Oscheius tipulae in Italy: Evidence of an Alien Isolate in the Integral Natural Reserve of Montecristo Island (Tuscany)


Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Journal of Nematology

Society of Nematologists

Subject: Life Sciences


ISSN: 0022-300X
eISSN: 2640-396X





Volume / Issue / page

Related articles

VOLUME 48 , ISSUE 1 (March 2016) > List of articles

Oscheius tipulae in Italy: Evidence of an Alien Isolate in the Integral Natural Reserve of Montecristo Island (Tuscany)


Keywords : alien nematode isolate, Central Italy, desiccation assay, genetics, nematode introduction.

Citation Information : Journal of Nematology. Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 8-13, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/jofnem-2017-003

License : (CC BY 4.0)

Received Date : 24-September-2015 / Published Online: 21-July-2017



Montecristo Island is an integral natural reserve of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park (Central Italy), characterized by
a peculiar assemblage of flora and fauna, with several endemic taxa, and also with a high number of alien species. During a soil survey, we found an alien Oscheius tipulae Lam &Webster, 1971 isolate, phylogenetically close to others from South America. In this article, we examined the possible pathways of introduction of this nematode. Because of the high number of alien plants in this protected area and the low desiccation survival ability of O. tipulae, we hypothesized that the presence of this alien nematode isolate may be related to the soil of introduced plants, although historical association with plant-associated invertebrates is also possible. Further studies with more populations and marker molecules are necessary to investigate the distribution of O. tipulae and the possible impact on this natural reserve.

Content not available PDF Share



  1. AA. VV. 1976. Il Popolamento Animale e Vegetale dell’Arcipelago Toscano. Lavori della Societa Italiana di Biogeografia, vol. V. Forlı, Italy: Lito Tipo Valbonesi.
  2. Ahn, I.-Y., and Winter, C. E. 2006. The genome of Oscheius tipulae :Determination of size, complexity, and structure by DNA reassociation using fluorescent dye. Genome 49:1007–1015.
  3. Baı¨lle, D., Barriere, A., and Felix, M. A. 2008. Oscheius tipulae, a widespread hermaphroditic soil nematode, displays a higher genetic diversity and geographical structure than Caenorhabditis elegans. Molecular Ecology 17:1523–1534.
  4. Baker, E. 1966. Inadvertent distribution of fungi. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 12:109–112.
  5. Banfi, E., and Galasso, G. 2010. La flora esotica lombarda. Museo di Storia Naturale di Milano, Milano. Accompanied by: CD-ROM. Italian.
  6. Bedding, R. A., and Akhurst, R. J. 1975. A simple technique for the detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica 21:109–110.
  7. Blackburn, T. M., Pysek, P., Bacher, S., Carlton, J. T., Duncan, R. P., Jarosık, V., Wilson, J. R. U., and Richardson, D. M. 2011. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions. Trends in Ecology and
    Evolution 26(7):333–339.
  8. Celesti-Grapow, L., Alessandrini, A., Arrigoni, P. V., Banfi, E., Bernardo,L.,Bovio,M., Brundu,G., Cagiotti,M.R., Camarda, I.,Carli,E., Conti, F., Fascetti, S., Galasso, G., Gubellini, L., La Valva, V., Lucchese, F., Marchiori, S., Mazzola, P., Peccenini, S., Poldini, L., Pretto, F., Prosser, F., Siniscalco, C., Villani, M. C., Viegi, L., Wilhalm, T., and Blasi, C. 2009. Inventory of the non-native flora of Italy. Plant Biosystems 143(2):386–430.
  9. Celesti-Grapow, L., Alessandrini, A., Arrigoni, P. V., Assini, S., Banfi, E., Barni, E., Bovio, M., Brundu, G., Cagiotti,M. R., Camarda, I., Carlia, E., Contij, F., Del Guacchiok, E., Dominal, G., Fascettim, S., Galassoe, G.,
    Gubellinin, L., Luccheseo, F., Medaglip, P., Passalacquaq, N. G., Pecceninir, S., Poldinis, L.,Prettoa, F., Prossert, F.,Vidalis, M.,Viegiu, L., Villaniv, M. C., Wilhalmw, T., and Blasia, C. 2010a. Non-native flora of
    Italy: Species distribution and threats. Plant Biosystems 144(1):12–28.
  10. Celesti-Grapow, L., Pretto, F., Carli, E., and Blasi, C. 2010b. Flora vascolare alloctona e invasiva delle regioni d’Italia. Roma: Casa Editrice Universita La Sapienza.
  11. Cianferoni, F., Rocchi, S., and Terzani, F. 2013. Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha and Leptopodomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of the Tuscan Archipelago (Italy). Zootaxa 3669(3):302–320.
  12. Davidson, J. M., Wickland, A. C., Patterson, H. A., Falk, K. R., and Rizzo, D. M. 2005. Transmission of Phytophthora ramorum in mixedevergreen forest in California. Phytopathology 95:587–596.
  13. Dichtel, M. L., Louvet-Vallee, S., Viney, M. E., Felix, M. A., and Sternberg, P. W. 2001. Control of vulval cell division number in the nematode Oscheius/Dolichorhabditis sp. CEW1. Genetics 157(1):183–197.
  14. Dichtel-Danjoy, M. L., and Felix, M. A. 2004. Phenotypic neighborhood and micro-evolvability. Trends in Genetics 20(5):268–276.
  15. Evans, D., Zorio, D., MacMorris, M., Winter, C. E., Lea, K., and Blumenthal, T. 1997. Operons and SL2 trans-splicing exist in nematodes outside the genus Caenorhabditis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94:9751–9756.
  16. Foucher, A., and Wilson, M. 2002. Development of a polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique to study nematode species biodiversity using the 18s rDNA gene. Molecular Ecology Notes 2:45–48.
  17. Hughes, K. A., Convey, P., Maslen, N. R., and Smith, R. I. L. 2010. Accidental transfer of non-native soil organisms into Antarctica on construction vehicles. Biological Invasions 12:875–891.
  18. Hulme, P. E., Bacher, S., Kenis, M., Klotz, S., K€uhn, I., Minchin, D., Nentwig, W., Olenin, S., Panov, V., Pergi, J., Pysek, P., Roques, A., Sol, D., Solarz, W., and Vila, M. 2008. Grasping at the routes of biological invasions: A framework for integrating pathways into policy. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:403–414.
  19. Inghilesi, A. F., Mazza, G., Cervo, R., Gherardi, F., Sposimo, P., Tricarico, E., and Zapparoli, M. 2013a. Alien insects in Italy: Comparing patterns from the regional to European level. Journal of Insect Science 13(73). http://www.insectscience.org/13.73.
  20. Inghilesi, A. F., Cervo, R., Pennacchio, F., Roversi, P. F., Tricarico, E., and Mazza, G. 2013b. Alien insects on Eucalyptus spp.: An Australian biocenosis in Tuscany. Redia XCVI: 21–26.
  21. Joyce, S. A., Burnell, A. M., and Powers, T. O. 1994. Characterization of Heterorhabditis isolates by PCR amplification of segments of mtDNA and rDNA genes. Journal of Nematology 26:260–270.
  22. Kaya, H. K., and Stock, S. P. 1997. Techniques in insect nematology. Pp. 281‒324 in L. A. Lacey, ed. Manual of techniques in insect pathology, London: Academic Press.
  23. Kettunen, M., Genovesi, P., Gollasch, S., Pagad, S., Starfinger, U., ten Brink, P., and Shine, C. 2009. Technical support to EU strategy on invasive species (IAS). Assessment of the impacts of IAS in Europe and the EU
    (final module report for the European Commission). Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP), Brussels, Belgium. 44 pp. + Annexes.
  24. Kueffer, C., Daehler, C. C., Torres-Santana, C. W., Lavergne, C., Meyer, J. Y., Otto, R., and Silva, L. 2010. A global comparison of plant invasions on oceanic islands. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 12:145–161.
  25. Lazzaro, L., Ferretti, G., Giuliani, C., and Foggi, B. 2014. A checklist of the alien flora of the Tuscan Archipelago (Italy). Webbia 69 (1):157–76.
  26. Louvet-Vallee, S., Kolotuev, I., Podbilewicz, B., and Felix, M.-A. 2003. Control of vulval competence and centering in the nematode Oscheius sp. 1 CEW1. Genetics 163:133–146.
  27. Lucchesi, M., Grigioni, J., Vagniluca, S., Quilghini, G., Forieri, B., Zoccola, A., and Landi, M. 2011. Study of endoparasites in the Goats (Capra hircus) of the Island of Montecristo (Italy) (Mammalia Artiodactyla
    Bovidae). Quaderno di studi e notizie di storia naturale della Romagna 32:187–190.
  28. Mazza, G., Abbazzi, P., Andriolo, L., Inghilesi, A. F., Marziaj, G., Sposimo, P., Zoccola, A., and Gherardi, F. 2012. Gonipterus scutellatus s. l. in Montecristo Island (Tuscany): Should its first introduction to the
    Palearctic region be backdated to the 19th century? Bollettino della Societa entomologica italiana 144(1):19–22.
  29. McNeill, M., Phillips, C., Young, S., Shah, F., Aalders, L., Bell, N., Gerard, E., and Littlejohn, R. 2011. Transportation of nonindigenous species via soil on international aircraft passengers’ footwear. Biological
    Invasions 13:2799–2815.
  30. Meagher, J. W. 1977. World dissemination of the cereal-cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) and its potential as a pathogen of wheat. Journal of Nematology 9:9–15.
  31. Paoli, P., and Romagnoli, G. 1976. La flora vascolare dell’isola di Montecristo (Arcipelago Toscano). Webbia 30:303–456.
  32. Pysek, P., Richardson, D. M., Rejmanek, M., Webster, G. L., Williamson, M., and Kirschner, J. 2004. Alien plants in checklists and floras: Towards better communication between taxonomists and ecologists. Taxon 53(1):131–143.
  33. Roques, A., Rabitsch, W., Rasplus, J.-Y., Lopez-Vaamonde, C., Nentwig, W., and Kenis, M. 2009. Alien terrestrial invertebrates of Europe. Pp. 63–79 in DAISIE eds. Handbook of alien species in Europe.
    Springer Science + Business Media B.V.
  34. Scalera, R., and Zaghi, D. 2004. Alien species and nature conservation in the EU. The role of the LIFE program. LIFE Focus, European Commission, Brussels, 59 pp.
  35. Shine, C., Kettunen, M., ten Brink, P., Genovesi, P., and Gollasch, S.2009. Technical support to EU strategy on invasive species (IAS). Recommendations on policy options to control the negative impacts
    of IAS on biodiversity in Europe and the EU. Final report for the European Commission. Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP), Brussels, Belgium. 35 pp.
  36. Springborn, M., Romagosa, C. M., and Keller, R. P. 2011. The value of nonindigenous species risk assessment in international trade (with Reuben Keller and Christina Romagosa). Ecological Economics 70(11):2145–2153.
  37. Sudhaus, W. 1993. Redescription of Rhabditis (Oscheius) tipulae (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) associated with leatherjackets, larvae of Tipula paludosa (Diptera: Tipulidae). Nematologica 39:234–239.
  38. Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A., and Kumar, S.2013. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30:2725–2729.
  39. Torrini, G., Mazza, G., Carletti, B., Benvenuti, C., Roversi, P. F., Fanelli, E., De Luca, F., Troccoli, A., and Tarasco, E. 2015. Oscheius onirici sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae): A new entomopathogenic nematode from an Italian cave. Zootaxa 3937(3):533–548.
  40. Vignoli, V., Salomone, N., Cicconardi, F., and Bernini, F. 2007. The scorpion of Montecristo, Euscorpius oglasae Di Caporiacco, 1950, stat. nov. (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae): A paleoendemism of the Tuscan Archipelago (northern Tyrrhenian, Italy). Comptes Rendus Biologies 330(2):113–125.
  41. Webber, J. F., and Rose, J. 2008. Dissemination of aerial and root infecting Phytophthoras by human vectors. Pp. 195–198 in S. J. Frankel, J. T. Kliejunas, K. M. Palmieri, eds. Sudden oak death third science
    symposium, United States department of agriculture, general technical report PSW-GTR-214. California: Pacific Southwest Research Station.
  42. Whittaker, R. J., and Fernandez-Palacios, J.M. 2007. Island biogeography. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.