Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems

Professor Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Exeley Inc. (New York)

Subject: Computational Science & Engineering , Engineering, Electrical & Electronic


eISSN: 1178-5608



VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 1 (March 2017) > List of articles


K. Muthumeenakshi * / S. Radha *

Keywords : Cognitive Radio, Spectrum sensing, Energy Detection, Noise Uncertainty, Game Theory.

Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 146-173, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ijssis-2017-207

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 03-January-2017 / Accepted: 09-February-2017 / Published Online: 01-March-2017



Energy detection is best suited for the detection of licensed users when prior knowledge about them is unavailable. However, the presence of noise uncertainty refrains the use of energy detection for spectrum sensing. In this paper, we propose a refined energy detection (RED) which used dual threshold in the presence of noise uncertainty, and combine the concepts from game theory to achieve further performance improvements. The secondary user payoff is defined based on the primary user activity and the strategy adopted by the secondary user. The pure strategy Nash equilibrium and the best response for the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium are analyzed for all the possible strategies adopted by the secondary user. Simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in terms of greater secondary user payoff and robustness against noise uncertainty.

Content not available PDF Share



  1. Federal Communications Commission, “Spectrum policy task force report”, 2002.
  2. F.Akyildiz, W.Y.Lee and S.Mohanty, “Next generation / dynamic spectrum access / cognitive radio wireless networks: A survey,” Computer Network Journal (Elsevier), vol. 50, pp 2127 –2159, Sep 2006.
  3. Ying-Chang Liang, Yonghong Zeng, E.C.Y. Peh, Anh Tuan Hoang, "Sensing-Throughput Tradeoff for Cognitive Radio Networks," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications,vol.7, no.4, pp.1326-1337, April 2008.
  4. T.Arslan, “A survey of spectrum sensing algorithms for cognitive radio applications," Communications Surveys & Tutorials IEEE , vol.11, no.1, pp.116-130, First Quarter 2009.
  5. Kae Won Choi; Wha Sook Jeon; Dong Geun Jeong, "Sequential detection of cyclostationary signal for cognitive radio systems," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol.8,no.9, pp.4480-4485, September 2009.
  6. Zeng.Y, Liang.Y.C, “Spectrum sensing algorithms for cognitive radio based on statistical covariances”, IEEE transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2009, pp 1804-1815
  7. Yonghong Zeng, Ying-Chang Liang, “Eigen value based spectrum sensing algorithms for cognitive radio”, IEEE transactions on communications, vol.57, issue 6, June 2009, pp. 1784 – 1793.
  8. El-Khamy, S.E, El-Mahallawy, M.S.; Youssef, E.S., "Improved wideband spectrum sensing techniques using wavelet-based edge detection for cognitive radio," International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC), 2013, pp.418,423, 28-31 Jan.2013.
  9. Smitha.K.G, Vinod.A.P, “Low Power DFT Filter bank based two stage spectrum sensing”, in Proc. of International Conference on Innovations in Information Technology, March 2012, pp173-177.
  10. Urkowitz,H “Energy detection of unknown deterministic signals,” in Proc. of IEEE, vol.55, April 1967, pp. 523—531.
  11. Digham F. F., M.-S. Alouini, and M. K. Simon, “On the energy detection of unknown signals over fading channels," in Conf. Rec. IEEE Int. Conf Commun. (ICC’03), Anchorage,AK, USA, May 2003, pp. 3575-3579.
  12. M.López-Benítez, F.Casadevall, "Improved energy detection spectrum sensing for cognitive radio," IET Communications, vol.6, no.8, pp.785-796, May 2012.
  13. Chen.Y, “Improved energy detector for random signals in Gaussian noise”, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol.9, no.2, pp 558-563.
  14. J.Song, Z.Feng, P.Zhang, Z.Liu, "Spectrum sensing in cognitive radios based on enhanced energy detector," IET Communications, vol.6, no.8, pp.805-809, May 2012.
  15. Tandra, R.; Sahai, A., "SNR Walls for Signal Detection," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, vol.2, no.1, pp.4,17, Feb. 2008.
  16. Jouini, W., "Energy Detection Limits Under Log-Normal Approximated Noise Uncertainty," IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol.18, no.7, pp.423,426, July 2011
  17. W.Yin, P.Ren and J.Cai, “Performance of energy detector in the presence of noise uncertainty in cognitive radio networks,” Wireless Networks, pp. 1-10, Aug 2012.
  18. Kalamkar, Sanket S.; Banerjee, Adrish, "On the performance of generalized energy detector under noise uncertainty in cognitive radio," National Conference on Communications (NCC), 2013, vol., no., pp.1,5, 15-17 Feb. 2013.
  19. K.Muthumeenakshi and S.Radha, “Optimal Techniques for Sensing Error Minimization with Improved Energy Detection in Cognitive Radios”, International Journal of Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Vol.7, No.4, Dec 2014.
  20. J. Vartiainen, M. Höyhtyä, R. Vuohtoniemi and V. L. Ramani, "The future of spectrum sensing," 2016 Eighth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN), Vienna, 2016, pp. 247-252.
  21. Wei Zhang; Mallik, R.K.; Letaief, K., "Optimization of cooperative spectrum sensing with energy detection in cognitive radio networks," Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on , vol.8, no.12, pp.5761,5766, December 2009.
  22. Maharjan, S.; Chau Yuen; Yong Huat Chew; Yan Zhang; Gjessing, S., "Distributed spectrum sensing for cognitive radio networks with heterogeneous traffic," 3rd International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies (ISABEL), 2010, vol., no., pp.1,5, 7-10 Nov. 2010.
  23. Ying Dai; Jie Wu, "Whether and when to share: Spectrum sensing as an evolutionary game," 8th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks (CROWNCOM), 2013 , vol., no., pp.68,73, 8-10 July 2013.
  24. Beibei Wang; Liu, K.J.R.; Clancy, T.C., "Evolutionary cooperative spectrum sensing game: how to collaborate?," Communications, IEEE Transactions on , vol.58, no.3,pp.890,900, March 2010.
  25. Zhu Ji; Liu, K.J.R., "COGNITIVE RADIOS FOR DYNAMIC SPECTRUM ACCESS -Dynamic Spectrum Sharing: A Game Theoretical Overview," Communications Magazine,IEEE , vol.45, no.5, pp.88,94, May 2007.
  26. Aram, A.; Sarkar, S.; Singh, C.; Kumar, A., "A coalitional game framework for cooperative secondary spectrum access," Communication, Control, and Computing, 2008 46th Annual Allerton Conference on , vol., no., pp.1154,1160, 23-26 Sept. 2008.
  27. Tan, Y.; Sengupta, S.; Subbalakshmi, K.P., "Primary user emulation attack in dynamic spectrum access networks: a game-theoretic approach," Communications, IET , vol.6, no.8,pp.964,973, May 22 2012.