Development and Evaluation of Portable Low Cost Testing System for Phthalates


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International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems

Professor Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

Exeley Inc. (New York)

Subject: Computational Science & Engineering, Engineering, Electrical & Electronic


eISSN: 1178-5608



VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 5 (December 2014) > List of articles

Special issue ICST 2014

Development and Evaluation of Portable Low Cost Testing System for Phthalates

Asif I. Zia / S.C. Mukhopadhyay * / P.L. Yu / I. H. Al-Bahadly / C. Gooneratne / Jǘrgen Kosel

Keywords : Interdigital; dielectric; sensors; sensing performance; Impedance spectroscopy; DEHP; Endocrine disrupting compounds; electrochemical; MEMS

Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 1-7, DOI:

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Published Online: 15-February-2020



A portable low-cost microcontroller based testing system was designed and constructed to detect phthalates in aqueous media. Phthalates, especially di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is the most ubiquitous endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) posing highest reproductive toxicity threat to all living species on earth. Frequency response analyser (FRA) approach was used to develop the rapid response, non-invasive electrochemical impedimetric system for detection. A smart thin film gold interdigital electrodes capacitive sensor with enhanced penetration depth was used with the proposed system for detection of the said EDC. The performance of the developed system was evaluated by comparing the results to the commercially available electrochemical Impedimetric frequency response analyzer equipment. Complex nonlinear least square (CNLS) curve fitting algorithm was used to deduce the equivalent circuit for the developed system. The DEHP detection results by the developed system were validated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) diode array detection confirming that the proposed system was able to detect the concentration of phthalates in aqueous medium.

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