Human platelet antigen allelic diversity in Peninsular Malaysia


Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:


American National Red Cross

Subject: Medical Laboratory Technology


ISSN: 0894-203X
eISSN: 1930-3955





Volume / Issue / page

Related articles

VOLUME 32 , ISSUE 4 (December 2016) > List of articles

Human platelet antigen allelic diversity in Peninsular Malaysia

Wan Ubaidillah Wan Syafawati / Zulkafli Zefarina / Zafarina Zafarina / Mohd Nazri Hassan / Mohd Nor Norazmi / Sundararajulu Panneerchelvam / Geoffrey Keith Chambers / Hisham Atan Edinur *

Keywords : human platelet antigen, Orang Asli, Semang, Senoi, Proto-Malays, Peninsular Malaysia

Citation Information : Immunohematology. Volume 32, Issue 4, Pages 143-160, DOI:

License : (Transfer of Copyright)

Published Online: 09-October-2019



Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are polymorphic and immunogenic glycoproteins encoded by biallelic genes on human chromosome 17 (HPA-1 to -4 and HPA-6 to -11), chromosome 5 (HPA-5), and chromosome 6 (HPA-15) and expressed on the surface of platelets. In the present study, we typed seven HPA loci (HPA-1 to -6 and HPA-15) by polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primer and sequence-based typing in 166 blood samples representing three Orang Asli groups (Semang, Senoi, and Proto-Malays) that inhabit Peninsular Malaysia. Combined with previous HPA data collected for Malay subethnic groups, Malays, Chinese, and Indians, our analyses showed high genetic diversity in Peninsular Malaysia, which is consistent with multiple settlements of the region by several founding ancestors (Semang, Senoi, and Proto-Malays) in the last 50,000 years. The gene pools of these ancient populations were then further shaped by various evolutionary pressures such as repeated founder effects, natural selection, and admixture with the relatively recent arrivals such as Chinese, Indians, and Malay subethnic groups. Medical consequences of this genetic complexity are also discussed, including the risks of platelet alloimmunization associated with random platelet transfusion and gestation.

Content not available PDF Share



1. Robinson J, Halliwell JA, McWilliam H, et al. IPD: the Immuno Polymorphism Database. Nucleic Acids Res 2013;41:863–9.

2. Metcalfe P, Watkins NA, Ouwehand WH, et al. Nomenclature of human platelet antigens. Vox Sang 2003;85:240–5.

3. Woelke C, Eichler P, Washington G, et al. Post-transfusion purpura in a patient with HPA-1a and GPIa/IIa antibodies. Transfus Med 2006;16:69–72.

4. Stanworth SJ, Navarrete C, Estcourt L, et al. Platelet refractoriness: practical approaches and ongoing dilemmas in patient management. Br J Haematol 2015;171:297–305.

5. Peterson JA, Mcfarland JG, Curtis BR, et al. Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Br J Haematol 2013;161:3–14.

6. Jones DC, Bunce M, Fuggle SV, et al. Human platelet alloantigens (HPAs): PCR-SSP genotyping of a UK population for 15 HPA alleles. Eur J Immunogenet 2003;30:415–9.

7. Bennett JA, Palmer LJ, Musk AW, et al. Gene frequencies of human platelet antigens 1-5 in indigenous Australians in Western Australia. Transfus Med 2002;12:199–203.

8. Sellers J, Thompson J, Guttridge MG, et al. Human platelet antigen: typing by PCR using sequence-specific primers and their distribution in blood donors resident in Wales. Eur J Immunogenet 1999;26:393–7.

9. Chu CC, Lee HL, Chu TW, et al. The use of genotyping to predict the phenotypes of human platelet antigens 1 through 5 and of neutrophil antigens in Taiwan. Transfusion 2001;41:1553–8.

10. Shih MC, Liu TC, Lin IL, et al. Gene frequencies of the HPA-1 to HPA-13, Oe and Gov platelet antigen alleles in Taiwanese, Indonesian, Filipino and Thai populations. Int J Mol Med 2003;12:609–14.

11. Kupatawintu P, Nathalang O, O-Charoen R, et al. Gene frequencies of the HPA-1 to 6 and Gov human platelet antigens in Thai blood donors. Immunohematology 2005;21:5–9.

12. Feng ML, Liu DZ, Shen W, et al. Establishment of an HPA-1 to -16 typed donor registry in China. Transfus Med 2006;16:369– 74.

13. Yan L, Zhu F, He J, et al. Human platelet antigen systems in three Chinese ethnic populations. Immunohematology 2006;22:6–10.

14. De La Vega Elena CD, Nogues N, Fernandez Montoya A, et al. Human platelet-specific antigens frequencies in the Argentinean population. Transfus Med 2008;18:83–90.

15. Wan Syafawati WU, Norhalifah HK, Zefarina Z, et al. Allele frequencies of human platelet antigens in Banjar, Bugis, Champa, Jawa and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia. Transfus Med 2015;25:326–32.

16. Tan JY, Lian LH, Nadarajan VS. Genetic polymorphisms of human platelet antigens-1 to -6, and -15 in the Malaysia population. Blood Transfus 2012;10:368–76.

17. Aghakhanian F, Yunus Y, Naidu R, et al. Unravelling the genetic history of Negritos and indigenous populations of Southeast Asia. Genome Biol Evol 2015;7:1206–15.

18. Hill C, Soares P, Mormin M, et al. Phylogeography and ethnogenesis of aboriginal Southeast Asians. Mol Biol Evol 2006;23:2480–91.

19. Bellwood P. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. In: Glover I, Bellwood P, ed. Southeast Asia: from prehistory to history. London: Routledge Curzon, 2004:21–40.

20. Hatin WI, Nur-Shafawati AR, Etemad A, et al. A genome wide pattern of population structure and admixture in peninsular Malaysia Malays. HUGO J 2014;8:1–18.

21. Xu X, Zhu F, Ying Y, et al. Simultaneous genotyping of human platelet antigen-1 to 17w by polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing. Vox Sang 2009;97:330–7.

22. Rodriguez S, Gaunt TR, Day INM. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium testing of biological ascertainment for Mendelian randomization studies. Am J Epidemiol 2009;169:505–14.

23. Halle L, Bach KH, Martageix C, et al. Eleven human platelet systems studied in the Vietnamese and Ma'ohis Polynesian populations. Tissue Antigens 2004;63:34–40.

24. Edinur HA, Dunn PP, Lea RA, et al. Human platelet antigens frequencies in Maori and Polynesian populations. Transfus Med 2013;23:330–7.

25. NurWaliyuddin HZA, Norazmi MN, Edinur HA, et al. Ancient genetic signatures of Orang Asli revealed by killer immunoglobulin-like receptor gene polymorphisms. PLoS One 2015;10:e0141536.

26. Kaplan C. Foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopaenia. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2006;10:39.

27. Waters AH. Post-transfusion purpura. Blood Rev 1989;3:83–7.

28. Slichter SJ, Davis K, Enright H, et al. Factors affecting posttransfusion platelet increments, platelet refractoriness, and platelet transfusion intervals in thrombocytopenic patients. Blood 2005;105:4106–14.

29. Armani MI, Santoso S. The relevance of platelet antigen/ antibodies in multi ethnic in Malaysia. Vox Sang 2015;109:1– 96.

30. Wan Mahmood WH, Mustaffa R. Platelet alloantibody in multiply transfused thrombocytopenic patients. Int Med J Malaysia 2007:6:1–10.