Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems

Professor Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Exeley Inc. (New York)

Subject: Computational Science & Engineering , Engineering, Electrical & Electronic


eISSN: 1178-5608



VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 3 (September 2016) > List of articles


P. Raghu Vamsi * / Krishna Kant *

Keywords : Adaptive weights, cooperative routing, geographic routing, GPSR, nesC, security, test-bed implementation, TinyOS, trust management.

Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1,362-1,383, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ijssis-2017-922

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 12-May-2016 / Accepted: 14-July-2016 / Published Online: 01-September-2016



Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are often deployed in remote and hostile environments to monitor the mission critical tasks. In such environments, cooperation among nodes plays a vital role for successful execution of protocol operations. However, node cooperation may not be guaranteed when malicious activities are present in the WSNs. Trust management based security has received considerable attention to use along with cryptography based security to improve the cooperation among nodes in the presence of malicious activities in the network. This paper proposes the self-adaptive trust model for cooperative geographic routing in WSNs. Unlike existing trust models, nodes running the proposed trust model systematically observe the behavior of their neighboring nodes and evaluate the trust values with adaptive weight assessment. The proposed method has been integrated with conventional Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) protocol. Further, it has been coded with nesC programming in TinyOS environment and evaluated on a WSN testbed consisting of 15 Telosb sensor nodes. The experimental results show that the proposed method significantly improved the packet delivery ratio in the presence of packet dropping and modification attacks.

Content not available PDF Share



[1] J. Figueira, S. Greco, and M. Ehrgott, Multiple criteria decision analysis: state of the art surveys, vol. 78. Springer, 2005.
[2] M. Aruldoss, T. M. Lakshmi, and V. P. Venkatesan, “A survey on multi-criteriadecision-making methods and its applications,” American Journal of Information Systems, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 31–43, 2013.
[3] K. Steele, Y. Carmel, J. Cross, and C. Wilcox, “Uses and misuses of multicriteria decision analysis (mcda) in environmental decision making,” Risk analysis, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 26–33, 2009.
[4] J.-H. Cho, A. Swami, and R. Chen, “A survey on trust management for mobile ad hoc networks,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 562–583, 2011.
[5] K. Govindan and P. Mohapatra, “Trust computations and trust dynamics in mobile adhoc networks: a survey,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 279–298, 2012.
[6] Y. Ren and A. Boukerche, “Modeling and managing the trust for wireless and mobile ad hoc networks,” in ICC’08.IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2008., pp. 2129–2133, IEEE, 2008.
[7] R. Falcone, G. Pezzulo, and C. Castelfranchi, “A fuzzy approach to a belief-based trust computation,” in Trust, reputation, and security: theories and practice, pp. 73–86, Springer, 2003.
[8] Z. Xu, “Uncertain linguistic aggregation operators based approach to multiple attribute group decision making under uncertain linguistic environment,” Information Sciences, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 171–184, 2004.
[9] P. C. Fishburn, “Utility theory for decision making,” tech. rep., DTIC Document, 1970.
[10] J.-L. Marichal and M. Roubens, “Determination of weights of interacting criteria from a reference set,” European journal of operational Research, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 641–650, 2000.
[11] T. L. Saaty, “Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process,” International journal of services sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 83–98, 2008.
[12] J. K. Wong and H. Li, “Application of the analytic hierarchy process (ahp) in multi-criteria analysis of the selection of intelligent building systems,” Building and Environment, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–125, 2008.
[13] T. Jiang and J. S. Baras, “Trust evaluation in anarchy: A case study on autonomous networks,” in INFOCOM, 2006.
[14] Z. Liu, A. W. Joy, and R. A. Thompson, “A dynamic trust model for mobile ad hoc networks,” in Distributed Computing Systems, 2004. FTDCS 2004.Proceedings.10th IEEE International Workshop on Future Trends of, pp. 80–85, IEEE, 2004.
[15] A. A. Pirzada and C. McDonald, “Trusted greedy perimeter stateless routing,” in 15th IEEE International Conference on Networks, 2007. ICON 2007., pp. 206–211, IEEE, 2007.
[16] N. Abu-Ghazaleh, K.-D. Kang, and K. Liu, “Towards resilient geographic routing in wsns,” in Proceedings of the 1st ACM international workshop on Quality of service & security in wireless and mobile networks, pp. 71–78, ACM, 2005.
[17] K.-S. Hung, K.-S.Lui, and Y.-K. Kwok, “A trust-based geographical routing scheme in sensor networks,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC 2007.IEEE, pp. 3123–3127, IEEE, 2007.
[18] M. Virendra, M. Jadliwala, M. Chandrasekaran, and S. Upadhyaya, “Quantifying trust in mobile ad-hoc networks,” in Proc. IEEE Intl Conf. Integration of Knowledge Intensive Multi-Agent Systems (KIMAS), 2005.
[19] S. Buchegger and J.-Y.LeBoudec, “Performance analysis of the confidant protocol,” in Proceedings of the 3rd ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking & computing, pp. 226–236, ACM, 2002.
[20] X. Li, Z. Jia, P. Zhang, R. Zhang, and H. Wang, “Trust-based on-demand multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks,” IET information security, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 212–232, 2010.
[21] N. Marchang and R. Datta, “Light-weight trust-based routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks,” Information Security, IET, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 77–83, 2012.
[22] A. A. Pirzada, C. McDonald, and A. Datta, “Performance comparison of trust-based reactive routing protocols,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 695–710, 2006.
[23] H. N. Ho, M. Rabah, S. Nowakowski, and P. Estraillier, “Trace-based weighting approach for multiple criteria decision making,” Journal of Software (JSW), vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 2180–2187, 2014.
[24] W. Jiang, G. Wang, and J. Wu, “Generating trusted graphs for trust evaluation in online social networks,” Future generation computer systems, vol. 31, pp. 48–58, 2014.
[25] A. Jsang and R. Ismail, “The beta reputation system,” in Proceedings of the 15th bled electronic commerce conference, pp. 41–55, 2002.
[26] L. Capra, “Engineering human trust in mobile system collaborations,” ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 107–116, 2004.
[27] B. Karp and H.-T. Kung, “Gpsr: Greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks,” in Proceedings of the 6th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking, pp. 243–254, ACM, 2000.
[28] P. Levis and D. Gay, TinyOS programming.Cambridge University Press, 2009.
[29] “Datasheet, telosb.” www.memsic.com/userfiles/files/Datasheets/WSN /telosb_datasheet.pdf. (Last accessed on 2016-05-10)
[30] P. R. Vamsi and K. Kant, “Adaptive trust model for secure geographic routing in wireless sensor networks,” in Contemporary Computing (IC3), 2014 Seventh International Conference on, pp. 394–399, IEEE, 2014.
[31] M. R. Juliana and S. Srinivasan, "Seladg: Secure energy efficient location aware data gathering approach for wireless sensor networks," International Journal on Smart Sensing & Intelligent Systems, vol. 8, no. 3, 2015.
[32] I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "Wireless sensor networks: a survey," Computer networks, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 393-422, 2002.
[33] S. D. T. Kelly, N. K. Suryadevara, and S. C. Mukhopadhyay, "Towards the implementation of iot for environmental conditionmonitoring in homes," IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 3846-3853, 2013.
[34] Suryadevara, N. K., Mukhopadhyay, S. C., Kelly, S. D. T., & Gill, S. P. S, "WSN-based smart sensors and actuator for power management in intelligent buildings." IEEE/ASME Transactions On Mechatronics, vol. 20, no.2, 2015, pp 564-571.
[35] D. Bhattacharjee and R. Bera, "Development of smart detachable wireless sensing system for environmental monitoring," International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1239-1253, 2014. [36] Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra. "Wearable sensors for human activity monitoring: A review." IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 15, no .3, 2015, pp 1321-1330.
[37] P. R. Vamsi and K. Kant, "Systematic design of trust management systems for wireless sensor networks: A review," in Fourth International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies (ACCT), Rohtak, India, pp. 208-215, IEEE, 2014.
[38] A. Ahmed, K. A. Bakar, M. I. Channa, K. Haseeb, and A. W. Khan, "A survey on trust based detection and isolation of malicious nodes in ad-hoc and sensor networks," Frontiers of Computer Science, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 280-296, 2015.