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Journal of Nematology

Society of Nematologists

Subject: Life Sciences


ISSN: 0022-300X
eISSN: 2640-396X



Enhanced entomopathogenic nematode yield and fitness via addition of pulverized insect powder to solid media
Nematotoxic coumarins from Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan roots and their physiological effects on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
Broad-based root-knot nematode resistance identified in cowpea gene-pool two
Description of Pseudacrobeles (Pseudacrobeles) curvatus sp. n. (Cephalobidae: Rhabditida) in South Korea

VOLUME 52 (2020) - List of articles

Control of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larvae in laboratory using entomopathogenic nematodes from subtropical environment

Bonginkhosi E. Dlamini/ Nelisiwe Dlamini/ Michael T. Masarirambi/ Nxumalo Kwanele A.

Abstract Tomato (Solanum esculentum) is one of the vegetable crops grown by both smallholder and commercial farmers in the Kingdom of Eswatini. Tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta M. is a major insect pest of tomatoes resulting in reduced tomato yields throughout the country. The study investigated the virulence of two sub-tropical EPN species on T. absoluta larvae. Steinernema yirgalemense and S. jeffreyense at different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60 IJs/insect) were screened for efficacy (i.e. mo(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-013

First report of Meloidogyne enterolobii infecting Japanese blue berry tree (Elaeocarpus decipiens) in Florida, USA

M. R. Moore/ J. A. Brito/ S. Qiu/ C. G. Roberts/ L. A. Combee

Abstract In October 2019, samples of galled roots with rhizosphere soil were collected from declining Elaeocarpus decipiens in Hernando County, Florida. Extracted root-knot nematodes were identified by both molecular and morphological methods as Meloidogyne enterolobii. This is a first report of this regulated root-knot nematode on Elaeocarpus decipiens in Florida.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-005

The effects of Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera glycines on the yield and quality of edamame (Glycine max l.) in Arkansas

J. E. Wilkes/ T. L. Kirkpatrick

Abstract In 2012, the first domestic commercial edamame processing plant was established in Arkansas and edamame production was contracted out to local growers. Although the state is a major soybean producer, studies of nematode effects on edamame are limited. A survey of nematode genera and density in 64 contracted edamame production fields was conducted in 2013 and 2014. In both years, Meloidogyne and Heterodera were present in less than half of the surveyed fields while Pratylenchus was the m(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-012

Fungal communities associated with Heterodera glycines and their potential in biological control: a current update

Deepak Haarith/ Kathryn E. Bushley/ Senyu Chen

Abstract The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most important pest on soybean, a major crop worldwide. The SCN is considered both parasitic and pathogenic as it derives nutrition from the host and manipulates host physiology to do so. Currently, there are no commercially available chemicals that are specific, environmentally safe and cost effective to control SCN levels. Crop rotation, use of host resistance and other cultural practices remain the main management strategies. The need for biopro(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-022

Genome sequence of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne luci

Nik Susič/ Georgios D. Koutsovoulos/ Cristian Riccio/ Etienne G. J. Danchin/ Mark L. Blaxter/ David H. Lunt/ Polona Strajnar/ Saša Širca/ Gregor Urek/ Barbara Gerič Stare

Abstract Root-knot nematodes from the genus Meloidogyne are polyphagous plant endoparasites and agricultural pests of global importance. Here, we report the high-quality genome sequence of Meloidogyne luci population SI-Smartno V13. The resulting genome assembly of M. luci SI-Smartno V13 consists of 327 contigs, with an N50 contig length of 1,711,905 bp and a total assembly length of 209.16 Mb.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-025

A draft genome of a field-collected Steinernema feltiae strain NW

Zhen Fu/ Yuxiang Li/ Axel A. Elling/ William E. Snyder

Abstract Advances in sequencing technologies have accelerated our understanding of the complex genetic network of organisms and genomic divergences that are linked to evolutionary processes. While many model organisms and laboratory strains have been sequenced, wild populations are underrepresented in the growing list of sequenced genomes. Here, we present a de novo assembly of Steinernema feltiae, strain NW, collected from a working agricultural field in south central Washington, USA. Leveragin(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-003

Molecular approach to confirm traditional identification of Radopholus similis sampled in Tanzania

Doreen M. Mgonja/ Gladness E. Temu/ Joseph C. Ndunguru/ Magreth F. Mziray/ Sylvester L. Lyantagaye/ Nessie D. Luambano

Abstract Banana (Musa spp. L.) is an important staple food and cash crop for about 30% of the population in Tanzania; however, the burrowing plant-parasitic nematode Radopholus similis causes black head disease and toppling in banana plants, which results in yield losses. We collected and identified 80 specimens of R. similis from four agro-ecological zones in Tanzania using morphological characters. We then used universal and specific R. similis primers to amplify the small subunit, internal tr(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-020

Silver nanoparticles as a potential nematicide against Meloidogyne graminicola

Richa Baronia/ Puneet Kumar/ S. P. Singh/ R. K. Walia

Abstract Plant-parasitic nematodes cause severe damage to the various agricultural crops, leading to economic losses for farmers. Therefore, identification and development of novel and environmentally benign nematicides is critically important. In this study, a silver nanoparticle (AgNP) formulation was synthesized, characterized, and investigated as a potential nematicide against rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne gramnicola, on rice (Oryza sativa). A series of lab assays (water and sand scre(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-002

Description of Laimaphelenchus sinensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) from declining Chinese pine, Pinus tabuliformis in Beijing, China

Jianfeng Gu/ Munawar Maria/ Yiwu Fang/ Lele Liu/ Yong Bian/ Xianfeng Chen

Abstract Laimaphelenchus sinensis n. sp. isolated from declining Chinese pine, Pinus tabuliformis Carrière, is described and characterized morphologically and molecularly. The new species has four incisures in the lateral field and the excretory pore situated posterior to the nerve ring; the female has a vulval flap and vaginal sclerotization is quite prominent in majority of specimens. The female tail is conoid, ventrally curved having a single stalk-like terminus with 8 to 10 projections. The (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-019

Molecular and morphological characterization of the alfalfa cyst nematode, Heterodera medicaginis, from Utah

Zafar A. Handoo/ Andrea M. Skantar/ Saad L. Hafez/ Mihail R. Kantor/ Maria N. Hult/ Stephen A. Rogers

Abstract In the spring of 2019, a cyst nematode was discovered from soil samples collected from an alfalfa field in Millard County, Utah. The soil samples were submitted to one of us (SH), who extracted the nematode cysts and sent them to the USDA-ARS, Mycology and Nematology Genetic Diversity and Biology Laboratory (MNGDBL), Beltsville, MD for morphological and molecular identification. Cysts and living nematode juveniles (J2) recovered from the cysts were examined morphologically and molecular(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-015

Improvement of long segment ribosomal PCR amplification for molecular identification of Litylenchus crenatae mccannii associated with beech leaf disease

L.K. Carta/ S. Li

Abstract Generating DNA markers for microscopic plant parasitic nematodes can be especially difficult if only a few valuable, tiny specimens are available. Providing a reliable maximum amount of unambiguous genetic information from single nematodes is especially important when identifying damaging, regulated nematodes of importance to trade where a few nucleotide differences in diagnostic markers are significant. There are many possible reasons for difficulty amplifying unpurified nematode DNA f(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-016

Essential oils for managing Pratylenchus penetrans on Easter lilies

B. B. Westerdahl/ D. Giraud/ L. J. Riddle/ C. A. Anderson

Abstract Easter lily bulbs for greenhouse forcing are produced in Del Norte County, California and Curry County, Oregon, USA. Pratylenchus penetrans infestation seriously affects growth of field grown bulbs. During two consecutive years of field trials containing 22 treatments, commercially prepared formulations of essential oils (EOs) were compared to an untreated control and to a standard chemical fumigant treatment (FU) (1,3-dichloropropene and metam sodium) applied preplant followed by phora(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-010

Characterization of root-knot nematodes infecting mulberry in Southern China

Pan Zhang/ Hudie Shao/ Chunping You/ Yan Feng/ Zhenwen Xie

Abstract China is one of the largest producers of mulberry in the world. With the development of the sericulture industry, several pests and diseases have occurred in rapid succession, chief among which is the root-knot nematode disease affecting mulberry. According to the China cocoon and silk exchange, cocoon prices have doubled since the beginning of 2009 and rose to 92,700 yuan ($135,770) per tonne in mid-April 2010. According to customs statistics, in the first eight months of 2011, China’s(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-004

First report of a stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus zeae on corn in Gansu Province, China

Zhi Peng Xu/ Hui Xia Li/ Yong Gang Liu/ Bao Cang Ren/ Chun Hui Ni/ Jin Hui Ma

Abstract During a survey of plant parasitic nematodes in 2019, at Gansu Province, China, the stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus zeae was found parasitizing corn seedlings. Females, males and juveniles of T. zeae were observed on soil and roots samples of corn after processing and extraction. This population of stunt nematodes was identified based on morphological and by sequencing the ITS1 region of rDNA and D2/D3 fragments of the 28 S rRNA. The ITS1 and the D2/D3 sequences of this population, shar(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-009

First report of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, on lavender in Turkey

Tevfik Özalp/ Gonca Könül/ Önder Ayyıldız/ Adnan Tülek/ Zübeyir Devran

Abstract Lavender is a medicinal and aromatic plant that is widely grown in Turkey. Gall symptoms were observed on roots of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) collected from Kırklareli and Edirne provinces. Egg masses were collected from galled roots. DNA isolated from all samples was screened by species-specific primers belonging to the most common species of root-knot nematodes and M. arenaria was the only species that was identified in all of the samples analyzed. This is the first repor(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-008

Description of Seinura italiensis n. sp. (Tylenchomorpha: Aphelenchoididae) found in the medium soil imported from Italy

Jianfeng Gu/ Munawar Maria/ Lele Liu/ Majid Pedram

Abstract Seinura italiensis n. sp. isolated from the medium soil imported from Italy is described and illustrated using morphological and molecular data. The new species is characterized by having short body (477 (407-565) µm and 522 (469-590) µm for males and females, respectively), three lateral lines, stylet lacking swellings at the base, and excretory pore at the base or slightly anterior to base of metacorpus; females have 58.8 (51.1-69.3) µm long post-uterine sac (PUS), elongate conical ta(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-018

Soil texture, infective juvenile concentration, and soil organic matter influence the efficacy of Steinernema feltiae isolate Lican Ray

Gabriela Lankin/ Giselle Vidal-Retes/ Geraldine Allende/ Carlos Castaneda-Alvarez/ Ernesto San-Blas/ Erwin Aballay

Abstract The influence of infective juveniles (IJs) concentration, soil texture, IJ-host distance and organic matter (OM) content, at different decomposition degree, on the activity of the nematode Steinernema feltiae isolate Lican Ray (LR) was examined using Galleria mellonella larvae. Bioassays were conducted in tubes of varied length, filled with soil of different textures, placed either vertically or horizontally. In the concentration assay, highest IJ concentrations caused maximum larval mo(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-007

A new rare nematode Nothocriconemoides hangzhouensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from Hangzhou, China

Munawar Maria/ Wentao Miao/ Ruihang Cai/ Pablo Castillo/ Jingwu Zheng

Abstract The Family Criconematidae is commonly referred as ring nematodes that include some members with economic importance as plant parasites. During a recent nematode inventory survey at Zhejiang Province, China, a new species of genus Nothocriconemoides was detected in the rhizosphere of elm tree. Nothocriconemoides hangzhouensis n. sp. can be characterized by the female body having annuli with fine longitudinal striations and 2 to 3 anastomoses at the posterior half of the body. The first c(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-006

Transcriptomic analysis of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus treated by a potential phytonematicide, punicalagin

Qun-Qun Guo/ Gui-Cai Du/ Ting-Ting Zhang/ Mei-Juan Wang/ Chao Wang/ Hong-Tao Qi/ Rong-Gui Li

Abstract Punicalagin showed significant nematotoxic activity against pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in the authors’ previous research. The authors performed high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing of punicalagin-treated nematodes to generate clues for its nematotoxic mechanism of action. The authors identified 2,575 differentially expressed genes, 1,428 of which were up-regulated and 1,147 down-regulated. Based on a comprehensive functional in silico analysis, the author(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-001

Natural occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) in Viti Levu, Fiji Islands

Sumeet Kour/ Uma Khurma/ Gilianne Brodie/ Selcuk Hazir

Abstract In Fiji, little or no attention has been given to entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biocontrol programs due to the lack of awareness about their occurrence and distribution in Fiji. A survey of EPNs was conducted for the first time in Fiji Islands in 2012 and 2013, throughout the eight provinces in Viti Levu to determine the occurrence and distribution across different habitat in Viti Levu. The soil samples from various habitats were collected and assayed for the presence of EPN usin(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-017

Effect of an Alltech soil health product on entomopathogenic nematodes, root-knot nematodes and on the growth of tomato plants in the greenhouse

Anusha Pulavarty/ Karina Horgan/ Thomais Kakouli-Duarte

Abstract An organic product that consists of proprietary blend of fermentation and plant extracts with micronutrients (ACS 5075, Alltech®, Inc., Nicholasville, KY USA) was evaluated against four strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN): Steinernema feltiae (SB12(1), a wild enviroCORE strain and a commercial form e-NEMA), Steinernema carpocapsae (e-NEMA), and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The effects on egg hatching and survival of root-knot nematodes (RKN) were also examined. The sensitivity(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-014

Elimination of Tobacco rattle virus from viruliferous Paratrichodorus allius in greenhouse pot experiments through cultivation of castle russet

Richard A. Quick/ Launa Cimrhakl/ Hassan Mojtahedi/ Vidyasagar Sathuvalli/ Maximilian J. Feldman/ Charles R. Brown

Abstract Corky ringspot (CRS) is a widespread potato tuber necrotic disease caused by Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) infection. In the Pacific Northwest, this virus is transmitted by the stubby root nematode (SRN) within the genus Paratrichodorus. Remediating CRS affected fields is a major challenge that can be mitigated by growing plant varieties that are resistant to TRV infection. Growing alfalfa has been shown to reduce TRV levels in CRS infested fields over time but the development of a potato (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-011

Characterization of Vittatidera zeaphila (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Indiana with molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus

Andrea M. Skantar/ Zafar A. Handoo/ Mihail R. Kantor/ Lynn K. Carta/ Jamal Faghihi/ Virginia Ferris

Abstract In the summer of 2016, a field of corn (Zea mays) in Spencer County, Indiana was observed with heavily stunted plants, and from the affected roots a large number of cysts were recovered. Soil samples were submitted to one of us (JF), who extracted the nematode cysts and sent them to the USDA-ARS, Mycology and Nematology Genetic Diversity and Biology Laboratory (MNGDBL), Beltsville, MD for morphological and molecular identification. Cysts and the recovered second-stage juveniles (J2) tha(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-024

First report of the sting nematode Belonolaimus longicaudatus infecting bermudagrass in Barbados

P. Mc Groary/ W. Ye/ E. Nangle

Abstract In 2016, “Tifdwarf” hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) grown on a golf green built to the United States Golf Association recommendations in Barbados started to show irregular significant chlorotic patches followed by gradual thinning and decline of turfgrass. A survey was conducted in May 2016 to determine the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes. The results revealed the presence of the plant-parasitic sting nematode Belonolaimus longicauda(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-021

First report of Bursaphelenchus fungivorus (Nematoda: Aphelenchida) in Italy and an overview of nematodes associated with Crocus sativus L.

Giulia Torrini/ Agostino Strangi/ Stefania Simoncini/ Maria Luppino/ Pio Federico Roversi/ Leonardo Marianelli

Abstract Saffron is one of the most precious spices in the world. It is derived from the dried stigmas of the Crocus sativus L. flowers. This plant is triploid sterile and propagated by corms. As a subterranean organ, the corm can come into contact with different nematodes. In this contribution Bursaphelenchus fungivorus was reported for the first time in Italy. It was found associated with C. sativus corms and characterized based on morphological and morphometrical characteristics for this spec(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-023

Examine medicinal plants from South Africa for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita under glasshouse conditions

Mbokota Candy Khosa/ Zakheleni Dube/ Dirk De Waele/ Mieke Stefanie Daneel

Abstract The nematicidal activity of crudely milled powders of stems, leaves, and bulbs of Cassia abbreviata, Cissus cactiformis, Euphorbia ingens, Ipomoea kituiensis, Synadenium cupulare, Senna petersiana, Urigenia sanguinea, Maerua angolensis, and Tabernaemontana elegans on eggs and J2 population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 on tomato was examined under glasshouse conditions. These plant species have medicinal properties and are being used in South Africa by traditional healers as(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-029

First report of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne morocciensis infecting peach in Southern Brazil

W. R. Silva/ C. P. Machaca-Calsin/ C. B. Gomes

Abstract The peach tree (Prunus persica) is the third most cultivated temperate fruit species in Brazil. In August 2017, peach seedling plants showing symptoms of stunting and multiple galls in the roots were detected in the municipality of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples of peach roots were collected and they were subsequently processed to obtain eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2), to determine the number of nematodes per gram of roots and to proceed with morphological st(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-032

Root-knot nematodes demonstrate temporal variation in host penetration

Shova Mishra/ Peter DiGennaro

Abstract Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) are obligate plant parasites that require constant communication with their host to establish and maintain specialized feeding cells. The intimacy of this interaction likely requires constant monitoring of host biology and behavior. As plant processes follow tightly regulated circadian and diurnal patterns, RKN may use similar cues to regulate aspects of this symbiosis. We interrogated RKN biology within the context of host diurnal rhythms thr(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-037

First molecular characterization of an Iranian population of Schistonchus caprifici (Gasparrini, 1864) Cobb, 1927 (Rhabditida; Aphelenchoidea)

Hadi Karimipour Fard/ Hamid Zare

Abstract A population of Schistonchus caprifici was recovered in Iran during the present study. The molecular characters of this population were studied using partial sequences of large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA D2-D3) for the first time, and its phylogenetic relationships with other isolates of the species were discussed. Compared to previous available data, no remarkable genetic distance was observed between the presently studied isolate and other isolates.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-039

Nematicide efficacy at managing Meloidogyne arenaria and non-target effects on free-living nematodes in peanut production

Zane J. Grabau/ Mark D. Mauldin/ Alemayehu Habteweld/ Ethan T. Carter

Abstract Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode (PRKN)) is a major pest of peanut. Nematicide application is an important tool for the management of PRKN. Nematicides with minimal effects on free-living nematodes are desired. Fluopyram nematicide is recently introduced in peanut production and needs to be assessed. The objective of this research is to evaluate fluopyram and the established nematicides 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) and aldicarb for efficacy at managing PRKN and impacts on (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-028

Nematicide influence on cotton yield and plant-parasitic nematodes in conventional and sod-based crop rotation

Lesley A. Schumacher/ Zane J. Grabau/ David L. Wright/ Ian M. Small/ Hui-Ling Liao

Abstract Plant-parasitic nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform, RN), Helicotylenchus dihystera (spiral), and Mesocriconema ornatum (ring)) and yield were investigated in cotton phases of conventional (peanut–cotton–cotton) and sod-based (bahiagrass–bahiagrass–peanut–cotton) rotations with or without irrigation and fluopyram nematicide at a long-term research site, established in 2000, in Quincy, Florida, USA. Objectives were to determine impacts of nematicide application on cotton yield (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-034

De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) third-stage and fourth stage larvae

U-Hwa Nam/ Jong-Oh Kim/ Jeong-Ho Kim

Abstract Anisakis pegreffii is known as one of the causes of a fish-borne zoonosis, anisakidosis. Despite its significant public health and food hygiene impacts, little is known of the pathogenesis, genetic background of this parasite, at least partly due to the lack of genome and transcriptome information. In this study, RNA-seq and de novo assembly were conducted to obtain transcriptome profiles of the A. pegreffii third and fourth larvae. The third stage larvae (APL3) were collected from chub(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-041

A new stunt nematode, Geocenamus chengi n. sp. (Nematoda: Merliniinae) in the rhizosphere of tea (Camellia sinensis) from Zhejiang Province, China

Munawar Maria/ Wentao Miao/ Pablo Castillo/ Jingwu Zheng

Abstract The tea plant is native to China; the country has the greatest tea production areas in the world. In an attempt to investigate the nematode biodiversity associated with the tea plantations of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, a population of stunt nematode was detected. This group of nematodes is comprised of migratory ecto-parasites of roots and can subsist on a variety of host plants. Therefore, the detected population was studied carefully using the integrative taxonomy approach and ident(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-042

Spatial distribution and risk area assessment of Aphelenchoides besseyi using geostatistical approaches in Giridih district of Jharkhand, India

Sandip Mondal/ Matiyar Rahaman Khan/ Abhishek Mukherjee

Abstract Distributed widely across the rice growing regions of India, the rice leaf and bud nematode (Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie 1942) can cause substantial yield loss in rice. Whitening of leaf tips is the characteristics damage symptom of this nematode and therefore it is popularly referred to as the rice white tip nematode (RWTN). While information on the damage severity of RWTN is available from others parts of the country, to date, no information is available from the state of Jharkhan(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-033

Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with the root zone of hop cultivars planted in a Florida field soil

Tristan T. Watson/ Marco Suarez/ Zhanao Deng/ Johan A. Desaeger

Abstract In early 2016, hop plants were introduced into Florida. By late 2016, the hop plants were showing stunted growth and were heavily parasitized by Meloidogyne javanica. In this study, we determined host susceptibility of 14 hop cultivars to M. javanica in a greenhouse experiment and monitored population development of plant-parasitic nematode species in the root zone of 17 hop cultivars planted in three newly established hop yards in Florida. Plant-parasitic nematodes in the rooting zone (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-040

Genetic intraspecific diversity of Meloidogyne javanica parasitizing vegetables in southern Iran

Reza Ghaderi/ Ali Asghar Dehghan/ Abbas Mokaram Hesar/ Akbar Karegar

Abstract In order to investigate different species of root-knot nematodes associated with vegetable production in southern regions of Iran, 37 populations of the most predominant species, Meloidogyne javanica, were recovered. Morphological and morphometric studies were carried on the characters of females, males, J2s and perineal patterns. Species-specific Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) primers confirmed morphological studies, and all these populations produced specific band in 6(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-035

First report of molecular characterization and phylogeny of Trichuris fossor Hall, 1916 (Nematoda: Trichuridae)

Malorri R. Hughes/ Deborah A. Duffield/ Dana K. Howe/ Dee R. Denver

Abstract Because species of Trichuris are morphologically similar and ranges of host preference are variable, using molecular data to evaluate species delineations is essential for properly quantifying biodiversity of and relationships within Trichuridae. Trichuris fossor has been reported from Thomomys spp. (Rodentia: Geomyidae, ‘pocket gophers’) hosts based on morphological features alone. Partial 18S rRNA sequences for specimens identified as T. fossor based on morphology, along with sequence(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-036

Differences in parasitism of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on oilseed radish and oat

Negin Hamidi/ Abolfazl Hajihassani

Abstract Oilseed radish and oat are cool season annual crops that are potentially used as “trap” or “biofumigant” crops for the suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes in soil. Cultivars of oilseed radish (Carwoodi, Cardinal, Final, Image, Concorde, Control, Eco-Till, Karakter and Cannavaro), white (Tachiibuki) and black (Pratex) oats were evaluated for their ability to reduce reproduction of three root-knot nematode species: Meloidogyne javanica, M. incognita race 3, and M. arenaria race 1. Ne(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-043

Cephalenchus driekieae n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) from South Africa, a new member of the genus with a long pharyngeal overlap

Milad Rashidifard/ Gerhard Du Preez/ Joaquín Abolafia/ Majid Pedram

Abstract Cephalenchus driekieae n. sp. is described and illustrated based on its morphological, morphometric, and molecular characteristics. This new species is mainly characterized by its short stylet 11.5 to 13.0 µm, and 13.5 to 17.5 µm long pharyngeal overlap extending over the intestine. It could further be delimited by 451 to 526 µm long females with a prominently annulated cuticle, dorso-ventral amphidial openings as shown using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), four lines in the lateral(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-031

First report of southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, infecting pomegranate, Punica granatum, in Peru

Ricardo Andreé Vega-Callo/ María Yaquelin Mendoza-Lima/ Nataly Ruth Mamani-Mendoza/ Leslie Sharon Lozada-Villanueva/ Juan José Tamo-Zegarra/ Teodocia Gloria Casa-Ruiz/ Cristiano Bellé

Abstract Punica granatum plants showing symptoms caused by root-knot nematodes were detected in the municipality of Majes, Arequipa, Peru. Based on the morphological, esterase phenotypes, and molecular analyses of the mitochondrial DNA region between the cytochome oxidase subunit II and 16 S rRNA genes (mtDNA) and species-specific sequence characterized amplified region, the causal agent of the observed symptoms was identified as Meloidogyne incognita. Pathogenicity was confirmed by fulfilling a(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-026

Mitochondrial COI gene is valid to delimitate Tylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchomorpha) species

Mengxin Bai/ Xue Qing/ Kaikai Qiao/ Xulan Ning/ Shun Xiao/ Xi Cheng/ Guokun Liu

Abstract Tylenchidae is a widely distributed soil-inhabiting nematode family. Regardless their abundance, molecular phylogeny based on rRNA genes is problematic, and the delimitation of taxa in this group remains poorly documented and highly uncertain. Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene is an important barcoding gene that has been widely used species identifications and phylogenetic analyses. However, currently COI data are only available for one species in Tylenchidae. In present stu(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-038

Morphological and molecular characterization of Acrobeloides saeedi Siddiqi, De Ley and Khan, 1992 (Rhabditida, Cephalobidae) from India and comments on its status

Aasha Rana/ Aashaq Hussain Bhat/ Suman Bhargava/ Ashok Kumar Chaubey/ Joaquín Abolafia

Abstract Two cultured populations of Acrobeloides saeedi are described from India. Morphologically and morphometrically this material agrees with other species of the Maximus-group (A. bodenheimeri, A. longiuterus, and A. maximus), especially with A. longiuterus. However, molecular studies based on 18 S, 28 S and ITS rDNA confirmed the Indian material is well differentiated from all of these species. According to this, A. saeedi is considered a valid taxon distinguished mainly from A. bodenheime(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-027

Morphological and molecular characterization of Pungentus sufiyanensis n. sp. and additional data on P. engadinensis (Altherr, 1950) Altherr, 1952 (Dorylaimida: Nordiidae) from northwest of Iran

Nasir Vazifeh/ Gholamreza Niknam/ Habibeh Jabbari/ Reyes Peña-Santiago

Abstract Two species of the genus Pungentus, one new and one known, collected in natural vegetation and cultivated soils in northwest of Iran, are studied. Pungentus sufiyanensis n. sp. is characterized by its 1.22 to 1.57 mm long body, offset lip region by a constriction and 7 to 9 μm broad, 18 to 21 μm long odontostyle, 304 to 348 μm long neck, 133 to 161 μm long esophageal expansion, mono-opisthodelphic female genital system without anterior uterine sac, slightly backward directed vagina, abs(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-030


Manzoor H. Soomro

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-044

Panagrolaimus superbus tolerates hypoxia within Gallium metal cage: implications for the understanding of the phenomenon of anhydrobiosis

Danyel Fernandes Contiliani/ Yasmin de Araújo Ribeiro/ Vitor Nolasco de Moraes/ Tiago Campos Pereira

Abstract Panagrolaimus superbus nematodes are able to tolerate desiccation by entering into a peculiar state of suspended animation known as anhydrobiosis. When desiccated, anhydrobiotic organisms are also able to tolerate other physical stresses, as high and low levels of temperature and pressure. Here, we decided to investigate the tolerance of desiccated P. superbus to an unprecedented double stress – hypoxia within 99.99% Gallium (Ga) metal cage. The authors observed that regardless of the e(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-046

First report of Ovomermis sinensis (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China

Bingjiao Sun/ Fen Li/ Xiaorui He/ Fengqin Cao/ Elizabeth Bandason/ David Shapiro-Ilan/ Weibin Ruan/ Shaoying Wu

Abstract Spodoptera frugiperda invaded China in the end of 2018 and has caused severe damage to maize and other crops. Several S. frugiperda naturally parasitized by nematodes were observed in Hainan Province, China. The morphological characteristics based on the results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that the nematode belongs to the family Mermithidae. Additionally, coding sequences for the 18 S and 28 S rDNA were amplified from the nematode genome, and phylogenetic analysis revealed(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-050

Prevalence of the root lesion nematode virus (RLNV1) in populations of Pratylenchus penetrans from North America

Paulo Vieira/ Amy Peetz/ Benjamin Mimee/ Kanan Saikai/ Dimitre Mollov/ Ann MacGuidwin/ Inga Zasada/ Lev G. Nemchinov

Abstract Root lesion nematode virus 1 (RLNV1) was discovered in the migratory endoparasitic nematode species Pratylenchus penetrans. It was found in a P. penetrans population collected from soil samples in Beltsville, Maryland, USA. In this study, the distribution of the RLNV1 in 31 geographically distinct P. penetrans populations obtained from different crops was examined. The results demonstrate that RLNV1 is widespread in North American populations of P. penetrans and exhibits low genetic var(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-045

Amphimermis enzoni n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing damselflies and dragonflies in Argentina

José Matias Rusconi/ Cristian Di Battista/ Darío Balcazar/ Matías Rosales/ María Fernanda Achinelly

Abstract A mermithid nematode was found parasitizing nymphs of dragonflies and damselflies. The host specimens were collected from the stream Cajaravilla, Magdalena, Buenos Aires state, Argentina. In this work, we described Amphimermis enzoni n. sp., a nematode new to science. Nematodes were identified through morphological and molecular methods. The combination of the following characters separates A. enzoni n. sp. from other members of the genus Amphimermis Steiner: long and S-shaped vagina, t(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-051

First report of Rotylenchulus reniformis infecting turmeric in Vietnam and consequent damage

Huu Tien Nguyen/ Quang Phap Trinh/ Thi Duyen Nguyen/ Wim Bert

Abstract Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is one of the common medicinal crops of high economical value in Vietnam. A survey in the Central Highlands of Vietnam revealed a turmeric growing area showing serious disease symptoms, including stunting of the plant, yellowing or darkening of the leaf margins and tips, and underdeveloped dry and rotten rhizomes. An inspection for plant pathogens in soil samples from this area revealed a high density and frequency of Rotylenchus reniformis, with a significan(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-053

First report of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) infecting Chinese Elm (Ulmus parvifolia) in Florida, USA

M. R. Moore/ J. A. Brito/ S. Qiu/ C. G. Roberts/ L. A. Combee

Abstract Samples of galled roots, resembling those induced by root-knot nematodes, and rhizosphere soil were collected from potted plants of Ulmus parvifolia cvs. Allee and Drake in Lake County, Florida. Nematode species were identified using both molecular analysis and morphology of perineal patterns. Meloidogyne enterolobii and M. javanica were identified from U. parvifolia cv. Allee. Meloidogyne arenaria and M. javanica were identified from U. parvifolia cv. Drake. This is a first report of t(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-049

Detoxification-related gene expression accompanies anhydrobiosis in the foliar nematode (Aphelenchoides fragariae)

Zhen Fu/ Paula Agudelo/ Christina E. Wells

Abstract The foliar nematode (Aphelenchoides fragariae) is a quarantined pest that infects a broad range of herbaceous and woody plants. Previous work has demonstrated its remarkable ability to survive rapid and extreme desiccation, although the specific molecular mechanisms underlying its anhydrobiotic response have not been characterized. The authors used RNA sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly to compare patterns of gene expression between hydrated and 24-hr desiccated nematodes. In(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-047

Morphological and molecular characterization of Ektaphelenchoides pini (Massey, 1966) Baujard, 1984 (Aphelenchoididae; Ektaphelenchinae) from Iran, with morphological and taxonomic observations on some species

Fariba Heydari/ Majid Pedram

Abstract Ektaphelenchoides pini, the type species of the genus Ektaphelenchoides, was recovered from wood and bark samples of a dead broadleaf forest tree collected from the forests of Golestan province in north of Iran. The recovered population is mainly characterized by massive wide spicules of males with well-developed condylus marked by indentations at the apex and simple distal tip. It was further characterized by 756 to 947 μm long females having a cephalic region slightly separated from t(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-052

Description and molecular phylogeny of Mesocriconema abolafiai n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from Iran

Hossein Mirbabaei Karani/ Ali Eskandari/ Reza Ghaderi/ Akbar Karegar

Abstract Mesocriconema abolafiai n. sp. is described by morphological, morphometric, and molecular approaches. The new species is characterized by a body slightly curved with 402 to 612 μm length, 90 to 113 cuticular body annuli with smooth to irregular margins lacking of crenation with not more than one anastomoses, lip region not offset, small flattened submedian lobes, stylet robust (52.8-60.0 µm) with well-developed knobs, open vulva with simple anterior lip, straight vagina, filled spermath(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-048

Ultrastructure of Hirschmanniella diversa early-stage infection in browning rhizomes of Indian lotus

Shigeru Uematsu/ Tetsuo Yabu/ Mitsuyoshi Yao/ Takayuki Kurihara/ Hironori Koga

Abstract Browning rhizome (also known as “browning tuber disease”) in Indian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) caused by the nematode Hirschmanniella diversa is an emerging agronomic problem. In this study, the authors documented the early infection processes of H. diversa in the apices of young rhizomes of Indian lotus by electron microscopy analysis using an artificial inoculation method. Nematodes were attracted to young rhizome apices, invading them via narrow indentations by 4.5 hr after inoculation(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-055

An innovative strategy for control of fungus gnats using entomopathogenic nematodes alone or in combination with waterlogging

Chaoying Chen/ Haikun Ma/ Mingyang Ma/ Jingjing Li/ Shuyuan Zheng/ Qifeng Song/ Xinghui Gu/ David Shapiro-Ilan/ Weibin Ruan

Abstract Chive gnat (Bradysia odoriphaga) is a soil-borne pest of Chinese chives, which causes millions of dollars in yield losses per year. Traditional methods, such as chemical pesticides leave detrimental chemical residues on plants, which potentially threaten human health. To find a sustainable method of reducing the chive gnat, the authors evaluated the effects of waterlogging and the addition of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) on reducing chive gnat in Chinese chives via three pot experime(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-057

Influences of nitrogen inputs on nematode populations under highbush blueberry

Thomas Forge/ David Ehret/ Aime Messiga/ Martine Dorais

Abstract This study examined the effects of nitrogen fertilization on populations of Rotylenchus robustus, Pratylenchus crenatus, and Paratrichodorus renifer, and indices of free-living nematode community structure, in relation to highbush blueberry production in British Columbia, Canada. The field experiment was established in fall of 2008 with six replicate plots of each of four experimental N fertilization treatments: 0, 100, 150, and 200% of the annual application rate recommended for conven(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-056

First record of native entomopathogenic nematodes from Montana agroecosystems

Ramandeep K. Sandhi/ Ratnasri Pothula/ Satyendra K. Pothula/ Byron J. Adams/ Gadi V.P. Reddy

Abstract A total of 30 different agricultural fields in the Golden Triangle Region of Montana, USA were surveyed, and 150 soil samples were evaluated for the presence of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The authors isolated EPNs from 10% of the collected samples. The recovered isolates were identified as Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora by using morphological and molecular analysis. Steinernema feltiae was found from two fields, Kalispell (S. feltiae 1) and Choteau (S. fel(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-060

Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sugarcane in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

Phougeishangbam Rolish Singh/ Beatrice E. Kashando/ Marjolein Couvreur/ Gerrit Karssen/ Wim Bert

Abstract Morphological and molecular analyses of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) from 12 sugarcane plantation sites of Tanganyika Planting Company (TPC) Limited in Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania revealed the presence of six PPN genera, i.e. Helicotylenchus, Hemicycliophora, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Scutellonema, and Tylenchorhynchus. The genera with the highest densities and present in virtually all samples were Pratylenchus and Rotylenchulus, and the most important species appeared to be R.(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-059

Molecular and morphological characterization of the amaryllis lesion nematode, Pratylenchus hippeastri (Inserra et al., 2007), from California

Zafar A. Handoo/ Andrea M. Skantar/ Mihail R. Kantor/ Saad L. Hafez/ Maria N. Hult

Abstract Root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) are among the most important nematode pests on grapevine along with root-knot, dagger, and ring nematodes. In 2019, two samples of both soil and roots were collected from a vineyard in Delano, Kern County, California and submitted to the United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Mycology and Nematology Genetic Diversity and Biology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, for identification purposes. Females and juveniles of Pratylenchus sp. were recover(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-058

An integrative approach to the study of Helicotylenchus (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) Colombian and Brazilian populations associated with Musa crops

Donald Riascos-Ortiz/ Ana Teresa Mosquera-Espinosa/ Francia Varón De Agudelo/ Claudio Marcelo Gonçalves de Oliveira/ Jaime Eduardo Muñoz-Florez

Abstract In total, 10 populations of Helicotylenchus associated with Musa spp., six from Colombia, and four from Brazil were identified to the species level. Morphological and morphometric data were recorded for each population, performed a principal components analysis (PCA), a conglomerate, along with consensus sequences of D2 to D3 expansion segment of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA (28S) for different populations. Identify of species were performed using the basic local alignment search (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-054

A draft genome of Steinernema diaprepesi

Anil Baniya/ Jose C. Huguet-Tapia/ Peter DiGennaro

Abstract Entomopathogenic nematodes within the genus Steinernema are used as biological control agents against significant agricultural pests. Steinernema diaprepesi is native to Florida and very effective in controlling citrus root weevil, a devastating pest of citrus, ornamental plants, and vegetables. Here, we present the draft genome of Steinernema diaprepesi, which is a valuable tool for understanding the efficacy of this nematode as a biological control agent.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-069

Nematicidal effect of cruciferous bio-fumigants against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infesting okra

J.A. Patil/ Anil Kumar/ Saroj Yadav/ K.K. Verma

Abstract In Haryana, India, only carbofuran is registered for the management of root-knot nematodes. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of cruciferous bio-fumigants for the management of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) in okra. The experiments were conducted at research area Department of Nematology in 2017 to 2018 and 2018 to 2019. During this investigation, cruciferous bio-fumigants such as cabbage leaves and cauliflower leaves were used as bio-fumigant so(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-080

Infection parameters of Heterorhabditis amazonensis (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) in different stages of Hibiscus pink mealybug

Yvan Fuenmayor/ Edgar Portillo/ Brynelly Bastidas/ Mayamarú Guerra/ Ernesto San-Blas

Abstract The pink hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive pest of an enormous variety of crops and has become a concern in many parts of the world. Early attempts to control M. hirsutus with chemical insecticides and cultural methods have failed due to the cryptic habit of the insect. We assessed the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis amazonensis as a biological agent against different insect stages. Comparing different concentrations of the n(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-077

Compatibility of fluazaindolizine and oxamyl with Pasteuria penetrans on spore attachment to juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

Eleni Nasiou/ Tim Thoden/ Iro V. Pardavella/ Emmanuel A. Tzortzakakis

Abstract Fluazaindolizine is a novel sulfonamide nematicide that is the active ingredient (a.i.) of Salibro™, a.i. Reklemel™. Its compatibility with Pasteuria penetrans, a bacterial parasite of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), was investigated in populations of M. javanica and M. incognita. Spores of a single P. penetrans isolate (Pp 3) or a blend of six isolates were incubated in the suspensions of fluazaindolizine (SalibroTM 500SC, at 5, 50, and 250 ppm a.i.) and oxamyl (Vydate™ 10 L, 1(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-070

Reproduction of Meloidogyne enterolobii on selected root-knot nematode resistant sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars

Janete A. Brito/ Johan Desaeger/ D.W. Dickson

Abstract The ability of Meloidogyne enterolobii to reproduce on selected sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars (Beauregard, Covington, Evangeline, Hernandez, and Orleans (LA 05-111)) was evaluated in two greenhouse experiments, each with 10 replicates. All cultivars, except Beauregard (control) and Orleans, were reported previously as moderately resistant or resistant to M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. batatas, and Streptomyces ipomoeae. Plants were inoculated with M. enterolobii (5,00(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-063

Oscheius myriophila (Nematoda: Rhabditida) isolated in sugar cane soils in Mexico with potential to be used as entomopathogenic nematode

Iveth del Rocio Castro-Ortega/ Juan Manuel Caspeta-Mandujano/ Ramón Suárez-Rodríguez/ Guadalupe Peña-Chora/ José Augusto Ramírez-Trujillo/ Karina Cruz-Pérez/ Iván Arenas Sosa/ Víctor Manuel Hernández–Velázquez

Abstract A survey of entomopathogenic nematodes was conducted in sugar cane crops in a total of 14 soils, and positive results were obtained for strain MC5-2014 in the municipality of Tepalcingo, Morelos, in soil with a sandy loam texture and a pH of 6.4. Species determination was performed via morphological and morphometric techniques by searching for a tubular stoma with a swollen cylindrical pharyngeal body and a metacorpus in the basal part. The range of body length (L) was 750 to 1200 μm in(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-073

Festulolium and fungal endophyte associations: host status for Meloidogyne incognita and nematotoxic plant extracts

Susan L. F. Meyer/ Brian J. Patchett/ Timothy J. Gillanders/ Mihail R. Kantor/ Patricia Timper/ Margaret H. MacDonald

Abstract Festulolium hybrids are forage grasses used worldwide in temperate climates. They are associated with the fungal endophyte Epichloë uncinata, which aids in nutrient uptake, drought tolerance, and production of metabolites that protect against parasites and herbivores. Epichloë uncinata produces loline alkaloids, which can deter insect pests. Festulolium has not been widely studied for susceptibility to plant-parasitic nematodes, so Festulolium lines, with and without fungal endophytes, (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-076

Description of Deladenus gilanica n. sp. (Hexatylina: Neotylenchidae) isolated from wood of black pine in Northern Iran

Parisa Jalalinasab/ Mehrab Esmaeili/ Weimin Ye/ Ramin Heydari

Abstract A new species of the genus Deladenus, D. gilanica n. sp. collected from Siahkal forests of Northern Iran, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by its 314 to 422-µm-long body, eight incisures in the lateral field, 7.5 to 8.0-μm-long stylet, position of the excretory pore, at the level of the hemizonid, both posterior to the nerve ring 61 to 76 µm from the anterior end, and conical tail with pointed tip. Based on morphology and morphometrics, the new species can (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-065

On the identity of Eucephalobus oxyuroides (de Man, 1876) Steiner, 1936 (Rhabditida, Cephalobidae), with an updated taxonomy of the genus and notes about its phylogeny

Joaquín Abolafia/ Reyes Peña-Santiago

Abstract The identity of Eucephalobus oxyuroides is discussed after studying two Iberian populations that fit the original description of the species. A new characterization is consequently provided as follows: 0.49 to 0.70 mm long body, lip region continuous with the adjoining body and bearing short probolae prongs, neck 132 to 158 µm long, spermatheca 23 to 47 µm long or 1.0 to 1.8 times the corresponding body diameter, post-vulval uterine sac 40 to 54 µm long or 2.0 to 2.5 times as long as th(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-061

Evaluation of fluopyram for the control of Ditylenchus dipsaci in sugar beet

Alan Storelli/ Andreas Keiser/ Reinhard Eder/ Samuel Jenni/ Sebastian Kiewnick

Abstract Fluopyram, a succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicide, has shown potential in controlling Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchus reniformis in tomato. The effectiveness of this compound for the control of Ditylenchus dipsaci in sugar beet was evaluated. In this study, laboratory, growth chamber, glasshouse, and field experiments were conducted. In a motility bioassay, the EC50 value was determined with 3.00 μg/ml a.i. after 72 h exposure to fluopyram. The growth chamber experiment did(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-071

Description of Deladenus brevis n. sp. (Sphaerularioidea: Neotylenchidae) from Iran: a morphological and molecular phylogenetic study

Fariba Heydari/ Joaquín Abolafia/ Majid Pedram

Abstract Deladenus brevis n. sp. is described and illustrated based upon its morphological, morphometric, and molecular characters. The new species is mainly characterized by its small body size (367-454 µm long females and 350, 391 µm long males) and has small lateral vulval flaps. It is further characterized by having six lines in the lateral fields, cephalic region slightly expanded, narrower adjacent to the body, short 6 to 7 µm long stylet with three posteriorly sloped knobs, no post-vulval(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-062

First report of Meloidogyne javanica infecting Zinnia elegans in Ceará State, Brazil

Francisco Jorge Carlos Souza Junior/ Mayara Castro Assunção

Abstract Roots of Zinnia elegans exhibiting galls were observed and collected in the city of Pacoti, CE, Brazil. Through the morphological characterization and molecular analysis of the ITS and 28S rDNA regions, the causal agent was identified as a nematode of the genus Meloidogyne species M. javanica. This is the first detection of M. javanica in Zinnia elegans in the state of Ceará in Brazil.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-066

Activity of Steinernema colombiense in plant-based oils

Gabriela Castruita-Esparza/ Francisco Ángel Bueno-Pallero/ Rubén Blanco-Pérez/ Lídia Dionísio/ Teodulfo Aquino-Bolaños/ Raquel Campos-Herrera

Abstract Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are excellent biological control agents. Although traditionally EPN application targeted belowground insects, their aboveground use can be supported if combined with adjuvants. We hypothesized that EPN infective juveniles (IJs) could be combined with plant-based oils as adjuvants, without decreasing their efficacy against insect larvae under various scenarios. Specifically, our objectives were to evaluate the activity of Steinernema colombiense (Nematod(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-072

Potential of entomopathogenic nematodes against the pupal stage of the apple maggot Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Muhammad Usman/ Sehrish Gulzar/ Waqas Wakil/ Jaime C. Piñero/ Tracy C. Leskey/ Laura J. Nixon/ Camila Oliveira-Hofman/ Shaohui Wu/ David Shapiro-Ilan

Abstract The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a key pest of apples and is native to the eastern United States. The virulence of seven different species of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was assessed against pupae of R. pomonella under laboratory conditions. Nematode species and strains included Steinernema carpocapsae (ALL strain), Steinernema feltiae (SN strain), Steinernema riobrave (355 strain), Steinernema glaseri (VS strain), Heterorhabditis(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-079

First report of Xiphinema hunaniense Wang & Wu, 1992 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Vietnam

Huu Tien Nguyen/ Thi Duyen Nguyen/ Thi Mai Linh Le/ Quang Phap Trinh

Abstract For the first time, a survey of plant-parasitic nematodes in the Central Highlands of Vietnam discovered a population of Xiphinema hunaniense Wang & Wu, 1992. The Vietnamese population of X. hunaniense is characterized by having an offset lip region, lack of anterior genital branch, vagina directed backward, and a digitate tail. Morphological features and morphometrics of this population are in agreement with the type population of X. hunaniense except for some variations. In addition, (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-078

The relationship between commercial cotton cultivars with varying Meloidogyne incognita resistance genes and yield

Terry A. Wheeler/ Kerry Siders/ Cecilia Monclova-Santana/ Jane K. Dever

Abstract Small plot cotton cultivar trials (12 trials) were conducted from 2016 to 2019 in fields infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Entries in these trials included commercial cultivars with partial and high resistance to M. incognita, as well as cultivars with no known resistance. Different resistant groups were created based on different cotton seed companies and their descriptions of the M. incognita resistant cultivars. Groups were none (susceptible); partial resistance found in Stonevill(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-064

Mortality of Phyllophaga vetula larvae by the separate and combined application of Metarhizium anisopliae, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri

Jaime Ruiz-Vega/ Carlos I. Cortés-Martínez/ Teodulfo Aquino-Bolaños/ Pastor T. Matadamas-Ortíz/ Cipriano García-Gutiérrez/ José Navarro-Antonio

Abstract Phyllophaga spp. are a complex of edaphic insect pests that are present in the corn crops (Zea mays) in México, which are usually controlled with increasing dosages of broad-spectrum chemical insecticides. Several entomopathogenic nematode species can produce acceptable control levels of these larvae. However, the synergistic interaction between fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) could improve the control of this insect. This study investigates the mortality of larvae of Phyllop(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-068

First report of Hemicriconemoides litchi associated with Piper sarmentosum and revision of the genus Hemicriconemoides in Vietnam

Thi Duyen Nguyen/ Huu Tien Nguyen/ Thi Mai Linh Le/ Quang Phap Trinh

Abstract The taxonomic status of Hemicriconemoides litchi, H. mangiferae, and H. strictathecatus has been in debates for many years. In this study, a population of H. litchi collected from the rhizosphere of Piper sarmentosum is characterized using a combination of morphology and molecular data. Our results are in agreement with other authors to maintain the validity of H. litchi and provide sequences of H. litchi with correct names on GenBank. A revision on the genus Hemicriconemoides in Vietna(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-074

Additional notes on the morphology and molecular data of the Kikuyu root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne kikuyensis (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae)

J. D. Eisenback/ P. Vieira

Abstract Females, males, and second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne kikuyensis were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of M. kikuyensis was typical for species of the genus in general, but differed in several characters, appearing to be in a more primitive state. The head morphology of males and second-stage juveniles of most species of root-knot nematode is made up of a large labial disk surrounded by the fused pairs of the sub-dorsal and sub-ventral lips, but in (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-067

Potential impacts of the ring nematode, Mesocriconema xenoplax, on grapevines in British Columbia: a microplot study

Thomas Forge/ Rosanne Smit/ Denise Neilsen/ Gerry Neilsen

Abstract The Okanagan Valley of British Columbia hosts a wine grape industry that has grown substantially in the past three decades in terms of both acreage and economic benefit to the region. The ring nematode, Mesocriconema xenoplax, has recently been found to be widespread in vineyard soils in the region. This study used field microplots to assess the potential impacts of a local population of M. xenoplax on the first four years growth of either self-rooted ‘Merlot’ or ‘Merlot’ vines grafted (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-086

First report of Meloidogyne hapla on kiwifruit in South Africa

Ebrahim Shokoohi/ Phatu W. Mashela

Abstract Kiwi is becoming one of the most important fruit in subtropical regions of South Africa with altitudes that confer sufficient chilling requirements. During a survey on biodiversity of plant-parasitic nematodes of kiwi in Magoebaskloof in Limpopo Province, several plant-parasitic nematodes were discovered, with Meloidogyne species occurring at the highest frequency. Nematodes were sampled from roots and the rhizosphere of one stunted Kiwi tree, extracted using the tray method and then fi(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-082

Molecular characterization of the Pratylenchus vulnus populations on cereals in Turkey

Mehmet Sait Karaca/ Elif Yavuzaslanoglu/ Gul Imriz/ Ozlem Ates Sonmezoglu

Abstract Pratylenchus vulnus (walnut root lesion nematode) is one of the most damaging root lesion nematode species worldwide. In this study, 17 populations of P. vulnus obtained from wheat and barley cultivated fields in 2016 to 2017 in Turkey (Karaman and Konya provinces) were identified using real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. Samples provided a single peak at 87.3˚C with real-time PCR. D2 to D3 expansion segments of the 28S rRNA of one population from Cihanbeyli district in Konya prov(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-084

Difference in lesion formation by male and female Pratylenchus penetrans

Kanan Saikai/ Ann E. MacGuidwin

Abstract Pratylenchus penetrans induce necrotic lesions, the hallmark symptom for the genus, soon after infection. The objective of our study was to characterize and quantify gender differences in lesion development. Independent experiments were conducted in vitro for three hosts; pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Early Alaskan), dill (Anethum graveolens cv. Long Island Mammoth), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv. Vernal). Each experimental unit was an excised radical placed on water agar in a Petri dish (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-090

First report of a gastropod parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis californica (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) in Alberta, Canada

Taylor Brophy/ Dana K. Howe/ Dee R. Denver/ Lien T. Luong

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-092

Effect of seed-applied fluopyram on Meloidogyne incognita infection and maturity in cotton and soybean

Tracy Hawk/ Travis R. Faske

Abstract Fluopyram is being used to manage plant-parasitic nematodes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and soybean (Glycine max), but the duration and depth of root protection from Meloidogyne incognita by seed-applied fluopyram is unknown. Both M. incognita susceptible cotton, Stoneville ‘ST 4848 GLT’, and soybean, Delta Grow ‘DG 4880 GLY’, cultivars were treated with fluopyram or abamectin and inoculated with second-stage juveniles in two greenhouse studies. Root penetration by M. incognita was s(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-083

First report of Meloidogyne naasi parasitizing turfgrass in Portugal

M. Clara Vieira dos Santos/ M. Teresa M. Almeida/ Sofia R. Costa

Abstract In an exploratory sampling of a football field in Porto, Portugal, the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne naasi, previously unreported from the Iberian Peninsula, was detected. Diagnosis was based on the analysis of perineal patterns and esterase phenotypes of females excised from grass roots, morphometrics and molecular analysis (PCR with specific primers and analysis of partial 28S sequences obtained by amplification using the primers D2A/D3B) of second-stage juveniles (J2) extracted fro(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-088

Characterization of a population of Pelodera strongyloides (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) associated with the beetle Lucanus ibericus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) from Georgia

O. Gorgadze/ A. Troccoli/ E. Fanelli/ E. Tarasco/ F. De Luca

Abstract During a field survey for entomopathogenic nematodes in Georgia, in the territory of Borjomi-Kharagauli, a nematode population was isolated from the body of single dead beetle of Lucanus ibericus Motschulsky 1845 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Based on morphological characters and molecular analyses, the nematode species is identical to Pelodera strongyloides (Schneider, 1860, 1866), being the first record of this species in Georgia. Morphometrics of the Georgian population agree with the ori(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-081

Isolation, identification, and pathogenicity of Steinernema carpocapsae and its bacterial symbiont in Cauca-Colombia

Esteban Neira-Monsalve/ Natalia Carolina Wilches-Ramírez/ Wilson Terán/ María del Pilar Márquez/ Ana Teresa Mosquera-Espinosa/ Adriana Sáenz-Aponte

Abstract In Colombia, identification of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN’s) native species is of great importance for pest management programs. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify EPNs and their bacterial symbiont in the department of Cauca-Colombia and then evaluate the susceptibility of two Hass avocado (Persea americana) pests to the EPNs isolated. EPNs were isolated from soil samples by the insect baiting technique. Their bacterial symbiont was isolated from hemolymph of infecte(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-089

First report of potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945 infecting Codonopsis pilosula in Gansu province, China

Chunhui Ni/ Shuling Zhang/ Huixia Li/ Yonggang Liu/ Wenhao Li/ Xuefen Xu/ Zhipeng Xu

Abstract In November 2019, stem nematode was found on Codonopsis pilosula in Tanchang county, Gansu province, China. The population of stem nematode was identified on the basis of both molecular and morphological methods. The morphological and morphometric characteristics of this nematode population matched with Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945. The sequences of rDNA-ITS and D2/D3 region of 28S-rRNA similarity with the D. destructor. The pathogenicity results revealed the symptom of dry rot o(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-087

New reduced-risk agricultural nematicides - rationale and review

Johan Desaeger/ Catherine Wram/ Inga Zasada

Abstract The last decade has seen a sharp increase in nematicide research in the agricultural industry. As a result, several new synthetic nematicides have become available to growers, and several more are expected in the near future. This new interest in nematicides is directly related to the growing demand for safer and more selective products, and the increasing regulatory pressure on many of the traditional nematicides. This has led to a ban of several widely used fumigant (e.g. methyl bromi(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-091

Aphelenchus yinyuensis n. sp. (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) found in Terminalia sp. in China

Gu Jianfeng/ Munawar Maria/ Yiwu Fang/ Liu Lele/ Xianfeng Chen/ Bo Cai

Abstract During a nematode biodiversity survey in Hainan Province, China, Aphelenchus yinyuensis n. sp. was detected in the rhizosphere of Terminalia sp. It is characterized by medium-sized a body of adult nematodes, i.e. 793 (639-877) μm and 756 (647-863) μm for females and males, respectively, with low, rounded, not offset lip region. The lateral field has 10 incisures. The excretory pore is located posterior to the nerve ring. The vagina is not sclerotised and the vulva has simple lips withou(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-085

Effect of Heterodera schachtii female age on susceptibility to three fungal hyperparasites in the genus Hyalorbilia

J. Smith Becker/ J. Borneman/ J. O. Becker

Abstract Three closely related nematophagous fungi in the genus Hyalorbilia were compared for their ability to parasitize females and eggs of Heterodera schachtii at different developmental stages. DoUCR50, StM, and ARF were originally isolated from Heterodera schachtii, Meloidogyne incognita, and Heterodera glycines, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis and pairwise sequence analysis showed that DoUCR50 and StM are more closely related to each other than they are to ARF. DoUCR50 parasitism suppr(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-093

Effects of integrated application of plant-based compost and urea on soil food web, soil properties, and yield and quality of a processing carrot cultivar

A. Habteweld/ D. Brainard/ A. Kravchencko/ P. S. Grewal/ H. Melakeberhan

Abstract Soil nutrient management system characterized by reduced input of inorganic fertilizers integrated with organic amendments is one of the alternatives for reducing deleterious environmental impact of synthetic fertilizers, suppressing soil-borne pests and diseases, and improving soil health and crop yield. A hypothesis of the present study was that lower rates of urea mixed with higher rates of plant compost (PC) would improve nematode community structure, soil food web condition, soil b(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-111

Optimizing for taxonomic coverage: a comparison of methods to recover mesofauna from soil

Alexandros Dritsoulas/ Larry W. Duncan

Abstract Manipulating soil properties to modify the dynamics between nematodes and their natural enemies has been proposed to conserve services such as the biological control of insect pests by entomopathogenic nematodes. Many soil microarthropods including acari mites and collembola are natural enemies of nematodes; however, little is known about the naturally occurring assemblages of these two soil dwelling groups and how they might be influenced by soil conditions. A method to efficiently rec(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-104

First report of southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, infecting Brassica nigra in Peru

Jorge Airton Gómez-Chatata/ Juan José Tamo-Zegarra/ Teodocia Gloria Casa-Ruiz/ Cristiano Bellé

Abstract Brassica nigra plants showing symptoms caused by root-knot nematodes were detected in the municipality of La Joya, Arequipa Province, Peru. Based on morphology, esterase phenotypes, and species-specific characterized amplified region (SCAR) sequence, the causal agent was identified as Meloidogyne incognita. Pathogenicity was confirmed by a modified version of Koch’s postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. incognita infecting Brassica nigra in Peru.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-114

Chenopodium album is a weed host of Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) in Peru

Jorge Airton Gómez-Chatata/ Teodocia Gloria Casa-Ruiz/ Juan José Tamo-Zegarra/ Cristiano Bellé

Abstract Chenopodium album plants showing symptoms caused by root-knot nematodes were detected in the La Joya, Arequipa, Peru. Based on the morphological, esterase phenotypes, and molecular analyses of the mitochondrial DNA region between the cytochome oxidase subunit II and 16S rRNA genes (mtDNA) and species-specific characterized amplified region, the causal agent of the observed symptoms was identified as Meloidogyne incognita. Pathogenicity was confirmed by fulfilling a modified version of K(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-099

Xanthosoma sagittifolium is resistant to Meloidogyne spp. and controls Meloidogyne enterolobii by soil biofumigation

Vanessa Alves Gomes/ Fabíola de Jesus Silva/ Eunice Maria Baquião/ Luana Viana Faria/ Júlio César Antunes Ferreira/ Marcio Pozzobon Pedroso/ Fernando Broetto/ Silvia Renata Siciliano Wilcken

Abstract Meloidogyne is a relevant plant-parasitic nematode that causes enormous damage. It is very challenging to control, and there are not many chemicals available on the market for that. As an alternative method of nematode control, biofumigation is increasingly gaining space. This research aimed to study the reaction of Xanthosoma sagittifolium to Meloidogyne enterolobii, M. incognita, and M. javanica and soil biofumigation with X. sagittifolium leaves for M. enterolobii control. The reacti(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-107

First report of Paratylenchus lepidus Raski, 1975 associated with green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) in Vietnam

Thi Mai Linh Le/ Huu Tien Nguyen/ Thi Duyen Nguyen/ Quang Phap Trinh

Abstract The pin nematodes, Paratylenchus spp., are relatively small nematodes that can feed on a wide range of host plants. The morphological identification of this nematode is greatly hampered by their small size and variable characters. This study provides the first report of Paratylenchus lepidus from Vietnam with a combination of morphological and molecular characterizations. The 28S rDNA phylogenetic tree of the genus and the first COI mtDNA barcode of this species are also provided.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-110

The potential of eugenol as a nematicidal agent against Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood

Eleni Nasiou/ Ioannis O. Giannakou

Abstract Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) are the most destructive plant parasites in vegetable production and their control is very challenging. This study aimed to define the nematicidal activity of eugenol on different life stages at 33.75 to 1,000 ppm doses against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood, 1949. This work is the first to report the effect of eugenol on egg differentiation and its vapor and sublethal doses activities. Second-stage juveniles (J2)(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-103

Competitive fitness analysis using Convolutional Neural Network

Joanna K. Palka/ Krzysztof Fiok/ Weronika Antoł/ Zofia M. Prokop

Abstract We developed a procedure for estimating competitive fitness by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism and a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) as a tool. Competitive fitness is usually the most informative fitness measure, and competitive fitness assays often rely on green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker strains. CNNs are a class of deep learning neural networks, which are well suited for image analysis and object classification. Our model analyses involved image classificati(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-108

Plant health evaluations of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Meloidogyne incognita colonized bermudagrass using remote sensing

Will L. Groover/ Kathy S. Lawrence

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of an unmanned aerial system (UAS) equipped with a multispectral sensor to track plant health in the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes in conjunction with nematicide applications. Four nematicides were evaluated for their ability to suppress Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Meloidogyne incognita in microplots, and three nematicides were evaluated on a golf course for their ability to suppress multiple plant-parasitic nematode gen(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-109

Mist chamber extraction for improved diagnosis of Meloidogyne spp. from golf course bermudagrass

William T. Crow/ Alemayehu Habteweld/ Thomas Bean

Abstract Meloidogyne spp. are among the most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes to golf course bermudagrass in the southern United States. Diagnostic samples processed by centrifugal flotation often recovered only low numbers of vermiform Meloidogyne spp. life stages (J2 and males) from soil, while roots were found to be heavily infested by sedentary life stages. Therefore, the University of Florida Nematode Assay Lab (NAL) evaluated mist extraction from turf plugs as a method for diagnosis of M(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-096

Steam-based thermotherapy for managing nematodes in strawberry transplants

Churamani Khanal/ Mengyi Gu/ Natalia A. Peres/ Johan A. Desaeger

Abstract Aerated steam-based thermotherapy was developed and evaluated for its efficacy in managing three nematode species (Aphelenchoides besseyi, Meloidogyne hapla, and Pratylenchus penetrans) that are often transported as quiescent passengers on strawberry transplants shipped to Florida from out-of-state nurseries. Initial studies were focused on evaluating the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of each nematode species to hot water in laboratory conditions. Each nematode species was exposed t(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-095

Morphological and molecular characterizations of Heterodera oryzae in Korea

Rose Mwesige/ Eun-Hwa Kim/ Eun-Hyung Park/ Hyoung-Rai Ko

Abstract Rice is one of the most important staple grains in Korea and the largest starch source in addition to its usefulness in the production of beverages. Under different areas and environments of production, various pests and diseases including soil-borne plant pathogens such as plant-parasitic nematodes can compromise rice productivity. In a survey to identify plant parasitic nematodes on rice, cyst nematodes were encountered in rice fields that required characterization and identification.(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-113

Morphological and molecular characterization of Epidorylaimus procerus sp. n. (Dorylaimida: Qudsianematidae) from Vietnam

Thi Anh Duong Nguyen/ Reyes Peña-Santiago

Abstract Epidorylaimus procerus sp. n., collected from a natural habitat in Vietnam, is described and illustrated. It is distinguishable by its 2.16 to 2.46-mm-long body, lip region offset by depression and 15 to 17-µm broad, odontostyle 32 to 35-µm long, neck 415 to 461-µm long, pharyngeal expansion occupying 47 to 52% of the total neck length, uterus 76 to 130-µm long or 1.0 to 1.5-body diameters, vulva transverse (V = 40-43), caudal region conical elongate (157-186 µm, c =12.1-14.4, c′ = 4.4-(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-112

Morphological and molecular analyses of a Meloidogyne mali population with high intragenomic rRNA polymorphism

Jianfeng Gu/ Yiwu Fang/ Lele Liu

Abstract Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne mali can cause damage in trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, and was placed on the EPPO Alert List in 2014. In the present study, we report a population isolated from Japanese maple. The recovered population is described by detailed morphological and molecular approaches. The molecular phylogentic analysis based on 28S rRNA, ITS, and mitochondrial COI genes places the population in the clade together with other M. mali sequences available in GenBank. Th(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-105

In bromeliad phytotelma, anthropic disturbance does not affect the nematode trophic structure

Alexandre Macedo Almeida/ Janeo Eustáquio Almeida Filho/ Ricardo Moreira Souza

Abstract Phytotelmata (sing. phytotelma) are plant-associated reservoirs of rainwater and organic debris. These freshwater ecosystems are found in tree and bamboo holes, pitcher plants, and tank-forming bromeliads. Some studies suggest that anthropic disturbance (AD) may change the physico-chemical properties (PCPs) of the water retained in the phytotelma, and indirectly impact its biota. Hence, new AD-bioindicators could be found in the phytotelma biota. To test this hypothesis, three areas of (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-101

First report of the stubby-root nematode Nanidorus minor infecting Paspalum vaginatum, seashore paspalum grass in Georgia, USA

Ganpati B. Jagdale/ Fereidoun Forghani/ Katherine Martin/ Abolfazl Hajihassani/ Alfredo Dick Martinez-Espinoza

Abstract We found that Nanidorus spp. was pathogenic to seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) turfgrass as its population increased from 100 to 2,080 nematodes per pot 180 days after inoculation under greenhouse conditions. Morphological measurements of adult females were similar to those described for N. minor. Molecular analysis also confirmed the morphological identification by targeting three different regions of the genomic DNA. Three primer pairs targeting 18S rDNA (360F/932R), 28S rDNA ((..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-106

Morphological and molecular characterization of Heterodera dunensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Gran Canaria, Canary Islands

Phougeishangbam Rolish Singh/ Gerrit Karssen/ Marjolein Couvreur/ Wim Bert

Abstract Heterodera dunensis n. sp. from the coastal dunes of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, is described. This new species belongs to the Schachtii group of Heterodera with ambifenestrate fenestration, presence of prominent bullae, and a strong underbridge of cysts. It is characterized by vermiform second-stage juveniles having a slightly offset, dome-shaped labial region with three annuli, four lateral lines, a relatively long stylet (27-31 µm), short tail (35-45 µm), and 46 to 51% of tail as h(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-098

Nematode trophic structure in the phytotelma of Neoregelia cruenta (Bromeliaceae) in relation to microenvironmental and climate variables

Alexandre M. Almeida/ Ricardo M. Souza

Abstract The term phytotelma (pl. phytotelmata) designates a plant-associated reservoir of fresh water and organic debris. Phytotelmata in tank bromeliads are abundant in tropical forests, and they provide shelter, food, and water for many metazoans. Among the invertebrates known to inhabit phytotelmata, nematodes are the least studied, despite their important role in nutrient and energy cycles in freshwater ecosystems. This study was conceived to characterize the nematode trophic structure in t(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-100

Description of Heterodera microulae sp. n. (Nematoda: Heteroderinae) from China – a new cyst nematode in the Goettingiana group

Wenhao Li/ Huixia Li/ Chunhui Ni/ Deliang Peng/ Yonggang Liu/ Ning Luo/ Xuefen Xu

Abstract A new cyst-forming nematode, Heterodera microulae sp. n., was isolated from the roots and rhizosphere soil of Microula sikkimensis in China. Morphologically, the new species is characterized by lemon-shaped body with an extruded neck and obtuse vulval cone. The vulval cone of the new species appeared to be ambifenestrate without bullae and a weak underbridge. The second-stage juveniles have a longer body length with four lateral lines, strong stylets with rounded and flat stylet knobs, (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-097

Yellow and purple nutsedge and coffee senna as hosts of common plant nematodes in Florida

Maria de Lourdes Mendes/ Donald W. Dickson/ William T. Crow

Abstract Yellow (Cyperus esculentus) and purple (C. rotundus) nutsedges, and coffee senna (Senna occidentalis) are common weeds in the southern USA and each have been reported as alternative hosts for plant-parasitic nematodes. Our objective was to determine the host suitability of these weeds to plant-parasitic nematodes common in Florida agriculture and turfgrass systems. The root-knot nematode (RKN) species tested included Meloidogyne arenaria, M. enterolobii, M. floridensis, M. graminis, M. (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-094

Intraspecific variation in phenotypic and phylogenetic features among Pratylenchus penetrans isolates from Wisconsin, USA

Kanan Saikai/ Ann E. MacGuidwin

Abstract Pratylenchus penetrans is a common and important agricultural pest in Wisconsin, a USA state with a diverse agriculture. We compared populations from around the state to each other and to data published for populations around the world to gain insight on the variability of features important for identification of this cosmopolitan species. Thirteen isolates from samples collected in soybean fields in ten Wisconsin counties were established in monoxenic cultures. Analysis of morphologica(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-102

Molecular identification of Bursaphelenchus cocophilus associated to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) crops in Tibu (North Santander, Colombia)

Greicy Andrea Sarria/ Donald Riascos-Ortiz/ Hector Camilo Medina/ Yuri Mestizo/ Gerardo Lizarazo/ Francia Varón De Agudelo

Abstract The red ring nematode (Bursaphelenchus cocophilus (Cobb) Baujard 1989) has been registered in oil palm crops in the North, Central and Eastern zones of Colombia. In Tibu (North Santander), there are doubts regarding the diagnostic and identity of the disease. Oil palm crops in Tibu with the external and internal symptoms were inspected, and tissue samples were taken from different parts of the palm. The refrigerated samples were carried to the laboratory of Oleoflores in Tibu for proces(..)

DOI: 10.2130/jofnem-2020-117

Oostenbrinkia pedrami n. sp. (Dorylaimida: Aulolaimoididae) from Iran, with molecular phylogenetic relationships to some other Dorylaimida Pearse, 1942

Farahnaz Jahanshahi Afshar

Abstract A population of the rarely collected aulolaimoidid genus, Oostenbrinkia, was recovered from the rhizosphere soil of Fagus orientalis in Mazandaran province, north Iran. Oostenbrinkia pedrami n. sp. is mainly characterized by long females, 920 µm with a 6 to 8 µm long odontostyle, 18 to 21 µm long odontophore with well-developed basal flanges, 124 to 187 µm long neck, vulva post equatorial (V = 58.5-61.0), and tail short (10-18 µm long, c  =  42.5-65.2, c′ = 0.6-0.9) and rounded. Compared(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-119

Four Pristionchus species associated with two mass-occurring Parafontaria laminata populations

Natsumi Kanzaki/ Minami Ozawa/ Yuko Ota/ Yousuke Degawa

Abstract Phoretic nematodes associated with two mass-occurring populations of the millipede Parafontaria laminata were examined, focusing on Pristionchus spp. The nematodes that propagated on dissected millipedes were genotyped using the D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Four Pristionchus spp. were detected: P. degawai, P. laevicollis, P. fukushimae, and P. entomophagus. Of the four, P. degawai dominated and it was isolated from more than 90% of the millipedes examined. The(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-115

First report of the bent seed gall nematode, Anguina agrostis (Steinbuch, 1799) Filipjev, 1936 from Poa palustris L. in Wyoming, USA

Tatiana V. Roubtsova/ Sergei A. Subbotin

Abstract In September 2020, several plants of fowl bluegrass, Poa palustris with seed galls were collected on a bank of river in Teton County, Wyoming, USA. Isolated nematodes were identified by both morphological and molecular methods as Anguina agrostis. This is a first report of A. agrostis in Wyoming and its report on fowl bluegrass.

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-121

Nematodes and the effect of seasonality in grassland habitats of South Africa

Chantelle Girgan/ Gerhard du Preez/ Mariette Marais/ Antoinette Swart/ Hendrika Fourie

Abstract Nematodes in South Africa have mainly been studied for their diversity and agricultural importance. However, the ecological status of nematodes and the effect of seasonal variation in local grasslands remain unknown. For this reason, a nematode study was conducted in the Telperion Nature Reserve and represented the first ecological study in a natural grassland area in South Africa. In total, 104 soil samples were collected during four consecutive seasons from 2015 until 2016 in three ha(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-118

Morphological, morphometrical, and molecular characterization of Metarhabditis amsactae (Ali, Pervez, Andrabi, Sharma and Verma, 2011) Sudhaus, 2011 (Rhabditida, Rhabditidae) from India and proposal of Metarhabditis longicaudata as a junior synonym of M. amsactae

Aashaq Hussain Bhat/ Shreyansh Srivastava/ Aasha Rana/ Ashok Kumar Chaubey/ Ricardo A. R. Machado/ Joaquín Abolafia

Abstract A new population of Metarhabditis amsactae from India is morphologically, morphometrically, and molecularly characterized. This material is characterized by having 0.65 to 1.14 mm length, lips rounded, and grouped in pairs, stoma with metastegostoma bearing setose denticles, pharynx with metacorpus slightly swollen and fusiform, nerve ring, and excretory pore located at isthmus level, female reproductive system didelphic-amphidelphic with vulva equatorial, female tail conical-elongate w(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-116

Further observations on Meloidogyne enterolobii (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) infecting guava (Psidium guajava) in India

Tushar Manohar Ghule/ Victor Phani/ Vishal Singh Somvanshi/ Maya Patil/ Somnath Bhattacharyya/ Matiyar Rahaman Khan

Abstract Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) infect a large number of crops including guava. We investigated a population of Meloidogyne sp. infecting guava in the Coimbatore region of Tamil Nadu, India for identification and species confirmation. Detailed morphological and morphometric observations based on second-stage juveniles, males, females, and perineal patterns showed resemblance of the isolated population with the original and subsequent descriptions of M. enterolobii. Isozyme analys(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-120

Biological control of Meloidogyne spp. in glasshouse-grown chrysanthemum

J. R. De Long/ M. A. Streminska/ A. Persijn/ H. M. I. Huisman/ C. van der Salm

Abstract Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are a major problem in soil-based glasshouse-grown chrysanthemums. To combat root-knot nematodes in the glasshouse, the soil is typically steamed every 5–6 production cycles. However, this method is expensive, environmentally unfriendly and reduces resistance and resilience of the soil against pathogens and pests. Here, we added biological pesticides/a basic substance and biostimulants both individually and in combination to determine individual or(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-125

On the molecular identity of Paratylenchus nanus Cobb, 1923 (Nematoda: Tylenchida)

Sergei A. Subbotin/ Guiping Yan/ Mihail Kantor/ Zafar Handoo

Abstract In this study, molecular characterization of Paratylenchus nanus collected from the type locality in Four Mile Run, Fall Church, Virginia using COI, D2-D3 of 28 S rRNA and ITS rRNA gene sequences was provided. We molecularly also characterized, Paratylenchus specimens collected from grasses in Devils Lake, Ramsey County, North Dakota indicated as the type locality in the original description of P. nanus by Cobb (1923). These nematodes were identified as representatives of the species P.(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-127

The effect of two QTLs for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in cotton on nematode egression from roots

Mychele B. da Silva/ Richard F. Davis/ Robert L. Nichols/ Pawan Kumar/ Peng W. Chee

Abstract Cotton is widely grown in the southern US and Meloidogyne incognita is its most significant pathogen. The germplasm line M-120 RNR is highly resistant to M. incognita due to two resistance QTLs (quantitative trait loci), qMi-C11 and qMi-C14. Both QTLs reduce total egg production, but the QTLs affect M. incognita development at different life stages. The QTLs do not appear to affect initial penetration of M. incognita but genotypes containing qMi-C11 had fewer nematodes in the roots 8 da(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-122

Morphological and molecular characterization of Hoplolaimus pararobustus (Schuurmans Stekhoven and Teunissen, 1938) Sher 1963 with its first report on Zea mays roots in Namibia

Mariette Marais/ Esther van den Berg/ Hendrika Fourie/ Milad Rashidifard

Abstract In the summer of 2018, specimens of a Hoplolaimus population were extracted from a maize root sample collected near Stampriet, Namibia. This population was identified as Hoplolaimus pararobustus and is described and illustrated based on its morphological, morphometric, and molecular characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first report H. pararobustus from maize roots. Females of the population had a mean body and stylet length of 1,100 µm and 36 µm, respectively. Esophagus with t(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-124

Mixtures of fluopyram and abamectin for management of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

Qing-Qing Li/ Jing-Jing Li/ Qi-Tong Yu/ Ze-Yu Shang/ Chao-Bin Xue

Abstract The southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, causes significant damage to vegetable production and is a major problem in greenhouse tomatoes. The effect of a combination of fluopyram and abamectin, at a mass ratio of 1:5, was studied for RKN control. Pot trials showed that fluopyram, abamectin, and their combination at three dosages increased the height, stem diameter, root fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, and the root length of tomato plants. The RKN control efficacy (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-129

A proposal of Bursaphelenchus uncispicularis Zhuo, Li, Li, Yu & Liao, 2007 as a junior synonyms of B. yongensis Gu, Braasch, Burgermeister, Brandstetter & Zhang, 2006

Jianfeng Gu/ Kan Zhuo/ Jinling Liao

Abstract Bursaphelenchus yongensis was first reported in China, and later found in Japan and Korea. It is characterized by a relatively slim body (a = 42 and 57 for females and males, respectively). The excretory pore is located at level of median bulb, the lateral field has three lines, and a small vulval flap is present. A long post-uterine branch extends 2/3 to 3/4 of the vulva to anus distance. The conoid female tail has a 2–5 µm long mucron in the central position at the terminus. Spicules (..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-130

Occurrence and molecular characterization of Meloidogyne graminicola on rice in Central Punjab, Pakistan

Abdul Jabbar/ Nazir Javed/ Anjum Munir/ Sajid A. Khan/ Anam Moosa/ Muhammad Jabran/ Byron J. Adams/ Muhammad A. Ali

Abstract Meloidogyne graminicola threatens global rice production, yet is understudied for many areas where it is cultivated. To better understand the prevalence and incidence of M. graminicola in central Punjab, Pakistan, we carried out field surveys of rice fields in the districts of Faisalabad and Chiniot. M. graminicola isolates were recovered from soil and root samples and identified on the basis of perineal patterns and rDNA ITS-based sequencing. The severity of nematode attack on rice roo(..)

DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-123

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