SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : Immunohematology. Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 100-103, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/immunohematology-2019-053
License : (Transfer of Copyright)
Published Online: 09-October-2019
The high-prevalence antigen, Ata, was first identified in 1967, but it was not until 2015 that Ata became AUG1 of a new blood group system, Augustine (AUG). The new system was established after the identification of the gene encoding Ata and the recognition of a null phenotype (AUG:–1,–2) in an At(a–) patient with an antibody (anti-AUG2) reactive with At(a–) red blood cells. The At(a–) phenotype is very rare and, with the exception of the one family with the null phenotype, has only been found in individuals of African origin. Anti-Ata has been implicated in immediate and delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions, but not in severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The Augustine gene is SLC29A1, which encodes the equilibrative nucleoside transporter ENT1. At(a–) (AUG:–1,2) results from homozygosity for c.1171G>A, encoding Glu391Lys, whereas the AUGnull (AUG:–1,–2) phenotype results from homozygosity for a splice site mutation, c.589+1G>C, in the only family where it has been found. Absence of ENT1 in that family may be associated with pseudogout and abnormal bone calcification.
1. Applewhaite F, Ginsberg V, Gerena J, et al. A very frequent red cell antigen, Ata. Vox Sang 1967;13:444–5.
2. Gellerman MM, McCreary J, Yedinak E, Stroup M. Six additional examples of anti-Ata. Transfusion 1973;13:225–30.
3. Frank S, Schmidt RP, Baugh M. Three new antibodies to highincidence antigenic determinants (anti-El, anti-Dp, and antiSo). Transfusion 1970;10:254–7.
4. Brown A, Harris P, Daniels GL, Frank S, Moore BPL, Berger R. Ata (August) and El (Eldr) are synonymous. Transfusion 1983;44:123–5.
5. Daniels G, Bailif BA, Helias V, et al. Lack of nucleoside transporter ENT1 results in the Augustine-null blood type and ectopic mineralization. Blood 2015;125:3651–4.
6. Storry JR, Castilho L, Chen Q, et al. International Society of Blood Transfusion Working Party on Red Cell Immunogenetics and Terminology: Report of the Seoul and London meetings. ISBT Sci Ser 2016;11:118–22.
7. Winkler MM, Hamilton JR. Previously tested donors eliminated to determine rare phenotype frequencies [abstract]. In: Proc 21st Joint Congr Int Soc Blood Transfus Am Ass Blood Banks 1990:158.
8. Vengelen-Tyler V. Efficient use of scarce sera in screening thousands of donors [abstract]. Transfusion 1985;25:476.
9. Sweeney JD, Holme S, McCall L, et al. At(a–) phenotype: description of a family and reduced survival of At(a+) red cells in a proposita with anti-Ata. Transfusion 1995:35:63–7.
10. Ramsey G, Sherman LA, Zimmer AM, et al. Clinical significance of anti-Ata. Vox Sang 1995;69:135–7.
11. Cash K, Brown T, Sausais L, et al. Severe delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction secondary to anti-Ata. Transfusion 1999; 39:834–7.
12. Daniels G. Human blood groups. 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: WileyBlackwell, 2013.
13. Reid ME, Lomas-Francis C, Olsson ML. The blood group antigen factsbook. 3rd ed. London, UK: Elsevier, 2012.
14. Arndt PA, Garratty G. A retrospective analysis of the value of monocyte monolayer assay results for predicting clinical significance of blood group alloantibodies. Transfusion 2004;44:1273–81.
15. Culver PL, Brubaker DB, Sheldon RE, et al. Anti-Ata causing mild hemolytic disease of the newborn. Transfusion 1987;27:468–70. 16. McBean R, Liew Y-W, Wilson B, et al. Genotyping confirms inheritance of the rare At(a–) type in a case of haemolytic disease of the newborn. J Pathol Clin Res 2016;2:53–5.
17. Griffiths M, Beaumont N, Yao SY, et al. Cloning of a human nucleoside transporter implicated in the cellular uptake of adenosine and chemotherapeutic drugs. Nat Med 1997;3: 89–93.
18. Young JD, Yao SY, Sun L, et al. Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family of nucleoside and nucleobase transporter proteins. Xenobiotica 2008;38:995–1021.
19. Grenz A, Bauerle JD, Dalton JH, et al. Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) regulates postischemic blood flow during acute kidney injury in mice. J Clin Invest 2012;122:693–710.
20. Mediero A, Cronstein BN. Adenosine and bone metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2013;24:290–300.
21. Warraich S, Bone DB, Quinonez D, et al. Loss of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 in mice leads to progressive ectopic mineralization of spinal tissues resembling diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in humans. J Bone Miner Res 2013;28:1135–49.
22. Hinton DJ, McGee-Lawrence ME, Lee MR, et al. Aberrant bone density in aging mice lacking the adenosine transporter ENT1. PLoS One 2014;9:e88818.
23. Endres CJ, Moss AM, Ke B, et al. The role of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) in transport and metabolism of ribavirin by human and wild-type or Ent1–/– mouse erythrocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2009;329:387–98.
24. Ibarra KD, Pfeiffer JK. Reduced ribavirin antiviral efficacy via nucleoside transporter-mediated drug resistance. J Virol 2009;83:4538–47.