SCALING ISSUES IN LARGE NETWORKS OF SMALL SENSORS: ENERGY AND COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT

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International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems

Professor Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Exeley Inc. (New York)

Subject: Computational Science & Engineering , Engineering, Electrical & Electronic

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eISSN: 1178-5608

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VOLUME 1 , ISSUE 1 (March 2008) > List of articles

SCALING ISSUES IN LARGE NETWORKS OF SMALL SENSORS: ENERGY AND COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT

Mel Siegel *

Keywords : scaling, robotics, strength, speed, energy, power, communication.

Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 285-299, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ijssis-2017-291

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Published Online: 13-December-2017

ARTICLE

ABSTRACT

We discuss five scaling-related issues in robotics and robotic systems. They are unified by an understanding of the fundamental engineering constraints imposed by the essentially fixed fundamental strength of materials and the essentially fixed practical density at which energy can be stored. These constraints have profound effects on when big bodies are in danger of collapsing under their own weight and when small bodies are in danger of running out of fuel. The section on strength provides a review of the lesson that small is strong, big is weak. The section on speed relates design and scale to inherent speed capability, including a discussion of why humanoid robots walk in unnatural-looking ways. The section on energy reinforces the realization that stored energy scales as the cube of a body’s characteristic linear dimension, whereas its baseline power requirement usually scales as a lower power, e.g., the square of that dimension, so running time and range usually decrease cripplingly rapidly with size. The section on power shows how baseline power – and its dependence on speed – in combination with stored energy determines a body’s running time and range. The section on communication discusses scale-related communication quality and duration, especially in systems that are simultaneously large and small, e.g., in networks composed of a very large number of very small robot-like nodes.

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REFERENCES

[1] C. J. Pennycuick, Newton Rules Biology: A physical approach to biological problems, Oxford University Press, 1992
[2] Richard P. Feynman, There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom: an Invitation to Enter a New Field of Physics, http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html
[3] Richard P. Feynman, The Character of Physical Law, chapter titled Symmetry in Physical Laws, pp. 95-96, (MIT Press, Fourth Paperback Printing, August 1971)
[4] Galileo, Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences, translated by Henry Crew and Alfonso di Salvio, Prometheus Books, 1991. ISBN 0879757078.
[5] National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, West Virginia, USA, 1988 November 15. See http://www.gb.nrao.edu/fgdocs/300ft/300ft.html.
[6] ASIMO’s mechanical, etc., specifications are documented for several of the still-evolving versions of the robot on several of the Sony website pages. A compact summary is posted at http://www.answers.com/topic/asimo, which crossreferences a Wikipedia page.
[7] Many websites provide typical height and weight tables and graphs, and normal ranges, for children from birth to adulthood. A exemplary Growth Chart of Height and Weight is at http://www.teengrowth.com/index.cfm?action=development&drill=viewArt&art=11.
[8] Grant Imahara, personal communication, 2203 August 2003. See animatronic achievements at website http://www.mythbustersfanclub.com/html/grant_imahara.html.
[9] C. Blythsway and I. Gilhespy, links to several published articles on EcoBot I and Ecobot II. See http://www.ias.uwe.ac.uk/Energy-AutonomyNew/New Scientist - EcoBot II.htm.

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