Designing a Wireless Sensors Network for  Monitoring and Predicting Droughts


Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems

Professor Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Exeley Inc. (New York)

Subject: Computational Science & Engineering, Engineering, Electrical & Electronic


eISSN: 1178-5608



VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 5 (December 2014) > List of articles

Special issue ICST 2014

Designing a Wireless Sensors Network for  Monitoring and Predicting Droughts

A Gaddam * / M Al-Hrooby / W F Esmael

Keywords : wireless sensor network, drought monitoring, Internet of things digital signal processing, internet of things, zigbee, raspberry pi, remote sensing

Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 1-6, DOI:

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Published Online: 15-February-2020



Global warming and lack of rain were the main problems that caused increased drought around the world. In New Zealand, according to National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) the drought in 2012 and 2013 was the worst drought in the last 70 years. Therefore, there is a need for technological intervention to monitor basic information about the weather and soil condition in order to identify and predict drought conditions. Initial experiments have shown that the proposed wireless sensor drought monitoring system is capable of remote real-time monitoring for extended periods. This monitoring can also help identify drought in the early stages and thereby indicate promptly when to take corrective measures. Intelligent sensors in a wireless network monitor the soil condition. These sensors collect various environmental; parameters and then send the pre-processed data wirelessly to a base station. From the base station this data uploads every two seconds to the cloud (internet) for further analysis. If a drought condition is identified by the monitoring system then an alert message is sent to the user via text message or email.

Content not available PDF Share



[1] World-health, “World Health Organization,” 2008, website ( accessed on 2/11/2013. 

[2] Lindquist, Rosanna T. "Review of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), website (http://www. noaa. gov/)." Journal of Agricultural & Food Information 15, no. 2 (2014), pp: 149-150.

[3] An, Xiaofei, Minzan Li, Lihua Zheng, Yumeng Liu, and Hong Sun. "A portable soil nitrogen detector based on NIRS." Precision Agriculture 15, no. 1 (2014), pp: 3-16.

[4] Zhang, Qin. "Precision Agriculture for Grain Production Systems, Brett Whelan, James Taylor, CSIRO Publishing." (2014), pp: 159.

[5] Tait, Andrew, Troy Baisden, David Wratt, B. Mullan, and A. Stroombergen. "An initial assessment of the potential effects of climate change on New Zealand agriculture." New Zealand Science Review 65, no. 3 (2008), pp: 50-56.

[6] Cameron, Michael Patrick. "The demographic implications of climate change for Aotearoa New Zealand: A review." (2013).

[7] Tait, Andrew, James Sturman, and Martyn Clark. "An assessment of the accuracy of interpolated daily rainfall for New Zealand." Journal of Hydrology, no. 1 (2012), pp: 51.

[8] López, Juan A., Antonio-Javier Garcia-Sanchez, F. Soto, A. Iborra, Felipe Garcia-Sanchez, and Joan Garcia-Haro. "Design and validation of a wireless sensor network architecture for precision horticulture applications." Precision agriculture 12, no. 2 (2011), pp: 280-295.

[9] Martin, Jonathan G., Claire L. Phillips, Andres Schmidt, James Irvine, and Beverly E. Law. "High-frequency analysis of the complex linkage between soil CO2 fluxes, photosynthesis and environmental variables." Tree physiology 32, no. 1 (2012), pp: 49-64.

[10] V. Mhatre and C. Rosenberg, “Design guidelines for wireless sensor networks: communication, clustering and aggregation,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 45-63, Jan. 2004.

[11] W.-S. Jang, W. M. Healy, and M. J. Skibniewski, “Wireless sensor networks as part of a web-based building environmental monitoring system,” Automation in Construction, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 729-736, Aug. 2008.

[12] R. Mittal and M. P. S. Bhatia, “Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring the Environmental Activities,” Analysis, 2010.

[13] N. S. Shamsuddin, “Development Of Sensor Nodes In Wireless Sensor Network for Environmental Monitoring (WisNEM),” 2008.

[14] R. Kays et al., “Tracking Animal Location and Activity with an Automated Radio Telemetry System in a Tropical Rainforest,” The Computer Journal, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 1931-1948, Aug. 2011.

[15] S. E. Díaz, J. C. Pérez, A. C. Mateos, M.-C. Marinescu, and B. B. Guerra, “A novel methodology for the monitoring of the agricultural production process based on wireless sensor networks,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 252-265, May 2011.