SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-20, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ijssis-2017-856
License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Received Date : 14-December-2015 / Accepted: 01-January-2016 / Published Online: 01-March-2016
Micro/Nano electromechanical systems based Mass sensors are being increasingly used for detecting very low masses, with significant applications in bio-sensing as well as environmental sensing. A number of different shapes, excitation mechanisms as well as materials have been suggested for these sensors. In addition, with reducing dimensions due to improvement in fabrication, these sensors have the potential to measure bacterial level masses. This paper reviews some of the research directions in this field. Various sensing and actuation strategies for these resonators are discussed. In addition, three important challenges, which have the potential of providing new directions of research are also explored. These include quality factor, increasing nonlinearity and coupling. Coupling of sensors can provide a unique opportunity to build several resonant sensors on the same chip and reduce the number of contacts required as well as the potential bandwidth
 B. Choubey, C. Anthony, N. H. Saad, M. Ward, R. Turnbull, and S. Collins, “Characterization
of coupled micro/nano resonators using inverse eigenvalue analysis,” Appl. Phys.
Lett., vol. 97, pp. 133 114–7, 2010.
 K. Park, N. Kim, D. Morisette, N. Aluru, and R. Bashir, “Resonant mems mass sensors
for measurement of microdroplet evaporation,” Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal
of, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 702–711, June 2012.
 G. Blanco-Gomez and V. Agache, “Experimental study of energy dissipation in high quality
factor hollow square plate mems resonators for liquid mass sensing,” Microelectromechanical
Systems, Journal of, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 224–234, Feb 2012.
 A. Hajjam, J. Wilson, and S. Pourkamali, “Individual air-borne particle mass measurement
using high-frequency micromechanical resonators,” Sensors Journal, IEEE, vol. 11,
no. 11, pp. 2883–2890, Nov 2011.
 M. Kumar and H. Bhaskaran, “Ultrasensitive room-temperature piezoresistive transduction
in graphene-based nanoelectromechanical systems,” Nano Letters, vol. 15, no. 4, pp.
 Y. T. Yang, C. Callegari, X. L. Feng, K. L. Ekinci, , and M. L. Roukes, “Zeptogram-scale
nanomechanical mass sensing,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 583–586, 2006.
 A. P. French, Vibrations and Waves. Chapman and Hall, 1971.
 A. Hajjam, A. Logan, and S. Pourkamali, “Doping-induced temperature compensation of
thermally actuated high-frequency silicon micromechanical resonators,” Microelectromechanical
Systems, Journal of, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 681–687, June 2012.
 A. Hajjam, A. Rahafrooz, J. Wilson, and S. Pourkamali, “Thermally actuated mems resonant
sensors for mass measurement of micro/nanoscale aerosol particles,” in Sensors,
2009 IEEE, October 2009, pp. 707 –710.
 A. Ozturk, H. Ocakli, N. Ozber, H. Urey, I. Kavakli, and B. Alaca, “A magnetically actuated
resonant mass sensor with integrated optical readout,” Photonics Technology Letters,
IEEE, vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 1905–1907, Dec 2008.
 J. Verd, A. Uranga, G. Abadal, J. Teva, F. Torres, F. Prez-Murano, J. Fraxedas, J. Esteve,
and N. Barniol, “Monolithic mass sensor fabricated using a conventional technology with
attogram resolution in air conditions,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 91, no. 1, 2007.
 G. L. Yeolho Lee and W. Moon, “A piezoelectric micro-cantilever bio-sensor using the
mass-micro-balancing technique with self-excitation.”
 B. Choubey, E. Boyd, I. Armstrong, and D. Uttamchandani, “Determination of the
anisotropy of young’s modulus using a coupled microcantilever array,” Microelectromechanical
Systems, Journal of, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1252–1260, Oct 2012.
 B. Choubey, S. Collins, and M. Ward, “On characterizing microelectromechanical processes
using coupled resonators,” Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of, vol. 21,
no. 4, pp. 791–800, Aug 2012.
 J. Arcamone, G. Rius, G. Abadal, J. Teva, N. Barniol, and F. Perez-Murano, “Micro/
nanomechanical resonators for distributed mass sensing with capacitive detection,”
Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 83, no. 4-9, pp. 1216 – 1220, 2006.
 R. Mestrom, R. Fey, J. van Beek, K. Phan, and H. Nijmeijer, “Modelling the dynamics of
a MEMS resonator: Simulations and experiments,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical,
vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 306 – 315, 2008.
 A. K. Ismail, J. S. Burdess, A. J. Harris, G. Suarez, N. Keegan, J. A. Spoors, S. C. Chang,
C. J. McNeil, and J. Hedley, “The fabrication, characterization and testing of a mems circular
diaphragm mass sensor,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 18,
no. 2, p. 025021, 2008.
 S. Joshi, S. Hung, and S. Vengallatore, “Design strategies for controlling damping in
micromechanical and nanomechanical resonators,” EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation,
vol. 1, no. 1, 2014.
 M. Bao and H. Yang, “Squeeze film air damping in fMEMSg,” Sensors and Actuators A:
Physical, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 3 – 27, 2007.
 Z. Davis,W. Svendsen, and A. Boisen, “Design, fabrication and testing of a novel MEMS
resonator for mass sensing applications,” Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 84, no. 5-8,
pp. 1601–1605, May 2007.
 C. Anthony, R. Turnbull, X. Wei, M. Ward, and S. Collins, “Fabrication and quality factor
control of a microelectromechanical system resonator with linear differential drive,”
Science, Measurement Technology, IET, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 206–213, July 2010.
 M. Agarwal, K. K. Park, R. Candler, B. Kim, M. Hopcroft, S. A. Chandorkar, C. Jha,
R. Melamud, T. Kenny, and B. Murmann, “Nonlinear characterization of electrostatic
mems resonators,” in International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition, 2006
IEEE, June 2006, pp. 209–212.
 C. Deng and S. Collins, “The transient response of a duffing resonator following a parameter
change,” in Circuits and Systems, 52nd IEEE International Midwest Symposium on,
Aug 2009, pp. 790–793.
 S. Zaitsev, O. Shtempluck, E. Buks, and O. Gottlieb, “Nonlinear damping in a micromechanical
oscillator,” Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 859–883, 2012.
 B. Choubey, “An experimental investigation of coupled van der pol oscillators,” Transaction
of ASME, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, vol. 132, p. 031013, 2010.
 B. Choubey, M. Ward, and S. Collins, “On readouts of multiple micro/nano resonator
sensors with mismatch,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Sensors Conference, 2008.