Redefinition of Genus Malenchus Andrassy, 1968 (Tylenchomorpha: Tylenchidae) with Additional Data on Ecology


Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Journal of Nematology

Society of Nematologists

Subject: Life Sciences


ISSN: 0022-300X
eISSN: 2640-396X





Volume / Issue / page

Related articles

VOLUME 49 , ISSUE 2 (June 2017) > List of articles

Redefinition of Genus Malenchus Andrassy, 1968 (Tylenchomorpha: Tylenchidae) with Additional Data on Ecology


Keywords : Duosulcius, Filenchus, morphology, Ottolenchus, taxonomy, Tylenchomorpha, Zanenchus.

Citation Information : Journal of Nematology. Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 189-206, DOI:

License : (CC BY 4.0)

Received Date : 23-March-2017 / Published Online: 21-July-2017



Malenchus is the second specious genus in Tylenchidae. In the presented study, we examined 22 populations including 12
type/paratype species. Detailed morphology was recovered using light microscopy, scanning- and transmission- electron microscopy. All population and type slides were recorded as picture and video vouchers, which are available online. We have compared inter- or intraspecific variations and extracted taxonomically informative traits. Amended definitions of the Malenchus as well as the closely related Ottolenchus were given based on a combination of morphology and recent molecular data, and their phylogeny were analyzed in a context of Tylenchidae. Furthermore, we test different fungi and moss as a food resource of Malenchus and their feeding behavior is also discussed.

Content not available PDF Share



  1. Adam, M., Westphal, A., Hallmann, J., and Heuer, H. 2014. Specific microbial attachment to root knot nematodes in suppressive soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80:2679–2686.
  2. Adams, B. J., and Nguyen, K. B. 2002. Taxonomy and systematics. Pp. 1–33 in G. Randy, ed. Entomopathogenic nematology. New Jersey: CABI publishing.
  3. Andrassy, I. 1963. Freilebende Nematoden aus Angola, I. Einige moosbewohnende Nematoden. Lisboa: Publicacx~oes Culturais da Companhia de Diamantes de Angola.
  4. Andrassy, I. 1968. Fauna Paraguayensis. 2. Nematoden aus den Galeriew€ aldern des Acaray-Flusses. Opuscula Zoologica Budapest 8:167–312.
  5. Andrassy, I. 1981. Genera and species of the family Tylenchidae Orley, 1880 (Nematoda). The genus Malenchus Andrassy, 1968. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 27:1–47.
  6. Andrassy, I. 2007. Free-living nematodes of Hungary, II (Nematoda errantia). Budapest, Hungary: Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  7. Atighi, M. R., Pourjam, E., Pereira, T. J., Okhovvat, S. M.,Alizada, B. A., Mundo-Ocampo, M., and Baldwin, J. G. 2013. Redescription of Filenchus annulatus (Siddiqui & Khan, 1983) Siddiqi, 1986 based on specimens from Iran with contributions to the molecular phylogeny of the Tylenchidae. Nematology 15:129–141.
  8. Baldwin, J. G., and Hirschmann,H. 1975. Body wall fine structure of the anterior region of Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera glycines males. Journal of Nematology 7:175.
  9. Bert, W., Coomans, A., Claerbout, F., Geraert, E., and Borgonie, G.2003. Tylenchomorpha (Nematoda: Tylenchina) in Belgium, an updated list. Nematology 5:435–440.
  10. Bert, W., Claeys, M., and Borgonie, G. 2006. The comparative cellular architecture of the female gonoduct among Tylenchoidea (Nematoda: Tylenchina). Journal of Nematology 38:362.
  11. Bert, W., Leliaert, F., Vierstraete, A. R., Vanfleteren, J. R., and Borgonie, G. 2008. Molecular phylogeny of the Tylenchina and evolution of the female gonoduct (Nematoda: Rhabditida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48:728–744.
  12. Bert, W., Okada, H., Tavernier, I., Borgonie, G., and Houthoofd, W.2010. Morphological, morphometrical and molecular characterisation of Filenchus fungivorus n. sp., a fungivorous nematode from Japan in a most likely polyphyletic genus (Nematoda: Tylenchina).Nematology 12:235–246.
  13. Bongers, T., and Bongers, M. 1998. Functional diversity of nematodes. Applied Soil Ecology 10:239–251.
  14. Brzeski, M. W., and Sauer, M. R. 1982. Scanning electron micrography of some Tylenchidae and Boleodoridae and reappraisal of the Boleodoridae. Nematologica 28:437–446.
  15. Brzeski, M. W. 1988. Malenchus parvus sp. n., M. solovjovae sp. n. and observations on M. leiodermis (Nematoda, Tylenchidae). Nematologica 34:47–56.
  16. Brzeski, M. W. 1998. Nematodes of Tylenchina in Poland and temperate Europe. Warsaw, Poland: Muzeum i Instytutu Zoologii, Polska Akademia Nauk (MiIZ PAN).
  17. Carta, L. K., Handoo, Z. A., Hoberg, E. P., Erbe, E. F., and Wergin, W. P. 2009. Evaluation of some vulval appendages in nematode taxonomy. Comparative parasitology 76:191–209.
  18. Clark, S. A., Shepherd, A. M., and Kempton, A. 1973. Spicule structure in some Heterodera spp. Nematologica 19:242–247.
  19. Coomans, A. 1989. Overzicht van de vrijlevende nematofauna van Belgie¨ (Nematoda). Symposium Invertebraten van Belgie¨. Brussels, Belgium: Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences.
  20. Coosemans, J. 2002. Status and trends of the Belgian fauna with a particular emphasis on alien species. in M. Peeters and J. L. Van Goethem, eds. Nematoden als indicators voor bodemclassificatie. Brussels, Belgium: Bulletin van het Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen Biologie.
  21. Cunningham, A. C., Leeming, J. P., Ingham, E., and Gowland, G. 1990. Differentiation of three serovars of Malassezia furfur. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 68:439–446.
  22. De Ley, P., and Bert,W. 2002. Video capture and editing as a tool for the storage, distribution, and illustration of morphological characters of nematodes. Journal of Nematology 34:296–302.
  23. Decraemer, W., Karanastasi, E., Brown, D., and Backeljau, T. 2003. Review of the ultrastructure of the nematode body cuticle and its phylogenetic interpretation. Biological Reviews 78:465–510.
  24. Ebsary, B. A. 1991. Catalog of the order Tylenchida (Nematoda). Ottawa, Canada: Research Branch Agriculture Canada.
  25. Ferris, H., and Bongers, T. 2006. Nematode indicators of organic enrichment. Journal of Nematology 38:3–12.
  26. Gomez-Barcina, A., Geraert, E., Castillo, P., and Pais, G. 1992. Three Malenchus species from Spain (Nemata: Tylenchidae) with a note on the amphidial opening in the genus. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 15:153–157.
  27. Geraert, E. 1973. A comparative study of the structure of the female gonads in plant-parasitic Tylenchida (Nematoda). Annales de la Societe Royale Zoologique de Belgique 102:171–198.
  28. Geraert, E., and De Grisse, A. 1982. The male copulatory system in tylenchid taxonomy (Nematoda). Nematologica 27:432–442.
  29. Geraert, E. 1983. The use of the female reproductive system in nematode systematics. Pp. 73–84 in A. R. Stone, H. M. Platt, and L. F. Khalil, eds. Concepts in Nematode Systematics. London: Academic Press.
  30. Geraert, E., and Raski, D. 1986. Unusual Malenchus species (Nematoda:Tylenchidae). Nematologica 32:27–55.
  31. Geraert, E., and Raski, D. J. 1987. A reappraisal of Tylenchina (Nemata). 3. The family Tylenchidae € Orley, 1880. Revue de Nematologie 10:143–161.
  32. Geraert, E. 2006. Functional and detailed morphology of the Tylenchida (Nematoda). Leiden, The Netherland: Brill Academic Publishers.
  33. Geraert, E. 2008. The Tylenchidae of the world: identification of the family Tylenchidae (Nematoda). Gent, Belgium: Academia Press.
  34. Hay, R. J., and Midgley, G. 2010. Introduction: Malassezia yeasts from a historical perspective. Pp. 1–16 in T. Boekhout, P. Mayser, E. Gueho-Kellermann, and A. Velegraki, eds. Malassezia and the skin. Heidelberg: Springer.
  35. Hechler, H. C. 1971. Taxonomic notes on four species of Panagrellus Thorne (Nematoda: Cephalobidae). Journal of Nematology 3:227–237.
  36. Holovachov, O. 2014. Nematodes from terrestrial and freshwater habitats in the Arctic. Biodiversity Data Journal 2:e1165.
  37. Holterman, M., Rybarczyk, K., Van den Elsen, S., Van Megen, H., Mooyman, P., Santiago, R. P., Bongers, T., Bakker, J., and Helder, J. 2008. A ribosomal DNA-based framework for the detection and quantification of stress-sensitive nematode families in terrestrial habitats. Molecular Ecology Resources 8:23–34.
  38. Husain, S. I., and Khan, A. M. 1967. A new subfamily, a new subgenus and eight new species of nematodes from India belonging to 204 Journal of Nematology, Volume 49, No. 2, June 2017 superfamiiy Tylenchoidea. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 34:175–186.
  39. Johnson, P.W., Van Gundy, S. D., and Thomson,W.W. 1970. Cuticle formation in Hemicycliophora arenaria, Aphelenchus avenae and Hirschmanniella gracilis. Journal of Nematology 2:59–79.
  40. Karab€orkl€u, S., Ayvaz, A., Yilmaz, S., and Azizoglu, U. 2015. Fungi associated with free-living soil nematodes in Turkey. Archives of Biological Sciences 67:1173–1183.
  41. Katalan-Gateva, S. D., and Alexiev, A. 1985. Phytonematodes from the biospheric reserve Parangalica. Godishnik na Sofiiskiya Universitet Kliment Okhridski Biologicheski Fakultet 79:65–71.
  42. Kazachenko, I. P. 1975. New nematode species of the family Tylenchidae from the litter of coniferous forests. Trudy Biologichesko gopochvennogo Instituta Vladivostok Novaya Seriya 26:178–186.
  43. Khan, T. H., and Ahmad, W. 1991. Two known and three new species of Duosulciinae (Nematoda: Tylenchida). Indian Journal of Nematology 19:129–137.
  44. Knobloch, N. A. 1976. The genus Malenchus (Nematoda: Tylenchida) with descriptions of two species from Michigan. Journal of Nematology 8:53–57.
  45. Lai, A., and Khan, E. 1988. Description of Malenchus subtius sp. n. with remarks on M. acarayensis Andrassy, 1968 (Tylenchidae: Nematoda) associated with forest trees in India. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 18:43–46.
  46. Loof, P. A. A. 1971. Freeliving and plant parasitic nematodes from Spitzbergen, collected by Mr. H. van Rossen. Wageningen, The Netherland: Meded. Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen.
  47. Luc, M., Maggenti, A. R., Fortuner, R., Raski, D. J., and Geraert, E. 1987. A reappraisal of Tylenchina (Nemata) 1. For a new approach to the taxonomy of Tylenchina. Revue de Nematologie 10:127–134.
  48. Maqbool, M., and Shahina, F. 1985. Two new and two known species of the genus Malenchus Andrassy, 1968 (Nematoda; Tylenchidae) from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology 3:1–7.
  49. Marcon, M. J., and Powell, D. A. 1992. Human infections due to Malassezia spp. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 5:101–119.
  50. Massey, C. L. 1969. New species of tylenchs associated with bark beetles in New Mexico and Colorado. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 36:43–52.
  51. Merny, G. 1970. Les nematodes phytoparasites des rizieres inondees en C^ote d’Ivoire. I.-Les especes observees. Cahiers ORSTOM. Serie Biologie 11:3–43.
  52. Mizukubo, T., and Minagawa, N. 1985. Taxonomic study of the genus Cephalenchus (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from Japan. Descriptions of three new species and records of C. planus Siddiqui and Khan with a key to species. Japanese Journal of Nematology 15:26–40.
  53. Mounport, D., Baujard, P., and Martiny, B. 1991. Cuticle ultrastructure of Criconemella curvata and Criconemella sphaerocephala (Nemata: Criconematidae). Journal of Nematology 23:99–103.
  54. Mounport, D., Baujard, P., and Martiny, B. 1993a. Cuticle fine structure of nine species in the genus Tylenchorhynchus Cobb, 1913 (Nemata: Belonolaimidae). Fundamental and Applied Nematology 16:137–149.
  55. Mounport, D., Baujard, P., and Martiny, B. 1993b. Ultrastructural observations on the body cuticle of four species of Tylenchidae Oerley, 1880 (Nemata: Tylenchida). Nematologia Mediterranea 21:155–159.
  56. Mounport,D., Baujard, P., andMartiny, B. 1997.Studiesonthebodywall ultrastructure of Hirschmanniella oryzae and H. spinicaudata (Nematoda:Pratylenchidae). Fundamental and Applied Nematology 20:587–592.
  57. Mukhina, T. I., and Kazachenko, I. P. 1981. A new species, Malenchus novus sp.n. (Nematoda, Tylenchida) from the east plants. Parazitologiya 15:191–194.
  58. Mundo-Ocampo, M., Holovachov, O., and Pereira, T. J. 2015. Malenchus herrerai n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchidae from the rainforest of Peru with additional insights on the morphology of the genus. Nematropica 45:158–169.
  59. Nickle, W. R. 1970. A taxonomic review of the genera of the Aphelenchoidea (Fuchs, 1937) Thorne, 1949 (Nematoda: Tylenchida). Journal of Nematology 2:375.
  60. Okada, H., Tsukiboshi, T., and Kadota, I. 2002.Mycetophagy in Filenchus misellus (Andrassy, 1958) Lownsbery & Lownsbery, 1985 (Nematoda: Tylenchidae), with notes on its morphology. Nematology 4:795–801.
  61. Okada, H., and Kadota, I. 2003. Host status of 10 fungal isolates for two nematode species, Filenchus misellus and Aphelenchus avenae. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 35:1601–1607.
  62. Okada, H., Harada, H., and Kadota, I. 2005. Fungal-feeding habits of six nematode isolates in the genus Filenchus. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37:1113–1120.
  63. Panahandeh, Y., Pourjam, E., and Pedram, M. 2014. Four new tylenchids (Tylenchina: Nematoda) for nematode fauna of Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 16:461–477.
  64. Panahandeh, Y., Pourjam, E., Aliramaji, F., Atighi, M. R., and Pedram, M. 2015a. First record of three known species of the family Tylenchidae € Orley, 1880 (Nematoda: Tylenchina) from Iran with new morphological and molecular data. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 17:1903–1918.
  65. Panahandeh, Y., Pourjam, E., Aliramaji, F., and Pedram, M. 2015b. Data on some members of the family Tylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchina) from Iran. Biologia 70:1376–1387.
  66. Qing, X., Sanchez-Monge, A., Janssen, T., Couvreur, M., and Bert, W.2016. Description of Malenchus sexlineatus n. sp., new records of three known species of Malenchus Andrassy, 1968 (Nematoda: ylenchidae) and notes on amphideal aperture development. Nematology 18:155–174.
  67. Qing, X., Decraemer, W., Claeys, M., and Bert, W. 2017. Molecular phylogeny of Malenchus and Filenchus (Nematoda: Tylenchidae). Zoologica Scripta (In press) doi:10.1111/zsc.12236..
  68. Raski, D. J., Koshy, P. K., and Sosamma, V. K. 1982. Revision of the subfamily Ecphyadophorinae Skarbilovich, 1959 (Tylenchida: Nematoda). Revue de Nematologie 5:119–138.
  69. Raski, D. J., and Geraert, E. 1985. New species of Lelenchus Andrassy, 1954 and Ecphyadophora De Man, 1921 (Nemata: Tylenchidae) from southern Chile. Nematologica 31:244–265.
  70. Raski, D. J., and Geraert, E. 1986a. Descriptions of two new species and other observations on the genus Cephalenchus Goodey, 1962 (Nemata: Tylenchidae). Nematologica 32:56–78.
  71. Raski, D. J., and Geraert, E. 1986b. Review of the genus Filenchus Andrassy, 1954 and descriptions of six new species (Nemata: Tylenchidae). Nematologica 32:265–311.
  72. Renker, C., Alphei, J., and Buscot, F. 2003. Soil nematodes associated with the mammal pathogenic fungal genus Malassezia (Basidiomycota: Ustilaginomycetes) in central European forests. Biology and Fertility of Soils 37:70–72.
  73. Siddiqi, M. R. 1978. The unusual position of the phasmids in Coslenchus costatus (de Man, 1921) gen. n., comb. n. and other Tylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida). Nematologica 24:449–455.Siddiqi, M. R. 1979. Seven new species in a new nematode subfamily
  74. Duosulciinae (Tylenchidae), with proposals for Duosulcius gen. n., Zanenchus gen. n. and Neomalenchus gen. n. Nematologica 25:215–236.
  75. Siddiqi, M. R. 1986. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects. London, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau.
  76. Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.
  77. Siddiqui, A., and Khan, E. 1983. Taxonomic studies on Tylenchidae (Nematoda) of India IV: Two new species of Malenchus with report of M. nanellus Siddiqi, 1979. Indian Journal of Nematology 13:91–97.
  78. Singh, S. D. 1971. Studies on the morphology and systematics of plant and soil nematodes mainly from Andhra Pradesh. I. Tylenchoidea. Journal of Helminthology 45:353–369.3
  79. Steiner, G. 1914. Freilebende nematoden aus der Schweiz. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie und Planktonkunde 9:259–276.
  80. Sumenkova, N. I. 1988. Paramalenchus anthrisculus gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda, Tylenchidae) from the rhizosphere of plants in a floodland meadow. Zoologichesky Zhurnal 67:1073–1076.
  81. Szczygiel, A. 1974. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with strawberry plantations in Poland. Zeszyty problemowe postepow nauk rolniczych 154:9–132.
  82. Talavera, M., and Siddiqi, M. R. 1996. Description of Duosulcius nigeriensis sp. n., Malenchus angustus sp. n. and Zanenchus linearis sp. n. (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) from West Africa. Afroasian Journal of Nematology 6:171–175.
  83. Tarjan, A. C. 1957. Observations on Ecphyadophora tenuissima de Man, 1921. Nematologica 2:152–158.
  84. Thorne, G., and Malek, R. B. 1968. Nematodes of the northern Great Plains. Part I. Tylenchida (Nemata: Secernentea). South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 31:1–111.
  85. Troccoli, A., and Geraert, E. 1995. Some species of Tylenchida (Nematoda) from Papua New Guinea. Nematologia Mediterranea 23:283–298.
  86. Valette, C., Baujard, P., Nicole, M., Sarah, J.-L., and Mounport, D.1997. Ultrastructural observations on the cuticle of Radopholus similis (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae). Fundamental and Applied Nematology 20:481–486.
  87. van Megen, H., van den Elsen, S., Holterman, M., Karssen, G.,Mooyman, P., Bongers, T., Holovachov, O., Bakker, J., and Helder, J. 2009. A phylogenetic tree of nematodes based on about 1200 full-length small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Nematology 11:927–950.
  88. Wang, K. C., and Chen, T. A. 1985. Ultrastructure of the phasmids of Scutellonema brachyurum. Journal of Nematology 17:175.
  89. Wasilewska, L. 1970. Nematodes of the sand dunes in the Kampinos forest. I. Species structure. Ekologia polska 4:29–43.
  90. Wen, G. Y., and Chen, T. A. 1976. Ultrastructure of the spicules of Pratylenchus penetrans. Journal of Nematology 8:69–74.
  91. Wisniewska, O., and Kowalewska, K. 2015. Some observations on Malenchus pressulus (Kazachenko, 1975) (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) from Bialowieski National Park, Poland. Annales Zoologici 65:123–130.
  92. Wu, L.-Y. 1970. Genus Ottolenchus n. rank and Ottolenchus sulcus n. sp. (Tylenchidae: Nematoda). Canadian Journal of Zoology 48:249–251.
  93. Yaghoubi, A., Pourjam, E., Atighi, M. R., and Pedram, M. 2015. Description of Atetylenchus minor n. sp. (Tylenchina: Tylenchidae) and data on two other species of the family. Nematology 17:981–994.
  94. Yeates, G. W., and Bird, A. F. 1994. Some observations on the influence of agricultural practices on the nematode faunae of some South Australian soils. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 17:133–145.
  95. Yeates, G. W. 2003. Nematodes as soil indicators: functional and biodiversity aspects. Biology and Fertility of Soils 37:199–210.
  96. Zell, H. 1988. Nematoden eines Buchenwaldbodens. 10. Die Tylenchen (Nematoda, Tylenchoidea). Carolinea 46:75–98.
  97. Zhang, N., Suh, S.-O., and Blackwell, M. 2003. Microorganisms in the gut of beetles: evidence from molecular cloning. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 84:226–233.