SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 966-991, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ijssis-2017-791
License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Received Date : 01-February-2015 / Accepted: 30-March-2015 / Published Online: 01-June-2015
Multi-touch tabletop displays provide a co-located collaborative workspace for multiple users around a physical table. They sit together and perform collaborative interaction to select and manipulate digital contents using their bare fingers. However, these systems bring a new paradigm shift in user interaction and present various challenges to design natural user interfaces respectively. The growing popularity of tabletop displays and their related issues have gained a greater attention among researchers in academia and industry. It creates a need to present an overview of multi-touch tabletop displays. This review paper attempts to present the touch enabling technologies that support in the construction of multi-touch tabletop displays. It also presents the important applications of multi-touch tabletop displays in different domains and their challenging issues in different perspectives. Finally, this paper proposes the future work.
 K. Hinckley, “Input technologies and techniques,” Handb. Fundam. Evol. Technol., pp. 1–65, 2002.
 J. Preece, Y. Rogers, and H. Sharp, Interaction design: beyond human-computer interaction, 2nd Edition, vol. 11, no. 4. John Wiley, 2007, p. 800.
 B. Dumas, D. Lalanne, and S. Oviatt, “Multimodal Interfaces: A Survey of Principles, Models and Frameworks,” Hum. Mach. Interact., vol. 5440, pp. 3–26, 2009.
 M. Turk, “Multimodal interaction: A review,” Pattern Recognit. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 189–195, 2014.
 F. Karray, M. Alemzadeh, J. A. Saleh, and M. N. Arab, “Human-Computer Interaction : Overview on State of the Art,” Int. J., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 137–159, 2008.
 P. A. Rego, P. M. Moreira, and L. P. Reis, “Natural user interfaces in serious games for rehabilitation,” 6th Iber. Conf. Inf. Syst. Technol. (CISTI 2011), pp. 1–4, 2011.
 A. Câmara, “Natural user interfaces,” Proc. 13th IFIP TC 13 Int. …, 2011.
 D. Wigdor and D. Wixon, Brave NUI World: Designing Natural User Interfaces for Touch and Gesture. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc, 2011, p. 253.
 C. Shen, “From Clicks to Touches : Enabling Face-to-Face Shared Social Interface on Multi-touch Tabletops,” Communities, vol. 4564, pp. 169–175, 2007.
 C. Forlines, D. Wigdor, C. Shen, and R. Balakrishnan, “Direct-touch vs. mouse input for tabletop displays,” Proc. SIGCHI Conf. Hum. factors Comput. Syst. CHI 07, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 647, 2007.
 M. Haller, P. Brandl, C. Richter, J. Leitner, T. Seifried, A. Gokcezade, and D. Leithinger, “Interactive Displays and Next-Generation Interfaces,” Hagenb. Res., p. pp 433–472, 2009.
 M. Alshamari and P. Mayhew, “Technical Review: Current Issues of Usability Testing,” IETE Technical Review, vol. 26, no. 6. p. 402, 2009.
 B. A. & Y. Malik, “Review of Challenges, Requirements, and Approaches of Pervasive Computing System Evaluation,” IETE Tech. Rev., vol. Volume 29, no. issue 6, November 2012, pp. 506–522, 2014.
 J. A. Nakatani, L. H., & Rohrlich, “Soft machines: A philosophy of user- computer interface design.,” in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Compung Systems (CHI’83),, 1983, pp. 12–15.
 S. Lee, W. Buxton, and K. C. Smith, “A multi-touch three dimensional touch-sensitive tablet,” ACM SIGCHI Bull., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 21–25, 1985.
 J. Schöning, P. Brandl, F. Daiber, F. Echtler, O. Hilliges, J. Hook, M. Löchtefeld, N. Motamedi, L. Muller, P. Olivier, T. Roth, and U. Von Zadow, “Multi-Touch Surfaces : A Technical Guide Technical Report TUM-I0833 Categories and Subject Descriptors,” Most, p. 19, 2008.
 J. Y. HAN, “Low-cost multi-touch sensing through frustrated total internal reflection,” in Proceedings of the 18th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology. Seattle, WA, USA, ACM., 2005, pp. 115–118.
 P. Dietz and D. Leigh, “DiamondTouch: a multi-user touch technology,” in Interface, 2001, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 219–226.
 R. P. . M. Fihn, “Introduction to Touchscreen Technologies,” in Handbook of Visual Display Technology, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012, p. pp 935–974.
 N. U. I. G. Authors, C. Release, N. U. I. Group, A. A. License, and J. R. Contact, “Multi-Touch Technologies,” Gesture, vol. 64, no. 5, p. 89, 2009.
 S. Izadi, S. Hodges, A. Butler, A. Rrustemi, and B. Buxton, “ThinSight: integrated optical multi-touch sensing through thin form-factor displays,” Proc. 2007 Work. Emerg. displays Technol. images beyond Futur. displays Interact., vol. 1, no. 212, pp. 8–11, 2007.
 Apple Inc, “iPhone Multi-touch Screen,” 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.apple.com/iphone/.
 J. Rekimoto, “SmartSkin : An Infrastructure for Freehand Manipulation on Interactive Surfaces,” Proc. SIGCHI Conf. Hum. factors Comput. Syst. Chang. our world Chang. ourselves, vol. 02, no. 4, pp. 113–120, 2002.
 J. Y. Han, “Multi-touch interaction wall,” ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Emerg. Technol. SIGGRAPH 06, p. 25, 2006.
 S. C. Seow, D. Wixon, S. MacKenzie, G. Jacucci, A. Morrison, and A. Wilson, “Multitouch and surface computing,” Proc. 27th Int. Conf. Ext. Abstr. Hum. factors Comput. Syst. CHI EA 09, p. 4767, 2009.
 T. E. Hansen, “Multi-touch User Interfaces,” 2009.
 W. Liu, “Natural user interface- next mainstream product user interface,” 2010 IEEE 11th Int. Conf. Comput. Ind. Des. Concept. Des. 1, vol. 1, pp. 203–205, 2010.
 C. Müller-Tomfelde and M. Fjeld, “Introduction: A Short History of Tabletop Research, Technologies, and Products,” in Tabletops Horizontal Interactive Displays, C. Müller-Tomfelde, Ed. Springer, 2010, pp. 1–24.
 M. R. Morris, Supporting Effective Interaction with Tabletop Groupware, vol. 1, no. April. Ieee, 2006, pp. 55–56.
 R. Chang, F. Wang, and P. You, “A Survey on the Development of Multi-touch Technology,” in 2010 AsiaPacific Conference on Wearable Computing Systems, 2010, pp. 363–366.
 and G. P. Claudio Pinhanez, Rick Kjeldsen, Lijun Tang, Anthony Levas, Mark Podlaseck, Noi Sukaviriya, “Creating touch-screens anywhere with interactive projected displays.,” in In Proceedings of the eleventh ACM international conference on Multimedia (MULTIMEDIA ’03). ACM, New York, NY, USA, DOI=10.1145/957013.957112, 2003, pp. 460–461.
 A. D. Wilson, “PlayAnywhere: a compact interactive tabletop projection-vision system,” in UIST 05 Proceedings of the 18th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology, 2005, pp. 83–92.
 “Microsoft Surface Table.” [Online]. Available: http://www.surface.com .
 S. Jordà, M. Kaltenbrunner, G. Geiger, and M. Alonso, “The reacTable,” ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Sketches SIGGRAPH 06, p. 91, 2006.
 M. Matsushita, “Lumisight Table : A Face-to-face Collaboration Support System That Optimizes Direction of Projected Information to Each Stakeholder,” CSCW, pp. 274–283, 2004.
 M. Wu and R. Balakrishnan, “Multi-finger and whole hand gestural interaction techniques for multi-user tabletop displays,” Proc. 16th Annu. ACM Symp. User interface Softw. Technol. UIST 03, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 193–202, 2003.
 S. Malik, “An exploration of multi-finger interaction on multi-touch surfaces,” University of Toronto, 2007.
 G. C. Kaindl, “Exploring Multi-Touch Interaction,” Technische Universität Wien, 2009.
 P. Dillenbourg and M. Evans, “Interactive tabletops in education,” Int. J. Comput. Collab. Learn., vol. 6, no. July, pp. 491–514, 2011.
 S. E. Higgins, E. Mercier, E. Burd, and A. Hatch, “Multi-touch tables and the relationship with collaborative classroom pedagogies: A synthetic review,” Int. J. Comput. Collab. Learn., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 515–538, 2011.
 S. D. Scott, K. D. Grant, and R. L. Mandryk, “System guidelines for co-located, collaborative work on a tabletop display,” in Proceedings of the eighth conference on European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2003, vol. 2003, no. 5, pp. 159–178.
 C. Lundstrom, T. Rydell, C. Forsell, A. Persson, and A. Ynnerman, Multi-Touch Table System for Medical Visualization: Application to Orthopedic Surgery Planning, vol. 17, no. 12. IEEE, 2011, pp. 1775–1784.
 P. Isenberg, D. Fisher, S. A. Paul, M. Ringel Morris, K. Inkpen, and M. Czerwinski, “Co-Located Collaborative Visual Analytics Around a Tabletop Display.,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 689–702, 2011.
 C. Leonardi, F. Pianesi, D. Tomasini, and M. Zancanaro, “The Collaborative Workspace : A Co-located Tabletop Device to Support Meetings,” in COMPUTERS IN THE HUMAN INTERACTION LOOP, A. Waibel and R. Stiefelhagen, Eds. Springer, 2009, pp. 187–205.
 S. Carpendale, A. Miede, T. Isenberg, S. D. Scott, R. Kruger, S. Habelski, U. Hinrichs, and K. Inkpen, “Collaborative Interaction on Large Tabletop Displays,” in CONFERENCE SUPPLEMENT OF THE 2006 ACM CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER SUPPORTED COLLABORATIVE WORK (CSCW 2006, NOVEMBER 4–8, 2006, BANFF, ALBERTA, CANADA), 2006.
 E. H. Tse, “Multimodal Co-located Interaction,” THE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY, 2007.
 C. Shen, K. Ryall, C. Forlines, A. Esenther, F. D. Verniers, K. Everitt, M. Wu, D. Wigdor, M. R. Morris, M. Hancock, and E. Tse, “Informing the design of direct-touch tabletops.,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl., vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 36–46, 2006.
 K. C. Dohse, T. Dohse, J. D. Still, and D. J. Parkhurst, “Enhancing Multi-user Interaction with Multi-touch Tabletop Displays Using Hand Tracking,” in First International Conference on Advances in ComputerHuman Interaction, 2008, vol. 0, pp. 297–302.
 B. Labs, “7 Things You Should Know About Multi-Touch Interfaces,” Scenario, 2008.
 S. F. Brown, “Hands-on computing.,” Sci. Am., vol. 299, no. 1, pp. 64–67, 2008.
 C. North, T. Dwyer, B. Lee, D. Fisher, P. Isenberg, G. Robertson, and K. Inkpen, “Understanding Multi-touch Manipulation for Surface Computing,” HumanComputer Interact. 2009, vol. 5727, no. Part II, pp. 236–249, 2009.
 D. Kirk, S. Izadi, O. Hilliges, R. Banks, S. Taylor, and A. Sellen, “At home with surface computing?,” in Proceedings of the 2012 ACM annual conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI ’12, 2012, p. 159.
 P. Zaphiris, A. Ioannou, F. Loizides, and C. Vasiliou, “Ideas Mapping , Surface Computing and User Experience,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Interplay between User Experience UX Evaluation and System Development IUxSED 2012 part of NordiCHI 2012, 2012, pp. 4–9.
 J. Schöning, F. Steinicke, A. Krüger, K. Hinrichs, and D. Valkov, “Bimanual Interaction with Interscopic Multi-Touch Surfaces,” Ifip Int. Fed. Inf. Process., vol. 5727, no. 2, pp. 40–53, 2009.
 A. Olwal, O. Frykholm, K. Groth, and J. Moll, “Design and Evaluation of Interaction Technology for Medical Team Meetings,” Ifip Int. Fed. Inf. Process., pp. 505–522, 2011.
 T. E. C. S. Crisan, I. G. Tarnovan, B. Tebrean, “Optical Multi-touch System for Patient Monitoring and Medical Data Analysis No Title,” in International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology IFMBE Proceedings, 2009, p. pp 279–282.
 S. Higgins, E. Mercier, L. Burd, and A. Joyce-Gibbons, “Multi-touch Display Technology and Collaborative Learning Tasks,” Proc. World Conf. Educ. Multimed. Hypermedia Telecommun. 2010, no. Figure 1, pp. 1441–1448, 2010.
 M. A. Evans, L. Sciences, and V. Tech, “Collaborative Learning with Interactive Surfaces : An Interdisciplinary Agenda,” Learning, vol. 2, pp. 2008–2009, 2010.
 S. S. Yau, S. K. S. Gupta, F. Karim, S. I. Ahamed, Y. Wang, and B. Wang, “Smart classroom: Enhancing collaborative learning using pervasive computing technology,” Computer (Long. Beach. Calif)., pp. 13633–13642, 2003.
 J. S. Barnes, J. Derboven, and K. Luyten, “Multi-user Multi-touch Setups for Collaborative Learning in an Educational Setting,” Architecture, vol. 6240, pp. 181–188, 2010.
 C. M. M. Shuhong Xu, “Building a Multi-touch Tabletop for Classrooms,” in Edutainment Technologies. Educational Games and Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality Applications Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 6872, 2011, pp. 131–138.
 P. Isenberg, D. Fisher, M. Ringel, M. Kori, and I. Mary, “An Exploratory Study of Co-located Collaborative Visual Analytics Around a Tabletop Display,” October, vol. 23, pp. 179–186, 2010.
 K. Kim, T. Kulkarni, and N. Elmqvist, “Interaction Workspaces : Identity Tracking for Multi-user Collaboration on Camera-based Multi-touch Tabletops,” in Proceedings of the IEEE VisWeek Workshop on Collaborative Visualization on Interactive Surfaces, 2009, pp. 1–4.
 N. Mahyar, A. Sarvghad, and M. Tory, “Roles of notes in co-located collaborative visualization,” in Proceedings of the IEEE VisWeek Workshop on Collaborative Visualization on Interactive Surfaces, 2009, pp. 13–16.
 P. Isenberg, T. Isenberg, T. Hesselmann, B. Lee, U. von Zadow, and A. Tang, “Data Visualization on Interactive Surfaces: A Research Agenda,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 16–24, 2013.
 A. T. Teddy Seyed, Mario Costa Sousa, Frank Maurer, “SkyHunter: a multi-surface environment for supporting oil and gas exploration,” in ITS ’13: Proceedings of the 2013 ACM international conference on Interactive tabletops and surfaces, pp. 15–22.
 N. Sultanum, E. Sharlin, M. C. Sousa, D. N. Miranda-Filho, and R. Eastick, “Touching the depths: introducing tabletop interaction to reservoir engineering,” in ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces, 2010, pp. 105–108.
 T. Butkiewicz, D. H. Jeong, Z. Wartell, W. Ribarsky, and R. Chang, “Hierarchical multi-touch selection techniques for collaborative geospatial analysis,” Proc. SPIE, p. 73460D–73460D–9, 2009.
 F. H. Till Nagel, Erik Duval, “Visualizing Geospatial Co-authorship Data on a Multitouch Tabletop,” in 11th International Symposium, SG 2011, Bremen, Germany, July 18-20, 2011. Proceedings, 2011, pp. 134–137.
 Q. Sun, J. Lin, C.-W. Fu, S. Kaijima, and Y. He, “A multi-touch interface for fast architectural sketching and massing,” Proc. SIGCHI Conf. Hum. Factors Comput. Syst. - CHI ’13, pp. 247–256, 2013.
 E. TSE, S. GREENBERG, C. SHEN, and C. FORLINES, “Multimodal multiplayer tabletop gaming,” Computers in Entertainment, vol. 5, no. 2. p. 12, 2007.
 J. Tanenbaum, A. N. A. N. Antle, K. Seaborn, K. Tanenbaum, A. Bevans, and S. Wang, “Futura: Designing Multi-Touch Tabletop Games for Sustainability,” in GRAND Annual Conference 2010, 2010, pp. 93–100.
 L. Giusti, M. Zancanaro, E. Gal, and P. L. T. Weiss, “Dimensions of Collaboration on a Tabletop Interface for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder,” in CHI 2011 Session:Tabletop & Wall Displays, 2011, pp. 3295–3304.
 C. Wolfe, J. D. Smith, and T. C. N. Graham, “A low-cost infrastructure for tabletop games,” in Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Future Play Research, Play, Share - Future Play ’08, 2008, pp. 145–151.
 C. T. Dang and E. André, “Surface-poker: multimodality in tabletop games,” ACM Int. Conf. Interact. Tabletops Surfaces, pp. 251–252, 2010.
 Y.-D. Y. Ting-Han Chen, Hsin-Hou Lin, “Mojo iCuisine: The Design and Implementation of an Interactive Restaurant Tabletop Menu,” in Human-Computer Interaction. Towards Mobile and Intelligent Interaction Environments Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2011, pp. 185–194.
 J. M. Junko Itou, Shizuka Takao, “Development of Communication Support System at Mealtimes Using Tabletop Interface,” in 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part III, 2013, pp. 174–182.
 C. S. George Margetis, Dimitris Grammenos, Xenophon Zabulis, “iEat: An Interactive Table for Restaurant Customers’ Experience Enhancement,” in International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part II, 2013, pp. 666–670.
 S. Nayak, S. Zlatanova, H. Hofstra, H. Scholten, and A. Scotta, “Multi-user tangible interfaces for effective decision-making in disaster management,” in Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies for Monitoring and Prediction of Disasters, S. Nayak and S. Zlatanova, Eds. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008, pp. 243–266–266.
 K. Nebe, F. Klompmaker, H. Jung, and H. Fischer, “Exploiting New Interaction Techniques for Disaster Control Management Using Multitouch-, Tangible- and Pen-Based-Interaction,” in HCII ’11: Proceedings of the HCI International Conference, 2011, pp. 100–109.
 M. Ashdown, P. Tuddenham, and P. Robinson, “High-Resolution Interactive Displays,” in TabletopsHorizontal Interactive Displays, Springer, 2010, pp. 71–100.
 N. Wahab and H. B. Zaman, “The implementation of multi-touch table to support the military decision making through Critical Success Factors (CSFs),” Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 8007 LNCS, no. PART 4. pp. 523–529, 2013.
 S. Buisine, G. Besacier, A. Aoussat, and F. Vernier, “How do interactive tabletop systems influence collaboration?,” Comput. Human Behav., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 49–59, 2012.
 A. Ioannou, P. Zaphiris, and F. Loizides, “Mapping Ideas Around the Table,” in Paper presented at the Surface Learning Workshop 12 httpsurfacelearningorg3, 2012.
 A. S. D. Scott, A. Allavena, K. Cerar, G. Franck, M. Hazen, T. Shuter, C. Colliver, and S. D. Scott, “Investigating Tabletop Interfaces to Support Collaborative Decision-Making in Maritime Operations,” Technology, pp. 1–15, 2010.
 A. Clayphan, A. Collins, C. Ackad, B. Kummerfeld, and J. Kay, “Firestorm : a brainstorming application for collaborative group work at tabletops,” in Conference ITS ’11, November 13-16, Kobe, Japan, 2011, pp. 162–171.
 E. Van Den Hoven and A. Mazalek, “Tangible Play: Research and Design for Tangible and Tabletop Games,” Interfaces (Providence)., no. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, pp. 59593–59593, 2007.
 J. D. Smith and T. C. N. Graham, “Raptor: sketching games with a tabletop computer,” Proc. Int. Acad. Conf. Futur. Game Des. Technol., pp. 191–198, 2010.
 C. S. Michael Haller, Clifton Forlines, Christina Koeffel, Jakob Leitner, “Tabletop Games: Platforms, Experimental Games and Design Recommendations,” in Art and Technology of Entertainment Computing and Communication, 2010, pp. 271–297.
 H. Benko, M. R. Morris, A. J. B. Brush, and A. D. Wilson, “Insights on Interactive Tabletops : A Survey of Researchers and Developers,” Res. microsoft com, no. March, p. 8, 2009.
 S. Bachl, M. Tomitsch, C. Wimmer, and T. Grechenig, “Challenges for Designing the User Experience of Multi-touch Interfaces,” Hum. Factors, 2010.
 J. Kim, J. Park, H. Kim, and C. Lee, “HCI(Human Computer Interaction) Using Multi-touch Tabletop Display,” 2007 IEEE Pacific Rim Conf. Commun. Comput. Signal Process., pp. 391–394, 2007.
 M. INC, “Microsoft Surface, http://www.aboutmicrosoftsurface.com/.,” 2007. .
 A. M. Piper and J. D. Hollan, “Supporting medical communication for older patients with a shared touch-screen computer.,” Int. J. Med. Inform., vol. In Press,, no. 6, pp. 1–9, 2011.
 V. B. MUDIT, R. B. & ANAND, “Comparative Study of Various Touchscreen Technologie,” Int. J. Comput. Appl. (0975 – 8887), vol. Volume 6–N, pp. 12–18, 2010.
 H. Benko, A. D. Wilson, and P. Baudisch, “Precise selection techniques for multi-touch screens,” in Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems. Canada, ACM., 2006, pp. 1263–1272.
 F. Wang, X. Cao, X. Ren, and P. Irani, “Detecting and leveraging finger orientation for interaction with direct-touch surfaces,” Proc. 22nd Annu. ACM Symp. User interface Softw. Technol. UIST 09, pp. 23–32, 2009.
 F. Wang and X. Ren, “Empirical evaluation for finger input properties in multi-touch interaction,” Proc. 27th Int. Conf. Hum. factors Comput. Syst. CHI 09, p. 1063, 2009.
 K. Inkpen, K. Hawkey, M. Kellar, R. Mandryk, K. Parker, D. Reilly, S. Scott, and T. Whalen, “Exploring Display Factors that Influence Co-Located Collaboration: Angle, Size, Number, and User Arrangement,” in Proceedings of HCI international, 2005, vol. 2005, pp. 22–27.
 K. Ryall, C. Forlines, C. Shen, and M. R. Morris, “Exploring the effects of group size and table size on interactions with tabletop shared-display groupware,” in Proceedings of the 2004 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work CSCW 04, 2004, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 284–293.
 Petra Isenberg Uta Hinrichs Mark Hancock Matthew Tobiasz Sheelagh Carpendale, “Information Visualization on Interactive Tabletops in Work vs. Public Settings,” 2010.
 D. Wigdor, C. Shen, C. Forlines, and R. Balakrishnan, “Perception of elementary graphical elements in tabletop and multi-surface environments,” Proc. SIGCHI Conf. Hum. factors Comput. Syst. CHI 07, pp. 473–482, 2007.
 C.-W. Fu, W.-B. Goh, and J. A. Ng, “Multi-touch techniques for exploring large-scale 3D astrophysical simulations,” Proc. 28th Int. Conf. Hum. factors Comput. Syst. CHI 10, p. 2213, 2010.
 M. J. Miller, O. Safrina, I. Parker, and M. D. Cahalan, “Tangible user interfaces in order to improve collaborative interactions and decision making,” October, vol. 200, no. 7, pp. 847–56, 2004.
 A. Lucchi, P. Jermann, G. Zufferey, and P. Dillenbourg, “An empirical evaluation of touch and tangible interfaces for tabletop displays,” Proc. fourth Int. Conf. Tangible Embed. embodied Interact. TEI 10, p. 177, 2010.
 S. Bakker, D. Vorstenbosch, E. van Den Hoven, G. Hollemans, and T. Bergman, “Weathergods: tangible interaction in a digital tabletop game,” in Proceedings of the 1st international conference on Tangible and embedded interaction, 2007, pp. 151–152.
 E. W. Pedersen and K. Hornbæk, “Tangible bots: Interaction with Active Tangibles in Tabletop Interfaces,” in Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI ’11, 2011, p. 2975.
 P. Tuddenham, D. Kirk, and S. Izadi, “Graspables Revisited: Multi-Touch vs. Tangible Input for Tabletop Displays in Acquisition and Manipulation Tasks,” in Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI ’10, 2010, p. 2223.
 M. Spindler, “Spatially aware tangible display interaction in a tabletop environment,” Proc. 2012 ACM Int. Conf. Interact. tabletops surfaces - ITS ’12, p. 277, 2012.
 M. Haller, P. Brandl, J. Leitner, and T. Seifried, “Large Interactive Surfaces Based on Digital Pens,” in 10th Interantional Conference on Humans and Computers, 2007, pp. 172–177.
 J. K. Parker, R. L. Mandryk, and K. M. Inkpen, “Integrating Point and Touch for Interaction with Digital Tabletop Displays,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl., vol. 26, no. 5, 2006.
 K. Ryall, M. R. Morris, K. Everitt, C. Forlines, and C. Shen, “Experiences with and Observations of Direct-Touch Tabletops,” in First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive HumanComputer Systems TABLETOP 06, 2006, vol. 1, no. Figure 1, pp. 89–96.
 B. Li, W. Zhang, R. Zhou, C. Yang, and Z. Li, “A comparative ergonomics study: Performing reading-based tasks on a large-scale tabletop vs. laptop,” Int. J. Ind. Ergon., vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 156–161, 2012.
 A. Elliott and M. Hearst, “A comparison of the affordances of a digital desk and tablet for architectural image tasks,” Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud., pp. 173–197, 2002.
 D. Wigdor, G. Penn, K. Ryall, A. Esenther, and C. Shen, “Living with a Tabletop: Analysis and Observations of Long Term Office Use of a Multi-Touch Table,” Second Annu. IEEE Int. Work. Horiz. Interact. HumanComputer Syst. TABLETOP07, vol. 2, pp. 60–67, 2007.
 D. E. Egan, “Individual differences in human-computer interaction.,” in In Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, (Edited by M. Helander), Ed. North Holland: Elsevier Science Publisher, Amsterdam, pp. 543–568.
 N. M. Aykin and T. Aykin, “Individual differences in human-computer interaction,” Computers & Industrial Engineering, vol. 20, no. 3. pp. 373–379, 1991.
 C. Holz and P. Baudisch, “The Generalized Perceived Input Point Model and How to Double Touch Accuracy by Extracting Fingerprints,” in Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI ’10, 2010, pp. 581–590.
 A. Olwal, S. Feiner, and S. Heyman, “Rubbing and Tapping for Precise and Rapid Selection on Touch-Screen Displays,” Hum. Factors, vol. 2008, pp. 295–304, 2008.
 A. Mossel and B. Venditti, “DrillSample : Precise Selection in Dense Handheld Augmented Reality Environments,” 2013.
 A. Collins, T. Apted, and J. Kay, “Tabletop File System Access: Associative and Hierarchical Approaches,” Second Annu. IEEE Int. Work. Horiz. Interact. Human-Computer Syst., 2007.
 J. Remy, C., Weiss, M., Ziefle, M., and Borchers, “A Pattern Language for Interactive Tabletops. jn 1, 1, Article 1 (July 2010),” 2010.
 C. Shen, F. D. Vernier, C. Forlines, and M. Ringel, “DiamondSpin: an extensible toolkit for around-the-table interaction,” in Architecture, 2004, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 167–174.
 S. D. Scott., “Territoriality in collaborative tabletop workspaces, PhD thesis, Calgary, Alta., Canada, Canada, 2005.,” ACM Press.
 S. D. Scott and S. Carpendale, “Theory of Tabletop Territoriality,” TabletopsHorizontal Interact. Displays, pp. 357–385, 2010.
 A. Tang, M. Tory, B. Po, P. Neumann, and S. Carpendale, “Collaborative coupling over tabletop displays,” Proc. SIGCHI Conf. Hum. Factors Comput. Syst. CHI 06, vol. pp, no. 4, p. 1181, 2006.
 S. D. Scott and S. Carpendale, “Interacting with digital tabletops.,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl., vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 24–27, 2006.
 R. Kruger, S. Carpendale, S. D. Scott, and S. Greenberg, “Roles of Orientation in Tabletop Collaboration: Comprehension, Coordination and Communication,” Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 13, no. 5–6. pp. 501–537, 2004.
 M. Hancock, O. Hilliges, C. Collins, D. Baur, and S. Carpendale, “Exploring tangible and direct touch interfaces for manipulating 2D and 3D information on a digital table,” Proc. ACM Int. Conf. Interact. Tabletops Surfaces ITS 09, p. 77, 2009.
 S. Jordà, G. Geiger, M. Alonso, and M. Kaltenbrunner, “The reacTable: exploring the synergy between live music performance and tabletop tangible interfaces,” in Proceedings of the 1st international conference on Tangible and embedded interaction - TEI ’07, 2007, pp. 139–146.
 D. Vogel and P. Baudisch, “Shift: a technique for operating pen-based interfaces using touch,” Proc. SIGCHI Conf. Hum. …, no. c, p. 657, 2007.
 Y. K. and T. Naemura, “Optical Design of Tabletop Displays and Interactive Applications,” in Tabletops Horizontal Interactive Displays, 2010, pp. 101–119.
 M. Weiss, J. Wagner, Y. Jansen, R. Jennings, R. Khoshabeh, J. D. Hollan, and J. Borchers, “SLAP Widgets: Bridging the Gap Between Virtual and Physical Controls on Tabletops,” in Proceedings of the 27th international conference on Human factors in computing systems, 2009, pp. 481–490.
 and A. D. W. Otmar Hilliges, Andreas Butz, Shahram Izadi, “Interaction on the Tabletop: Bringing the Physical to the Digital,” in Tabletops- Horizontal Interactive Displays, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 2010, pp. 189–221.