Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems

Professor Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Exeley Inc. (New York)

Subject: Computational Science & Engineering, Engineering, Electrical & Electronic


eISSN: 1178-5608



VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 1 (March 2012) > List of articles


O. Korostynska * / A. Mason * / A.Al-Shamma' '> A. Al-Shamma’a *

Keywords : water quality monitoring, in situ analysis, optical methods, industry, nitrates and phosphates, lab on chip sensors, microwave sensors, solid-state sensors.

Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 149-176, DOI:

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 09-February-2012 / Accepted: 22-February-2012 / Published Online: 01-March-2012



Consumers expect water supply companies to deliver safe drinking water that meets both health quality standards and aesthetic requirements such as colour, turbidity, taste and odour. Current water quality assessment methods of these parameters, which form the basis for sound water resources management, are mainly laboratory based, require fresh supply of chemicals, trained staff and are time consuming. Real-time water quality monitoring is essential for National and International Health and Safety, as it can significantly reduce the level of damage and also the cost to remedy the problem. This paper critically analyses both commercially available and state-of-the-art research methods and devices suitable for real-time wastewater quality monitoring and suggests further developments in this area. In particular, the focus is made on the monitoring of nitrates and phosphates in wastewater and a novel microwave based method for instantaneous water quality assessment is suggested.

Content not available PDF Share



[1] E. Council, Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy, OJ L, 327 (2000) 1-73.
[2] O. Thomas, F. Théraulaz, V. Cerdà, D. Constant, P. Quevauviller, Wastewater quality monitoring, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 16 (1997) 419-424.
[3] R.P. Schwarzenbach, B.I. Escher, K. Fenner, T.B. Hofstetter, C.A. Johnson, U. von Gunten, B. Wehrli, The Challenge of Micropollutants in Aquatic Systems, Science, 313 (2006) 1072-1077.
[4] M. Stuart, D. Lapworth, E. Crane, A. Hart, Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater, Science of The Total Environment, 416 (2012) 1-21.
[5] S. Rodriguez-Mozaz, M.J. Lopez de Alda, D. Barceló, Advantages and limitations of on-line solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry technologies versus biosensors for monitoring of emerging contaminants in water, Journal of Chromatography A, 1152 (2007) 97-115.
[6] C. Slater, J. Cleary, C.M. McGraw, W.S. Yerazunis, K.T. Lau, D. Diamond, Autonomous field-deployable device for the measurement of phosphate in natural water, in: V.-D. Tuan, A.L. Robert, G. Gunter (Eds.), SPIE, 2007, pp. 67550L.
[7] N. Al-Dasoqi, A. Mason, R. Alkhaddar, A. Al-Shamma'a, Use of Sensors in Wastewater Quality Monitoring - a Review of Available Technologies, in: I. R. Edward Beighley, W.K. Mark (Eds.) World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011: Bearing Knowledge for Sustainability ASCE, 2011, pp. 354.
[8] L. Gilbert, A.T.A. Jenkins, S. Browning, J.P. Hart, Development of an amperometric, screen-printed, single-enzyme phosphate ion biosensor and its application to the analysis of biomedical and environmental samples, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 160 (2011) 1322-1327.
[9] M.M. Villalba, K.J. McKeegan, D.H. Vaughan, M.F. Cardosi, J. Davis, Bioelectroanalytical determination of phosphate: A review, Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, 59 (2009) 1-8.
[10] A. Amine, G. Palleschi, Phosphate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Biosensors, Analytical Letters, 37 (2004) 1-19.
[11] I.J. Allan, B. Vrana, R. Greenwood, G.A. Mills, J. Knutsson, A. Holmberg, N. Guigues, A.-M. Fouillac, S. Laschi, Strategic monitoring for the European Water Framework Directive, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 25 (2006) 704-715.
[12] I.J. Allan, B. Vrana, R. Greenwood, G.A. Mills, B. Roig, C. Gonzalez, A “toolbox” for biological and chemical monitoring requirements for the European Union's Water Framework Directive, Talanta, 69 (2006) 302-322.
[13] W. Bourgeois, J.E. Burgess, R.M. Stuetz, On-line monitoring of wastewater quality: a review, Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 76 (2001) 337-348.
[14] P.K. Varshney, Multisensor data fusion, Electronics & Communications Engineering Journal, 9 (1997) 245-253.
[15] EnviroTech-Instruments, Reliable, Real-time Nitrate, Phosphate & Ammonia Monitoring Systems,, (2011).
[16] J. Cleary, D. Maher, C. Slater, D. Diamond, In situ monitoring of environmental water quality using an autonomous microfluidic sensor, in: 2010 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium, SAS 2010, February 23, 2010 - February 25, 2010, IEEE Computer Society, Limerick, Ireland, 2010, pp. 36-40.
[17] E. Sten O, The phosphate sensor, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 13 (1998) 981-994.
[18] M.G. Almeida, C.M. Silveira, J.J.G. Moura, Biosensing nitrite using the system nitrite redutase/Nafion/methyl viologen—A voltammetric study, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 22 (2007) 2485-2492.
[19] L.F. Capitán-Vallvey, A.J. Palma, Recent developments in handheld and portable optosensing—A review, Analytica Chimica Acta, 696 (2011) 27-46.
[20] W.B. Lyons, H. Ewald, C. Flanagan, E. Lewis, A multi-point optical fibre sensor for condition monitoring in process water systems based on pattern recognition, Measurement, 34 (2003) 301-312.
[21] R.P. McCue, J.E. Walsh, F. Walsh, F. Regan, Modular fibre optic sensor for the detection of hydrocarbons in water, Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, 114 (2006) 438-444.
[22] A. Ahmad, A. Paschero, E. Moore, Amperometric immunosensors for screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, in: 16th Conference in the Biennial Sensors and Their Applications, September 12, 2011 - September 14, 2011, Institute of Physics Publishing, Cork, Ireland, 2011.
[23] K. Arshak, O. Korostynska, Advanced materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry, Artech House, 2006.
[24] V. Velusamy, K. Arshak, O. Korostynska, K. Oliwa, C. Adley, An overview of foodborne pathogen detection: In the perspective of biosensors, Biotechnology Advances, 28 (2010) 232-254.
[25] M.R. Ganjali, P. Norouzi, M. Ghomi, M. Salavati-Niasari, Highly selective and sensitive monohydrogen phosphate membrane sensor based on molybdenum acetylacetonate, Analytica Chimica Acta, 567 (2006) 196-201.
[26] T. Jianhua, B. Chao, L. Yang, B. Yin, X. Shanhong, Design of a MEMS-Based Total Phosphorus Sensor with a Microdigestion System, in: Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (iCBBE), 2010 4th International Conference on, 2010, pp. 1-4.
[27] J.-H. Lee, T.-S. Lim, Y. Seo, P.L. Bishop, I. Papautsky, Needle-type dissolved oxygen microelectrode array sensors for in situ measurements, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 128 (2007) 179-185.
[28] W.H. Lee, Y. Seo, P.L. Bishop, Characteristics of a cobalt-based phosphate microelectrode for in situ monitoring of phosphate and its biological application, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 137 (2009) 121-128.
[29] D. Xiao, H.-Y. Yuan, J. Li, R.-Q. Yu, Surface-Modified Cobalt-Based Sensor as a Phosphate-Sensitive Electrode, Analytical Chemistry, 67 (1995) 288-291.
[30] W.H. Lee, J.H. Lee, P.L. Bishop, I. Papautsky, Biological Application of Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems Microelectrode Array Sensors for Direct Measurement of Phosphate in the Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal Process, Water Environ. Res., 81 (2009) 748-754.
[31] A. Jang, Z. Zou, K.K. Lee, C.H. Ahn, P.L. Bishop, State-of-the-art lab chip sensors for environmental water monitoring, Measurement Science and Technology, 22 (2011) 032001.
[32] M.A.M. Yunus, S. Mukhopadhyay, A. Punchihewa, Application of independent component analysis for estimating nitrate contamination in natural water sources using planar electromagnetic sensor, in: Sensing Technology (ICST), 2011 Fifth International Conference on, 2011, pp. 538-543.
[33] M.A.M. Yunus, S.C. Mukhopadhyay, Novel Planar Electromagnetic Sensors for Detection of Nitrates and Contamination in Natural Water Sources, Sensors Journal, IEEE, 11 (2011) 1440-1447.
[34] N. Al-Dasoqi, A. Mason, R. Alkhaddar, A. Shaw, A. Al-Shamma'a, Real-time non-destructive microwave sensor for nutrient monitoring in wastewater treatment, in: 16th Conference in the Biennial Sensors and Their Applications, September 12, 2011 - September 14, 2011, Institute of Physics Publishing, Cork, Ireland, 2011.
[35] B. Kapilevich, B. Litvak, Microwave sensor for accurate measurements of water solution concentrations, in: Microwave Conference, 2007. APMC 2007. Asia-Pacific, 2007, pp. 1-4.
[36] J.D. Boon, J.M. Brubaker, Acoustic-microwave water level sensor comparisons in an estuarine environment, in: OCEANS 2008, 2008, pp. 1-5.
[37] B. Jackson, T. Jayanthy, A novel method for water impurity concentration using microstrip resonator sensor, in: Recent Advances in Space Technology Services and Climate Change (RSTSCC), 2010, 2010, pp. 376-379.
[38] C. Bernou, D. Rebière, J. Pistré, Microwave sensors: a new sensing principle. Application to humidity detection, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 68 (2000) 88-93.
[39] T. Nacke, A. Barthel, C. Pflieger, U. Pliquett, D. Beckmann, A. Goller, Continuous process monitoring for biogas plants using microwave sensors, in: Electronics Conference (BEC), 2010 12th Biennial Baltic, 2010, pp. 239-242.
[40] O. Korostynska, A. Arshak, P. Creedon, K. Arshak, L. Wendling, A.I. Al-Shamma'a, S. O'Keeffe, Glucose monitoring using electromagnetic waves and microsensor with interdigitated electrodes, in: Sensors Applications Symposium, 2009. SAS 2009. IEEE, 2009, pp. 34-37.
[41] A. Mason, S. Wylie, A. Thomas, H. Keele, A. Shaw, A. Al-Shamma’a, HEPA Filter Material Load Detection Using a Microwave Cavity Sensor, International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, 3 (2010) 16.
[42] B. O'Flynn, F. Regan, A. Lawlor, J. Wallace, J. Torres, C. O'Mathuna, Experiences and recommendations in deploying a real-time, water quality monitoring system, Measurement Science and Technology, 21 (2010) 124004.
[43] F. Regan, A. Lawlor, B.O. Flynn, J. Torres, R. Martinez-Catala, C. O'Mathuna, J. Wallace, A demonstration of wireless sensing for long term monitoring of water quality, in: Local Computer Networks, 2009. LCN 2009. IEEE 34th Conference on, 2009, pp. 819-825.
[44] B. O'Flynn, R. Martinez-Catala, S. Harte, C. O'Mathuna, J. Geary, C. Slater, F. Regan, D. Diamond, H. Murphy, SmartCoast: A Wireless Sensor Network for water quality monitoring, in: 32nd IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN 2007, October 15, 2007 - October 18, 2007, IEEE Computer Society, Dublin, Ireland, 2007, pp. 815-816.
[45] J. Tschmelak, G. Proll, J. Riedt, J. Kaiser, P. Kraemmer, L. Bárzaga, J.S. Wilkinson, P. Hua, J.P. Hole, R. Nudd, M. Jackson, R. Abuknesha, D. Barceló, S. Rodriguez-Mozaz, M.J. López de Alda, F. Sacher, J. Stien, J. Slobodník, P. Oswald, H. Kozmenko, E. Korenková, L. Tóthová, Z. Krascsenits, G. Gauglitz, Automated Water Analyser Computer Supported System (AWACSS): Part II: Intelligent, remote-controlled, cost-effective, on-line, water-monitoring measurement system, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 20 (2005) 1509-1519.
[46] I. Campos, R. Masot, M. Alcañiz, L. Gil, J. Soto, J.L. Vivancos, E. García-Breijo, R.H. Labrador, J.M. Barat, R. Martínez-Mañez, Accurate concentration determination of anions nitrate, nitrite and chloride in minced meat using a voltammetric electronic tongue, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 149 (2010) 71-78.
[47] E. Garcia-Breijo, J. Atkinson, J. Garrigues, L. Gil, J. Ibanez, M. Glanc, C. Olguin, An electronic tongue for monitoring drinking waters using a fuzzy ARTMAP neural network implemented on a microcontroller, in: Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2011 IEEE International Symposium on, 2011, pp. 1270-1275.
[48] M. Hong, W. Zhong, J. Jiyong, G. Zhongnian, W. Ping, Electronic tongue analysis system for detection of heavy metal, in: Control and Decision Conference, 2008. CCDC 2008. Chinese, 2008, pp. 1768-1771.
[49] P.K. Kundu, A. Chatterjee, P.C. Panchariya, Electronic Tongue System for Water Sample Authentication: A Slantlet-Transform-Based Approach, Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on, 60 (2011) 1959-1966.
[50] M. Lindquist, P. Wide, New sensor system for drinking water quality, in: Sensors for Industry Conference, 2004. Proceedings the ISA/IEEE, 2004, pp. 30-34.
[51] A. Scozzari, P. Wide, The Process from a Redundant and General Sensor Concept - Towards an Optimal Sensor Strategy for the Assessment of Drinking Water Quality, in: Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference Proceedings, 2008. IMTC 2008. IEEE, 2008, pp. 836-841.
[52] X. Qin, F. Gao, G. Chen, Wastewater quality monitoring system using sensor fusion and machine learning techniques, Water Research, 46 (2012) 1133-1144.