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Citation Information : Journal of Epileptology. Volume 25, Issue 1-2, Pages 21-29, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/joepi-2017-0006
License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Received Date : 30-November-2017 / Accepted: 15-December-2017 / Published Online: 15-January-2018
Background. Adenosine is regarded as an endogenous anticonvulsant and its agonists have been proved to affect the anticonvulsant activity of a number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in animal models of seizures.
Aim. To evaluate effects of adenosine agonists on carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate (VPA) in mouse model of generalized tonic-clonic convulsions.
Methods. The following adenosine receptor agonists were used: A 1 – cyclohexyladenosine, A2A – CGS 21 680, A3 – N6-benzyl-NECA and A 1 (preferentially) and A2 – 2-chloroadenosine. Their possible anticonvulsant effects were studied in a threshold electroconvulsive test for maximal electroconvulsions. The protective activity of AEDs alone or in combinations with adenosine agonists was evaluated in the form of their respective ED50 values necessary to protect 50% of mice against tonic extension of the hind limbs, following maximal electroshock, delivered through ear electrodes. The specificity of interactions between AEDs and adenosine agonists was challenged with an adenosine receptor A 1 and A 2 antagonist, aminophylline (5 mg/kg). The effects of AEDs alone or with adenosine agonists were tested for the occurrence of adverse effects (AE) (impairment of motor coordination) in a chimney test. All combinations with an enhancement the protective activity of CBZ or VPA were verified with the free plasma or brain concentration of these AED.
Results. Adenosine receptor agonists (cycloheksyladenosine up to 4 mg/kg; CGS 21 680 – 8 mg/kg; N6-benzyl-NECA – 1 mg/kg; 2-chloroadenosine – 2 mg/kg) did not significantly affect the threshold for maximal electroconvulsions. Cycloheksyladenosine (1 mg/kg), N6-benzyl-NECA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) and 2-chloroadenosine (1 mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant activity of CBZ. Valproate’s protective action was enhanced by one adenosine agonist – cycloheksyladenosine (1 mg/kg). Only the combination of CBZ + N6-benzyl-NECA (1 mg/kg) was resistant to aminophylline (5 mg/kg). Pharmacokinetic interactions were evident in case of the combination of CBZ + N6-benzyl-NECA (1 mg/kg) and resulted in an increased free plasma concentration of this CBZ. Interestingly, total brain concentration of CBZ confirmed the pharmacokinetic interaction as regards CBZ + N6-benzyl-NECA (1 mg/kg).
Conclusion. The best profile was shown by the combination of CBZ + 2-chloroadenosine which involved no AE or a pharmacokinetic interaction. The remaining positive combinations in terms of anticonvulsant activity were associated with general profound AE and pharmacokinetic interactions in some of them.
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