SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 6, Issue 5, Pages 2,119-2,135, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ijssis-2017-630
License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Received Date : 05-September-2013 / Accepted: 17-November-2013 / Published Online: 16-December-2013
Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors are widely used as a simple presence trigger for alarms and a reliable counter for people in security home and smart office. Most paper have focused on the design and application of such systems, however, few research has be done on the detecting of targets in an outdoor environment using PIR sensors. In this paper, we realize a detecting system by means of PIR nodes to monitor outdoor targets more than 20 meters away from the PIR detectors. Furthermore, because of velocity difference, by extracting time domain amplitude, signal length, maximum frequency and corresponding frequency amplitude as features, we successfully classify people, wheeled vehicle and tracked vehicle in the unattended wild ground environment. Our detecting and classifying results confirm the average accuracy is 85.67% and 82.67% when PIR detectors are deployed 20 meters and 30 meters away from the area of interest (AoI), respectively.
 M. Moghavvemi and L.C. Seng, “Pyroelectric infrared sensor for intruder detection”, Proceedings of TENCON 2004: IEEE Region 10 Conference, Chiang Mai, Thailand 21-24 November 2004, pp. 656-659.
 K. Hashimoto, K. Morinaka, N. Yoshiike, C. Kawaguchi and S. Matsueda, “People count system using multi-sensing application”, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 16-19 June 1997, pp. 1291-1294.
 T.M. Hussain, T. Saadawi and S.A. Ahmed, “Overhead infrared sensor for monitoring vehicular traffic”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 1993, pp. 477-483.
 T.M. Hussain, A. Baig, T.N. Saadawi and S.A. Ahmed, “Infrared pyroelectric sensor for detection of vehicular traffic using digital signal processing techniques”. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 44, No. 3, 1995, pp. 683-689.
 P. Zappi, E. Farella and L. Benini, “Enhancing the spatial resolution of presence detection in a PIR based wireless surveillance network”. Proceedings of 6th IEEE Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance, London, UK, 5-7 September 2007, pp. 295-300.
 S. Lee, K.N. Ha and K.C. Lee, “A pyroelectric infrared sensor-based indoor location-aware system for the smart home”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 52, No. 4, 2006, pp. 1311-1317.
 H.H. Kim, K.N. Ha, S. Lee and K.C. Lee, “Resident location-recognition algorithm using a Bayesian classifier in the PIR sensor-based indoor location-aware system”, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2009, pp. 240-245.
 X. Luo, B. Shen, X. Guo, G. Luo and G. Wang, “Human tracking using ceiling pyroelectric infrared sensors”, Proceedings of 7th IEEE International Conference on Control and Automation, Christchurch, New Zealand, 9-11 December 2009, pp. 1716-1721.
 R.C. Luo, O. Chen and C.W. Lin, “Indoor human monitoring system using wireless and pyroelectric sensory fusion system”, Proceedings of 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2010), Taipei, Taiwan 18-22 October 2010, pp. 1507-1512.
 X. Zhou, Q. Hao and H. Fei, “1-bit walker recognition with distributed binary pyroelectric sensors”, Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems (MFI 2010), Salt Lake City, UT, United States 5-7 September 2010, pp. 168-173.
 A. Kaushik and B. Celler, “Characterization of Passive Infrared Sensors For Monitoring Occupancy Pattern”, Proceedings of 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS), 31-Auguest to 3-September 2006, pp. 5257-5260.
 S. Honda, K.I. Fukui, K. Moriyama, S. Kurihara and M. Numao, “Extracting human behaviors with infrared sensor network”, Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems, Braunschweig, Germany, 6-8 June 2007, pp. 122-125.
 P. Zappi, E. Farella and L. Benini, “Pyroelectric infrared sensors based distance estimation”, Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2008 Conference, Lecce, Italy, 26-29 October 2008, pp. 716-719.
 P. Zappi, E. Farella and L. Benini, “Tracking Motion Direction and Distance With Pyroelectric IR Sensors”, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 10, No. 9, 2010, pp. 1486-1494.
 P.E. William and M.W. Hoffman, “Classification of Military Ground Vehicles Using Time Domain Harmonics' Amplitudes”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 60, No. 11, 2011, pp. 3720-3731.
 Wikipedia Pyroelectricity. Available online: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyroelectricity (accessed on 15-10-2011).
 T.I Datasheet,. Mixed Signal Microcontroller. Available online: http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/msp430f5438a.pdf
 Optoelectronics, P. Frequency Range for Pyroelectric Detectors. Available online: http://www.perkinelmer.com/
 D. Meyer, F. Leisch and K. Hornik, “The support vector machine under test”, Neurocomputing, Vol. 55, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 169-186.
 B. Shen and G. Wang, “Distributed target localization and tracking with wireless pyroelectric sensor networks”, International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2013, pp. 1400-1418.