SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 291-315, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ijssis-2017-760
License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Received Date : 01-November-2014 / Accepted: 14-January-2015 / Published Online: 01-March-2015
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have limited lifetime due to on board battery. The lifetime can be improved by energy harvesting solutions. In this paper the solar energy harvester requirements for TelosB mote has been analyzed and calculated. Photovoltaic (PV) panel and battery sizing requirements are calculated by assuming that the mote follows SMAC and TDMA-MAC schedule for image communication. The calculations are validated by comparing it with the parameters calculated from the real time current consumption measurement of the mote. Lifetime has been predicted with the physical design of energy harvester. The analysis confirms that the lifetime of the network can be increased to a greater extent, by proper sizing of the harvester and efficient utilization of the available energy.
 F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci, “'Survey of Sensor Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol.40, no.8, pp.102-114, 2002  Ian F., Akyildiz, Tommaso Melodia and Kaushik R.Chowdhury, “A Survey on wireless multimedia sensor networks,” Computer Networks the International Journal of Computer and Telecommunications Networking, vol.51, no.4, pp.921-960, March 2007.  Abhiman Hande, Todd Polk, William Walker, Dinesh Bhatia., “Indoor Solar Energy Harvesting for Sensor Network Router Nodes,” J. Microprocessors & Microsystems, vol.31, no.6, pp.420-432, Sep 2007.  Andrea Castagnetti, Alain Pegatoquet, Cecile Belleudy and Michel Auguin, “A framework for modeling and simulating energy harvesting WSN nodes with efficient power management policies,” EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems, vol.2012, no.1,pp. Dec 2012.  Andrea Castagnetti, Alain Pegatoquet, C´ecile Belleudy and Michel Auguin, “An Efficient State of Charge Prediction Model for Solar Harvesting WSN Platforms,” in Proc. of 19th International conference on Systems, Signals and Image Processing, Vienna, Austria, pp.122-125, April 2012.  Aredes M, França B, and Aredes M, “Fuzzy Adaptive P&O Control for MPPT of a Photovoltaic Module,” Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, vol. 2, 120-129, 2014.  H. Al-Abri, S.C. Mukhopadhyay, G. A. Punchihewa, N. Suryadevara and Y. M. Huang, “Comparison of applying Sleep Mode function to the Smart Wireless Environmental Sensing Stations for Extending the Life time,” in Proc. of IEEE I2MTC 2012 conference, Graz, Austria, pp. 2634-2639, 2012.  Babaa S, Armstrong M, and Pickert V, “Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Control Methods for PV Systems,” Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, vol. 2, pp.59-72, 2014.  Blue Solar SL8585mm, Solar Panel, http://www.xscyz.com/, accessed on May 2014. Cesare Alippi and Cristian Galperti, “An Adaptive System for Optimal Solar Energy Harvesting in Wireless Sensor Network Nodes,” IEEE Trans Circ Syst, vol.55, no.6, pp.1742-1750, July 2008. Chien-Ying Chen and Pai H. Chou, “DuraCap: a Supercapacitor-Based, Power-Bootstrapping, Maximum Power Point Tracking Energy-Harvesting System,” in Proc.of 2010 ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Low-Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), Austin, TX, USA, pp.313-318, August 18-20, 2010. Chulsung Park and Pai H. Chou., “Ambimax: Autonomous Energy Harvesting Platform for Multi-Supply Wireless Sensor Nodes,” in Proc.of 3rd Annual IEEE Communications Society on Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks conference, California, pp.168-177, 2006. S.J. Chiang, H.J. Shieh and M.C., Chen, “Modeling and Control of PV Charger System with SEPIC Converter,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol.56, no.11, pp.4344-4353, 2009.
Davide Brunelli, Clemens Moser, Lothar Thiele and Luca Benini, “Design of a Solar-Harvesting Circuit for Batteryless Embedded System,” IEEE Trans Circ Syst, vol.56, no.11, pp.2519-2528, Nov 2009. R.Erickson, D.Maksimovic, Fundamentals of power electronics, Kluwer Academic, Massachusetts, 2000. Eichhorn Travis, “Boost Converter Efficiency through Accurate Calculations,” Power Electronics Technology, vol.34, no.9, pp 30-35, Sep 2008. Ganti Raghu K., Praveen Jayachandran, Haiyun Luo and Tarek F. Abdelzaher, “Data link Streaming in Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Proc.of 4th International conference on Embedded networked sensor systems, ACM SenSys, New York, USA, pp. 209-222, Nov 2006.
HadiMalek and YangQuan Chen, “BICO MPPT: A Faster Maximum Power Point Tracker and its Application for Photovoltaic Panels,” International Journal of Photoenergy, Vol. 2014, Article ID 586503, 9 pages. Hoonki Kim, et.al, “A 1-mW Solar-Energy-Harvesting Circuit Using an Adaptive MPPT With a SAR and a Counter,” IEEE Trans Circ Syst-II,vol.60, no.6,pp.331-335, June 2013. R.Hemalatha, R.Ramaprabha, S.Radha, “Modeling of Photovoltaic Charging System for the Battery Powered Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Proc.of Third International Conference on Trends in Information Telecommunication and Computing, Lecture notes in Electrical Engineering, vol.150, pp. 225-235, 2013. Z.Ivanovic, B.Blanusa, M.Knezic, “Power Loss Model for Efficiency Improvement of Boost Converter,” in Proc.of XXIII International Symposium on Information, Communication and Automation Technologies, Sarajevo, Oct 27-29, 2011. Joseph Polastre, Robert Szewczyk and David Culler, “Telos: Enabling Ultra-Low Power Wireless Research” in Proc.of 4th international symposium on Information processing in sensor networks, LOS Angeles, CA, pp. 364-369, April 2005.
A.Lay-Ekuakille, G. Vendramin, A. Fedele, L. Vasanelli and A. Trotta, “PV Maximum Power Point Tracking Through Pyranometric Sensor: Modelling and Characterization,” International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp.659-678, 2008. Liu, C.-L, Chen, J.-H, Liu, Y.-H, Yang, Z.-Z, “An Asymmetrical Fuzzy-Logic-Control-Based MPPT Algorithm for Photovoltaic Systems,” Energies, vol.7, 2177-2193, 2014. MATLAB and Simulink for technical computing, www.mathworks.in, accessed on May 2014. NiMH battery datasheet, www.rapidonline.com. accessed on May 2014. C. Ranhotigamage and S. C. Mukhopadhyay, “Field Trials and Performance Monitoring of Distributed Solar Panels using a Low Cost Wireless Sensors Network for Domestic Applications,” IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 11, No. 10, pp. 2583-2590, 2011. C. Ranhotigamage, S.C.Mukhopadhyay, S.N.Garratt and W.M.Campbell, “Measurement and Monitoring of Performance Parameters of Distributed Solar Panels using Wireless Sensors Network,” in Proc. of IEEE I2MTC 2011 conference, Hangzhou China, pp. 1567-1572, 2011. C. Ranhotigamage, S.C.Mukhopadhyay, S.N.Garratt and W.M.Campbell, “Wireless Performance Monitoring of Distributed Solar Panel Networks,” in Proc. of 2010 International Digital Signal Processing Creative Design Contest, Taiwan, pp. 44-49, 2010. S.Sanka and G. Konchady, “Communication between Wireless Sensor Devices and GNU Radio,” May 2009.
G.Shafiullah, A.Thompson, Wolfs, Peter, S .Ali, “Energy-Efficient TDMA MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Applications,” in Proc. of International Workshop on Internet and Distributed Computing Systems, Khulna, Bangladesh, pp. 85-90, Dec 2008. Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury, Dipankar Mukherjee and Hiranmay Saha, “FPGA based Maximum Power Point Tracker of Partially Shaded Solar Photovoltaic Arrays using Modified Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization,” International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Vol. 2, no. 4, 661-675, 2009. Takao Kikuoka and Hiroaki Yamamoto, “System for measuring state of charge of storage battery,” US Patent 4377787, March 1983. Ting CAO, Yuhao WANG, Xinmin XIONG and Yan HAO,“Cluster-based Routing Performance Optimization Constraint of Energy, Delay and Connectivity Metrics in Wireless Sensor Network,” International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Vol. 6, No. 5, pp.2103-2118, 2013. Trishan Esram and Patrick L. Chapman, “Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol.22, no.2, pp.439-449, June 2007. Wei Ye, John Heidelmann and Deborah Estrin, “Energy efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks,” in Proc.of IEEE Infocom, New York, USA, pp. 1567-1576, June 2002. Wei Ye, John Heidelmann and Deborah Estrin., “Medium Access control with coordinated adaptive sleeping for wireless sensor networks,” IEEE/ACM trans. on Networking, vol.12, pp. 493-506, June 2004. Xiaofan Jiang, J.Polastre and D.Culler, “Perpetual environmentally powered sensor networks,” in Proc. of Fourth International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, pp.463-468, April 15, 2005.
Ying Guo, Feng Hong and Zhongwen Guo, “Duty Cycling in Target Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network Systems,” International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp.1054-1076, 2013.