SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 32-47, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ijssis-2017-644
License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Received Date : 05-January-2014 / Accepted: 15-February-2014 / Published Online: 27-December-2017
This paper reports on testing of the performance of SmartLife® e-textile material. In particular, the response of the integrated conductive pathways at microwave frequencies in the region of 9 kHz to 6 GHz is investigated for both biomedical sensing and signal transmission purposes. The experimental results confirm the viability of exciting the e-textile material at ISM microwave frequencies at mW powers for the purposes of wearable non-invasive sensing. Custom made flexible microwave sensors suitable for integration into smart e-textile fabric were tested in their ability to perform real-time body parameters monitoring, in particular the level and composition of perspiration. Gradual change in both the resonant frequency peak and amplitude was recorded in the 2-3 GHz frequency range with increased volume of fluid (50-350 μl) when in contact with a 5×8 mm2 sensor.This fabric with built-in textile sensors could serve as a platform for “high-tech designer outfits” for an advanced healthcare approach where real-time data on patient condition is transmitted wirelessly for immediate processing and corrective action if necessary. The novel sensor reported here was recently patented under milestone UK patent application number GB 2500000.
 V. J. Lumelsky, M. S. Shur, and S. Wagner, "Sensitive skin," Sensors Journal, IEEE, vol. 1, pp. 41-51, 2001.
 D. Curone, E. L. Secco, L. Caldani, A. Lanatà, R. Paradiso, A. Tognetti, and G. Magenes, "Assessment of sensing fire fighters uniforms for physiological parameter measurement in harsh environment," IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol. 16, pp. 501-511, 2012.
 H. Leng and Y. Lin, "Design and fabrication of a MEMS/NANO-skin system for human physiological response measurement," in Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems 2010, March 8, 2010 - March 11, 2010, San Diego, CA, United states, 2010, pp. The Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE); American Society of Mechanical Engineers; KAIST.
 K. Arshak and O. Korostynska, Advanced materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry: Artech House, 2006.
 A. N. Sokolov, M. E. Roberts, and Z. Bao, "Fabrication of low-cost electronic biosensors," Materials Today, vol. 12, pp. 12-20, 2009.
 K. Arshak and O. Korostynska, "Thin- and thick-film real-time gamma radiation detectors," IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 5, pp. 574-580, 2005.
 C.-M. Yang, W.-T. Huang, T.-L. Yang, M.-C. Hsieh, and C.-T. Liu, "Textiles digital sensors for detecting breathing frequency," in 5th International Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks, BSN 2008, in conjunction with the 5th International Summer School and Symposium on Medical Devices and Biosensors, ISSS-MDBS 2008, June 1, 2008 - June 3, 2008, Hong Kong, China, 2008, pp. 276-279.
 P. Rai, P. Shyamkumar, S. Oh, H. Kwon, G. N. Mathur, V. K. Varadan, and M. P. Agarwal, "Smart healthcare textile sensor system for unhindered-pervasive health monitoring," in Nanosensors, Biosensors, and Info-Tech Sensors and Systems 2012, March 12, 2012 - March 15, 2012, San Diego, CA, United states, 2012, pp. The Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE); American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
 A. Dittmar and A. Lymberis, "Smart clothes and associated wearable devices for biomedical ambulatory monitoring," in 13th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Microsystems, TRANSDUCERS '05, June 5, 2005 - June 9, 2005, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2005, pp. 221-227.
 T. Vervust, G. Buyle, F. Bossuyt, and J. Vanfleteren, "Integration of stretchable and washable electronic modules for smart textile applications," Journal of The Textile Institute, vol. 103, pp. 1127-1138, 2012/10/01 2012.
 M. Pacelli, G. Loriga, N. Taccini, and R. Paradiso, "Sensing fabrics for monitoring physiological and biomechanical variables: E-textile solutions," in 2006 3rd IEEE-EMBS International Summer School and Symposium on Medical Devices and Biosensors, ISSS-MDBS 2006, September 4, 2006 - September 6, 2006, Cambridge, MA, United states, 2006, pp. 1-4.
 R. R. Fletcher and S. Kulkarni, "Wearable doppler radar with integrated antenna for patient vital sign monitoring," in 2010 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium, RWW 2010, January 10, 2010 - January 14, 2010, New Orleans, LA, United states, 2010, pp. 276-279.
 SmartLife. (2012). Garments that Sense: E textile Solution to Remote Health Monitoring. Available: http://www.smartlifetech.com/
 B. Kapilevich and B. Litvak, "Microwave sensor for accurate measurements of water solution concentrations," in APMC Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, Bangkok, 2007, pp. 1-4.
 J. D. Boon and J. M. Brubaker, "Acoustic-microwave water level sensor comparisons in an estuarine environment," in OCEANS, Quebec, Canada, 2008, pp. 1-5.
 B. Jackson and T. Jayanthy, "A novel method for water impurity concentration using microstrip resonator sensor," in Recent Advances in Space Technology Services and Climate Change (RSTSCC), Chennai, India., 2010, pp. 376-379.
 C. Bernou, D. Rebière, and J. Pistré, "Microwave sensors: a new sensing principle. Application to humidity detection," Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 68, pp. 88-93, 2000.
 O. Korostynska, A. Mason, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, "Proof-of-Concept Microwave Sensor on Flexible Substrate for Real-Time Water Composition Analysis," presented at the ICST 2012: 6th International Conference on Sensing Technology, Special focus on Sensors for Agriculture and Environmental Monitoring, Kolkata, India, 2012.
 T. Nacke, A. Barthel, C. Pflieger, U. Pliquett, D. Beckmann, and A. Goller, "Continuous process monitoring for biogas plants using microwave sensors," in 12th Biennial Baltic Electronics Conference (BEC) Tallinn, Estonia, 2010, pp. 239-242.
 K. Y. You, J. Salleh, Z. Abbas, and L. L. You, "A rectangular patch antenna technique for the determination of moisture content in soil," in Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, PIERS 2010 Cambridge, July 5, 2010 - July 8, 2010, Cambridge, MA, United states, 2010, pp. 850-854.
 A. Mason, O. Korostynska, S. Wylie, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, "Non-destructive evaluation of an activated carbon using microwaves to determine residual life," Carbon, vol. 67, pp. 1-9, 2014.
 O. Korostynska, A. Arshak, P. Creedon, K. Arshak, L. Wendling, A. I. Al-Shamma'a, and S. O'Keeffe, "Glucose monitoring using electromagnetic waves and microsensor with interdigitated electrodes," in IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium, SAS, New Orleans, LA, USA, 2009, pp. 34-37.
 A. Mason, S. Wylie, A. Thomas, H. Keele, A. Shaw, and A. Al-Shamma’a, "HEPA Filter Material Load Detection Using a Microwave Cavity Sensor," International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, vol. 3, pp. 322-337, Sep 2010.
 A. Al-Shamma'a, A. Mason, and A. Shaw, "Patent: Non-Invasive Monitoring Device," US2012150000 (A1), WO2010131029 (A1), EP2429397 (A1), 2012.
 J. N. Lange and S. S. Shope, "Microwave Properties of Drilling Fluids," Geophysics, vol. 46, pp. 322-332, 1981.
 D. A. Kidwell, J. C. Holland, and S. Athanaselis, "Testing for drugs of abuse in saliva and sweat," Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 713, pp. 111-135, 1998.
 L. Yu, Y. Lu, and X. Zhu, "Smart hospital based on internet of things," Journal of Networks, vol. 7, pp. 1654-1661, 2012.
 A. J. Jara, M. A. Zamora, and A. F. G. Skarmeta, "An Internet of things-based personal device for diabetes therapy management in ambient assisted living (AAL)," Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 15, pp. 431-440, 2011.
 X. Li, R. Lu, X. Liang, X. Shen, J. Chen, and X. Lin, "Smart community: An internet of things application," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 49, pp. 68-75, 2011.
 J. Pascual Espada, "Design service-oriented collaborative virtual objects within Internet of things," Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments, vol. 4, pp. 483-484, 2012.