Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems

Professor Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Exeley Inc. (New York)

Subject: Computational Science & Engineering, Engineering, Electrical & Electronic


eISSN: 1178-5608



VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 1 (March 2016) > List of articles


Xiong Xiao / Yongjun Zhang / Jing Wang / Haiping Du

Keywords : PMSM, adaptive sliding-mode observer, sensorless control, electric vehicle drive system, resistance identification.

Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 377-396, DOI:

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 27-November-2015 / Accepted: 24-January-2016 / Published Online: 01-March-2016



In this study, a new adaptive sliding-mode observer is proposed to estimate the rotor position and speed for sensorless control of permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) in an electric vehicle drive system. This observer can effectively reduce the estimation errors caused by the inherent chattering phenomenon for a conventional sliding-mode observer and the stator resistance uncertainty due to the variation of motor temperature. This new sliding-mode observer is designed by using a hyperbolic tangent function instead of sign function together with a variable boundary layer, and the new adaptive law is constructed according to the back electromotive force model to reinforce dynamic performance and the robustness of system. Meanwhile, a stator resistance identification algorithm is raised and guaranteed to be stable by using a Lyapunov method. The performance of the developed observer is compared with the conventional sliding-mode controller. Both simulation and experimental results confirm that the chattering phenomenon is effectively eliminated and the estimation accuracy for position and velocity is apparently improved when applying the developed observer in the electric vehicle drive system.

Content not available PDF Share



[1] Azuma, Takehito, “Design and experimental verification of state predictive LQG controllers for networked control systems”, The International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Vol. 3, No.7, 2014, pp. 1201-1220.
[2] J.J.Hu, H. Morais and T. Sousa, “Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: A review of services, optimization and control aspects”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 56, pp. 1207-1226, Apr. 2016.
[3] Tie SF and Tan CW, “A review of energy sources and energy management system in electric vehicles”, Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., vol. 20, pp. 82-102, Apr. 2013.
[4] J. B. Wang, X. B. Yuan and Atallah. K, “Design Optimization of a Surface-Mounted Permanent-Magnet Motor with Concentrated Windings for Electric Vehicle Applications”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1053-1064, Mar. 2013.
[5] R. D. Jorge, A. N and A. M. Marco, “Digital Sliding-Mode Sensorless Control for Surface-Mounted PMSM”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp.137-151, Feb. 2014.
[6] M.Pacas, “Sensorless drives in industrial applications”, IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 16-23, June 2011.
[7] R. M. Caporal, E. Bonilla-Huerta, M.A. Arjona and C. Hernandez, “Sensorless Predictive DTC of a Surface-Mounted Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine Based on Its Magnetic Anisotropy”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 3016-3024, Aug. 2013.
[8] Z. Wang, K. Lu and F. Blaabjerg, “A simple startup strategy based on current regulation for back-EMF based sensorless control of PMSM”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 27, no. 8, pp.3817-3825, Aug. 2012.
[9] M. Naidu and B. K. Bose, “Rotor position estimation scheme of a permanent magnet synchronous machine for high performance variable speed drive”, in IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting,Houston, 1992, pp. 48-53.
[10] C. French and P. Acarnley, “Control of permanent magnet motor drives using a new position estimation technique”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1089-1097, Sep. 1996.
[11] S. M. Jung , J. S. Park , H. W. Kim , K. Y. Cho and M. J. Youn, “An MRAS-based diagnosis of open-circuit fault in PWM voltage-source inverters for PM synchronous motor drive systems”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp.2514-2526, May 2013.
[12] A. Piippo, M. Hinkkanen and J. Luomi, “Analysis of an adaptive observer for sensorless control of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 570-576, Feb. 2008.
[13] A. M. Alshawish, R. Ahmadi, “An optimization based method for design of the adaptive mechanism parameters in a model adaptive reference system estimator in a sensorless motor drive system”, IEEE Transactions on Power and Energy Conference at Illinois (PECI), pp. 1-5, Feb. 2015.
[14] Ying Zhu, Ming Cheng, Wei Hua and B.F. Zhang, “Sensorless Control Strategy of Electrical Variable Transmission Machines for Wind Energy Conversion Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3383-3386, July 2013.
[15] A. Accetta, M. Cirrincione, M. Pucci and G. Vitale, “Sensorless control of PMSM fractional horsepower drives by signal injection and neural adaptive-band filtering”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 1355-1366, Mar. 2012.
[16] S. Bolognani, R. Petrella, A. Prearo and L. Sgarbossa, “Automatic tracking of MTPA trajectory in IPM motor based on AC current injection”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 105-114, Feb. 2011.
[17] M. Slimane and D. Diallo, “PMSM Drive Position Estimation: Contribution to the High-Frequency Injection Voltage Selection Issue”, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 30, no. 1, pp.349-358, Mar. 2015.
[18] Z. Q. Zhu and L. M. Gong, “Investigation of effectiveness of sensorless operation in carrier-signal-injection-based sensorless control methods”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 3431-3439, Aug. 2011.
[19] J. Hu, J. Liu and L. Xu, “Eddy current effects on rotor position estimation and magnetic pole identification of PMSM at zero and low speeds”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 23, no. 5, pp.2565-2575,Sept. 2008.
[20] R.S. Muñoz Aguilar, A. Dòria-Cerezo, E. Fossas and R. Cardoner, “Sliding mode control of a stand-alone wound rotor synchronous generator”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 58 , No. 10, pp. 4888-4897, Oct. 2011.
[21] B. Jin and C. Y. Sun, “Research on lateral stability of four hubmotor-in-wheels drive electric vehicle”, The International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, vol. 8, no. 3, pp.1855-1875, Sep. 2015.
[22] S. Po-ngam and S. Sangwongwanich, “Stability and dynamic performance improvement of adaptive full-order observer for sensorless PMSM drive”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 588-600, Feb. 2012.
[23] A. M. Yazdani, A. Ahmadi and S. Buyamin, “Imperialist competitive algorithm-based fuzzy PID control methodology for speed tracking enhancement of stepper motor”, International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, vol. 5, No. 3, 2012, pp. 717-741.
[24] W.Q. Zhao, T. Shi, Y. Wang and Y. Yan, “New Sliding-Mode Observer for Position Sensorless Control of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 710-719, Feb. 2013.
[25] K. Hongryel, S. Jubum and L. Jangmyung, “A High-Speed Sliding-Mode Observer for the Sensorless Speed Control of a PMSM”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 4069-4077, Sept. 2011.
[26] G. Tarchala, “Influence of the sign function approximation form on performance of the sliding-mode speed observer for induction motor drive”, in Proc. IEEE Int. Sym. Ind. Electron, Gdansk, 1985, pp. 1397-1402.
[27] B. Oscar, A. Patxi and M. Jose, “A real-time estimation and control scheme for induction”, Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 351, no. 8, pp. 4251-4270, Aug. 2014.
[28] W. C. Chi, M. Y. Cheng, “Implementation of a sliding-mode-based position sensorless drive for high-speed micro permanent-magnet synchronous motors”, ISA Transactions, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 444-453, Mar. 2014.
[29] F. Plestan, A. Glumineau and S. Laghrouche, “A new algorithm for high order sliding mode control”, International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 441-453, Mar. 2008.
[30] Reza, C.M.F.S., Islam, Didarul and Mekhilef, “Modeling and Experimental Verification of ANN Based Online Stator Resistance Estimation in DTC-IM Drive”, Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp.550-558, Mar. 2014.
[31] E. Shehata, “Speed sensorless torque control of an IPMSM drive with online stator resistance estimation using reduced order EKF”, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 47, pp. 378-386, May 2013.
[32] B.A. Hechmi, J. Mohamed, B. Mohamed and G. Moncef, “High performance sensorless speed vector control of SPIM Drives with on-line stator resistance estimation”, Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 271-282, Jan. 2011.
[33] R. Habib-ur, D. Rached, “A fuzzy learning-Sliding mode controller for direct field-oriented induction machines”, Neurocomputing, vol. 71, no. 13, pp. 2693-2701, Aug. 2008.