Review: IgA anaphylactic transfusion reactions. Part I. Laboratory diagnosis, incidence,and supply of IgAdeficient products

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Immunohematology

American National Red Cross

Subject: Medical Laboratory Technology

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ISSN: 0894-203X
eISSN: 1930-3955

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VOLUME 20 , ISSUE 4 (December 2004) > List of articles

Review: IgA anaphylactic transfusion reactions. Part I. Laboratory diagnosis, incidence,and supply of IgAdeficient products

Ralph R. Vassallo

Keywords : IgA, anti-IgA, IgA deficiency, transfusion reactions, anaphylaxis, immunodiffusion, hemagglutination, ELISA

Citation Information : Immunohematology. Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 226-233, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/immunohematology-2019-454

License : (Transfer of Copyright)

Published Online: 18-May-2020

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ABSTRACT

Despite yielding a definitive diagnosis in fewer than 20 percent of anaphylactic transfusion reactions, investigation for IgA deficiency and the presence of presumably pathogenic IgG anti-IgA is useful in patient management. Individuals with demonstrated anti-IgA are thereafter committed to receiving IgA-depleted cellular products or IgA-deficient plasma and derivatives to prevent recurrent severe reactions. Unfortunately, in populations of IgA-deficient individuals screened for anti-IgA, the predictive value of the test in the absence of a prior reaction is quite low. Anti-IgA testing is complex and limited to a few reference laboratories, many of which still employ a labor-intensive hemagglutination assay developed in the late 1960s. Timely decisions regarding further transfusion management of patients experiencing anaphylaxis often rely upon more rapidly obtained assays of the IgA concentration as an indicator of the likelihood of subsequent demonstration of anti-IgA. The scarcity of IgA-deficient banked plasma products and dedicated plateletpheresis donors has led to the development of American Rare Donor Program policies designed to appropriately allocate these precious resources. The test methods used to establish the diagnosis of IgA deficiency and identify the approximately onethird of these individuals with anti-IgA are discussed, along with the incidence of abnormal tests in various populations. Also presented are testing recommendations for the identification of an IgAmediated mechanism for transfusion-associated anaphylaxis and qualification of patients to receive rare IgA-deficient plasmacontaining products.

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