recognition behavior was analyzed after stimulating IJs by allowing them to physically interact with Galleria mellonella cuticles. The subsequent behavioral response and the proportion of the population participatin(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-067

A draft genome for a species of Halicephalobus (Panagrolaimidae)

Erik J. Ragsdale/ Georgios Koutsovoulos/ Joseph F. Biddle

Abstract Halicephalobus is a clade of small, exclusively parthenogenic nematodes that have sometimes colonized remarkable habitats. Given their phylogenetic closeness to other parthenogenic panagrolaimid species with which they likely share a sexually reproducing ancestor, Halicephalobus species provide a point of comparison for parallelisms in the evolution of asexuality. Here, we present a draft genome of a putatively new species of Halicephalobus isolated from termites in Japan.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-068

First report of Meloidogyne javanica (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) infecting Scoparia dulcis, a medicinal plant in Brazil

Cristiano Bellé/ Rodrigo Ferraz Ramos/ Andressa Lima de Brida/ Tiago Edu Kaspary

Abstract Medicinal plants Scoparia dulcis showing symptoms caused by root-knot nematodes were detected in the municipality of Cachoeira do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Based on the morphological, esterase phenotypes, and molecular analyses of the mitochondrial DNA region between the cytochome oxidase subunit II and 16S rRNA genes (mtDNA) and species-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), the causal agent of the observed symptoms was identified as Meloidogyne javanica. (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-072

Meloidogyne aegracyperi n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitizing yellow and purple nutsedge in New Mexico

J. D. Eisenback/ L. A. Holland/ J. Schroeder/ S. H. Thomas/ J. M. Beacham/ S. F. Hanson/ V. S. Paes-Takahashi/ P. Vieira

Abstract Meloidogyne aegracyperi n. sp. is described from roots of purple nutsedge in southern New Mexico, USA. Mature females are small (310–460 µm), pearly white, with their egg masses completely contained inside root galls. The neck is often at a 90 to 130° angle to the protruding posterior end with the perineal pattern. The distance of the dorsal esophageal gland orifice (DGO) to the base of the stylet is relatively long (4.0–6.1 µm), and the excretory pore is level with the base of the styl(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-071

Active and inactive forms of biotin synthase occur in Heterodera glycines

Khee Man Kwon/ Sadia Bekal/ Leslie L. Domier/ Kris N. Lambert

Abstract Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), is a plant-parasitic nematode capable of manipulating host plant biochemistry and development. Many studies have suggested that the nematode has acquired genes from bacteria via horizontal gene transfer events (HGTs) that have the potential to enhance nematode parasitism. A recent allelic imbalance analysis identified two candidate virulence genes, which also appear to have entered the SCN genome through HGTs. One of the candidate ge(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-069

Impact of a conservation agriculture system on soil characteristics, rice yield, and root-parasitic nematodes in a Cambodian lowland rice field

Malyna Suong/ Elodie Chapuis/ Vira Leng/ Florent Tivet/ Dirk De Waele/ Huế Nguyễn Thị/ Stéphane Bellafiore

Abstract Rice production in Southeast Asia is significantly affected by root-parasitic nematodes (RPN). The Green Revolution has encouraged new agricultural practices (e.g. intensive monoculture, high yielding rice variety) to respond to the high rice demand; however, these methods have promoted the spread of these pests. The recent banning of chemical nematicides resulted in a need for alternative sustainable control strategies. In the present study, we assessed the effects of a direct-seeding (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-085

Nitrogen inputs and irrigation frequency influence population dynamics of Mesocriconema xenoplax under grapevines

Thomas Forge/ Kirsten Hannam/ Denise Neilsen/ Gerry Neilsen

Abstract Nitrogen (N) fertilization and irrigation are critical for tree fruit and grape production in semi-arid regions of Western North America. Growers are increasingly considering more conservative fertilization and irrigation practices in order to optimize fruit quality while minimizing environmental impacts. The implications for pest populations of such shifts in production practices are not well known and warrant consideration. The objective of this research was to determine the effects o(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-084

Description of Hirschmanniella dicksoni n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from rhizosphere soil of limpograss from Florida, USA

Alemayehu W. Habteweld/ Faruk Akyazi/ Soumi Joseph/ William T. Crow/ Eyualem Abebe/ Tesfamariam Mekete

Abstract Hirschmanniella dicksoni n. sp. isolated from the rhizosphere soil of limpograss is described and illustrated based on morphology and molecular characters. The new species is characterized by its body length, 1,582 to 1,929 µm, hemispherical lip region with 6 to 7 annules, stylet length 19 to 21 µm, irregularly areolated lateral fields, oval spermatheca filled with rounded sperm, intestine not overlapping the rectum, and tail length 103 to 149 µm, usually with ventral projection with su(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-083

Diversity and seasonal fluctuation of tylenchid plant-parasitic nematodes in association with alfalfa in the Kerman Province (Iran)

Ebrahim Shokoohi/ Phatu William Mashela/ Fahimeh Iranpour

Abstract The diversity and seasonal fluctuations of plant-parasitic nematodes (tylenchids) were investigated in five alfalfa fields in five counties of the Kerman Province of Iran during four consecutive seasons in 2013. Hundred soil samples were obtained per county, with 25 sub-samples per field being composited to five to represent five replicates per field per county per season. In total, 500 samples were analyzed during the study. Nematodes were extracted from soil samples using the modified(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-074

The morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of Pratylenchus vulnus Taiwan strawberry isolate

Yu-po Lin/ Wan-chun Lee/ Pei-che Chung/ Jiue-in Yang

Abstract Pratylenchus vulnus was discovered in nematode-distributing fields from symptomatic seedling roots and corresponding rhizosphere soil on strawberry farms in Taiwan. Microscopic measurements and scanning electron microscope observations of both sexes of the nematode coincided with the general morphological descriptions of the species. Four different types of female tail termini were observed, including pointed, digitate, smooth and tapering. Molecular analysis of the ribosomal RNA sequen(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-076

Reproduction and life history traits of a resistance breaking Globodera pallida population

James M. Mwangi/ Björn Niere/ Maria R. Finckh/ Stefan Krüssel/ Sebastian Kiewnick

Abstract The main and most efficient measure to control potato cyst nematode (PCN) is the use of resistant cultivars. German and Dutch National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs) recently reported the emergence of Globodera pallida populations virulent on potato cultivars carrying resistance against pathotype 2/3. The development and virulence of the virulent population Oberlangen from Germany in comparison to the reference population G. pallida Pa3 Chavornay were investigated on resistant a(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-079

Cryphodera gayae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), from root of Lagerstroemia indica in Korea

Heonil Kang/ Jongmin Seo/ Garam Han/ Donggeun Kim/ Insoo Choi

Abstract A new non-cyst forming nematode, Cryphodera gayae n. sp., was found from the root of crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) in Korea. Female C. gayae n. sp. appears pearly white when young, has protruding vulval lips, flat to concave anus-vulva profile and has three lateral lines in J2s. Morphologically, Cryphodera gayae n. sp. is most similar to C. brinkmani but differ by the tail shape of J2 (sharply pointing with constriction at the middle of hyaline without mucro tip vs. sharply pointin(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-077

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the plant-parasitic nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi in rice seedlings

Jiue-in Yang/ Guan-yi Yu

Abstract Aphelenchoides besseyi is a seed-borne plant-parasitic nematode pathogen that causes rice white-tip disease worldwide. For quarantine purposes at custom border inspection and in field surveillance, a rapid, highly specific, and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the nematode detection was developed. The assay targets the sequence variable region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of the nematode. It is capable of distinguishing th(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-080

A COI DNA barcoding survey of Pratylenchus species in the Great Plains Region of North America

Mehmet Ozbayrak/ Tim Todd/ Timothy Harris/ Rebecca Higgins/ Kirsten Powers/ Peter Mullin/ Lisa Sutton/ Thomas Powers

Abstract Pratylenchus species are among the most common plant parasitic nematodes in the Great Plains Region of North America. Our goal was to survey Pratylenchus species diversity across the Great Plains region using a mitochondrial COI DNA barcode. The objectives were to (i) determine species boundaries of the common Pratylenchus species within the region, (ii) assess the host associations of the barcoded Pratylenchus specimens, and (iii) determine Pratylenchus distribution patterns throughout(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-081

Conspecific pheromone extracts enhance entomopathogenic infectivity

David I. Shapiro-Ilan/ Fatma Kaplan/ Camila Oliveira-Hofman/ Paul Schliekelman/ Hans T. Alborn/ Edwin E. Lewis

Abstract Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) provide economic control of various insect pests. However, field efficacy can be inconsistent. The ability of a nematode to find and infect (invade) a host insect is critical to successful pathogenesis. Thus, behaviors including dispersal and infectivity play important roles in improving efficacy. Previously, we discovered that EPN-infected host substances enhance nematode dispersal. Later we found that a mixture of pheromones in the infected host induc(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-082

Nematicidal activity of fipronil against Pratylenchus zeae in sugarcane

Masanori Kawanobe/ Koki Toyota/ Takashi Seko/ Koshi Gunjima

Abstract No nematicide has been registered for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes in sugarcane in Japan. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the phenylpyrazole insecticide fipronil (0.3–0.45 kg a.i./ha) against the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus zeae, which is an important plant-parasitic nematode species associated with sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) in Okinawa, Japan. Both experiments showed a reduction of P. zeae population densities in sugar(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-075

On the synonymy of Trophotylenchulus asoensis and T. okamotoi with T. arenarius, and intra-generic structure of Paratylenchus (Nematoda: Tylenchulidae)

Hossein Mirbabaei/ Ali Eskandari/ Reza Ghaderi/ Akbar Karegar

Abstract Two populations of the genus Trophotylenchulus and 10 species of the genus Paratylenchus from Iran were characterized based on morphometric, morphological and molecular characters. Our observations on the two populations of Trophotylenchulus from Iran revealed that T. asoensis and T. okamotoi have been distinguished from T. arenarius, on the basis of the features which cannot be longer considered as stable diagnostic characters. One of the populations shows a mixed combination of the ch(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2019-078

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