Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems

Professor Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Exeley Inc. (New York)

Subject: Computational Science & Engineering , Engineering, Electrical & Electronic


eISSN: 1178-5608



VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 1 (March 2014) > List of articles


Maher Assaad * / Israel Yohannes * / Amine Bermak * / Dominique Ginhac * / Fabrice Meriaudeau *

Keywords : Color sensor, light sensor, analog to digital converter (ADC), flash ADC

Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1-12, DOI:

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 20-November-2013 / Accepted: 02-February-2014 / Published Online: 27-December-2017



The paper presents a color sensor system that can process light reflected from a surface and produce a digital output representing the color of the surface. The end-user interface circuit requires only a 3-bit pseudo flash analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in place of the conventional/typical design comprising ADC, digital signal processor and memory. For scalability and compactness, the ADC was designed such that only two comparators were required regardless of the number of color/wavelength to be identified. The complete system design has been implemented in hardware (bread board) and fully characterized. The ADC achieved less than 0.1 LSB for both INL and DNL. The experimental results also demonstrate that the color sensor system is working as intended at 20 kHz while maintaining greater than 2.5 ENOB by the ADC. This work proved the design concept and the system will be realized with integrated circuit technology in future to improve its operating frequency.

Content not available PDF Share



[1] C. Zhang and K. S. Suslick, "Colorimetric sensor array for soft drink analysis," J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 55, pp. 237-242, 2007.
[2] P. D. Oram and J. Strine, "Color measurement of a solid active pharmaceutical ingredient as an aid to identifying key process parameters," J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., vol. 40, pp. 1021-1024, 2006.
[3] M. Frank, et al., "High-speed industrial color and position sensors," Electronic Imaging'99, pp. 50-57, 1999.
[4] A. Pacquit, et al., "Development of a smart packaging for the monitoring of fish spoilage," Food Chem., vol. 102, pp. 466-470, 2007.
[5] E. J. Cadieux Jr, et al., "System and method for visually inspecting a cigarette packaging process," ed: Google Patents, 2002.
[6] D.-J. Lee and R. S. Anbalagan, "High-speed automated color-sorting vision system," in Optical Engineering Midwest'95, pp. 573-579, 1995.
[7] J. V. Popov-Raljić, et al., "Investigations of bread production with postponed staling applying instrumental measurements of bread crumb color," Sensors, vol. 9, pp. 8613-8623, 2009.
[8] J. V. Popov-Raljić and J. G. Laličić-Petronijević, "Sensory properties and color measurements of dietary chocolates with different compositions during storage for up to 360 days," Sensors, vol. 9, pp. 1996-2016, 2009.
[9] R. Bogue, "Optical chemical sensors for industrial applications," Sensor Review., vol. 27, pp. 86-90, 2007.
[10] R. Baribeau, et al., "Color reflectance modeling using a polychromatic laser range sensor," IEEE T Pattern. Anal., vol. 14, pp. 263-269, 1992.
[11] B. V. Zeghbroeck, "p-n Junctions," Principles of Semiconductor Devices, ed:, 2011.
[12] M. J. Deen and P. K. Basu, "Silicon Photodetectors," Silicon Photonics, ed: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012, pp. 197-247.
[13] H. L. L. Ling, "Integrated Photodiode and Amplifier OPT301," International Electronic Elements, vol. 12, p. 017, 2002.
[14] G. Torfs, et al., "Low-power 4-bit flash analogue to digital converter for ranging applications," Electronics letters, vol. 47, pp. 20-22, 2011.
[15] S.-K. Lee, et al., "A 21 fJ/conversion-step 100 kS/s 10-bit ADC with a low-noise time-domain comparator for low-power sensor interface," IEEE J Solid-State Circcuits, vol. 46, pp. 651-659, 2011.
[16] M. D. Scott, et al., "An ultra–low power ADC for distributed sensor networks," ESSCIRC 2002, pp. 255-258, Florence, Italy, 2002.
[17] M. Assaad, et al., "Two-Stage Interface Circuit Design for a 32-Color Resolution Optical Sensor," IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 13, pp. 610-617, 2013.
[18] M. Assaad and I. Yohannes, "Design and characterization of multi-color sensor circuit," IEICE Electronics Express, vol. 8, pp. 2093-2099, 2011.
[19] X. Fang, et al., "Colorimetric porous photonic bandgap sensors with integrated CMOS color detectors," IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 6, pp. 661-667, 2006.
[20] A. Longoni, et al., "The transverse field detector (TFD): A novel color-sensitive CMOS device," IEEE Electonic Device Letters, vol. 29, pp. 1306-1308, 2008.
[21] P. Catrysse, et al., "An integrated color pixel in 0.18μm CMOS technology," Electron Devices Meeting, 2001. IEDM'01. Technical Digest. International, pp. 24.4. 1-24.4. 4., 2001.
[22] H. Escid, et al., "0.35 mm CMOS optical sensor for an integrated transimpedance circuit," the International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 467-481, September 2011.
[23] K. Ogawa, et al., "optical probe current sensor module using the Kerr effect of exchange-coupled magnetic film and its application to IGBT switching current measurements, " the International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 347-361, June 2012.