Cryptaphelenchus varicaudatus n. sp. (Rhabditida: Ektaphelenchinae) from Tehran Province, Iran


Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Journal of Nematology

Society of Nematologists

Subject: Life Sciences


ISSN: 0022-300X
eISSN: 2640-396X





Volume / Issue / page

Related articles

VOLUME 49 , ISSUE 2 (June 2017) > List of articles

Cryptaphelenchus varicaudatus n. sp. (Rhabditida: Ektaphelenchinae) from Tehran Province, Iran


Keywords : Aphelenchoidinae, description, LSU, phylogeny, rDNA, SSU, taxonomy.

Citation Information : Journal of Nematology. Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 223-230, DOI:

License : (CC BY 4.0)

Received Date : 02-April-2017 / Published Online: 24-July-2017



Cryptaphelenchus varicaudatus n. sp. is described and illustrated. It was isolated from bark samples of dead or dying pine
(Pinus spp.) trees with bark beetle frass and galleries, in Tehran province. The new species has 275- to 367-mm-long females (amedium-sized species) with distinctly annulated cuticle having three bands in lateral fields, lip region continuous with body contour, delicate knobbed stylet, monodelphic–prodelphic reproductive system with distinct spermatheca, short postvulval uterine sac (PUS), transverse vulval slit with raised posterior lip and body narrowing behind it, sclerotized vagina, simple intestine ending in a blind sac, having no rectum but vestigial anus in some specimens, and distal body end tip (tail tip) with variation in morphology (shape), from sharply or slightly pointed to bluntly rounded. Males of the new species are common, but less frequent than females, characterized by shorter body (235–278 mm long) compared to females, their posterior body end more ventrally bent, arcuate separate spicules with well-developed wide condyles, distinct rostrum having sharp, attenuated tip. The precloacal single supplement (P1) and the distally located pair of caudal papillae close to tail tip were only observed. The new species is morphologically compared with the species of the genus having short PUS and similar body end morphology. In molecular phylogenetic analyses using 1520- and 698-nt-long sequences of small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA D2/D3 fragments, the new species formed a clade with two currently available GenBank-derived, unspecified isolates/sequences in SSU and three other isolates/sequences in LSU trees, respectively.

Content not available PDF Share



  1. Aliramaji, F., Pourjam, E., Atighi, M. R., Karegar, A., and Pedram, M.2014a. Devibursaphelenchus kheirii sp. n. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) from Iran with remarks on Devibursaphelenchus Kakuliya, 1967. Nematology
  2. Aliramaji, F., Pourjam, E., Atighi, M. R., Ye, W., Roshan-Bakhsh, A.,and Pedram, M. 2014b. Description of Ektaphelenchoides poinari sp. n. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) from Iran with compendium of the valid species of the genus Ektaphelenchoides Baujard, 1984. Russian Journal of Nematology 22:11–22.
  3. Aliramaji, M. R., Pourjam, E., Karegar, A., Atighi, M. R., and Pedram, M. 2015. Description of Ektaphelenchoides caspiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) from Iran. Nematology 17:169–177.
  4. Alvani, S., Mahdikhani-Moghadam, E., Giblin-Davis, R. M., and Pedram, M. 2016. Description of Ektaphelenchus berbericus n. sp. (Rhabditida: Ektaphelenchinae) from eastern Iran. Nematology 18:1063–1077.
  5. Atighi, M. R., Pourjam, E., Pedram, M., Ye, W., and Robbins, R. T.2012. Molecular and morphological characterization of Ektaphelenchoides hunti sp. n. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) from northern Iran. Russian Journal of Nematology 20:37–44.
  6. Atighi, M. R., Pourjam, E., Pedram, M., Ye, W., Robbins, R. T., and Namjou, S. 2013a. Molecular and morphological characterization of Ektaphelenchoides kelardashtensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae)
    from northern Iran. Russian Journal of Nematology 21:23–30.
  7. Atighi, M. R., Pourjam, F., Aliramaji, M., Ye, W., and Pedram, M.2013b. Molecular and morphological characterization of Ektaphelenchoides andrassyi n. sp. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) from northern Iran. Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics 16:17–23.
  8. Baujard, P. 1984. Remarques sur la sous-famille des Ektaphelenchinae Paramonov, 1964 et proposition d’Ektaphelenchoides n. gen. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae). Revue de Nematologie 7:147–171.
  9. De Grisse, A. T. 1969. Redescription ou modifications de quelques techniques utilisees dans l’etude des nematodes phytoparasitaires Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent 34:351–369.
  10. De Ley, P., and Blaxter, M. L. 2002. Systematic position and phylogeny. Pp. 1–30 in D. L. Lee, ed. The biology of nematodes, London, UK: Taylor & Francis.
  11. Devsariani, T. S. G. 1971. [Cryptaphelenchus bicoloris n. sp. (Nematoda:Aphelenchoididae).]. Soobschcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR 63:221–224. (In Georgian).
  12. Dorris, M., Viney, M. E., and Blaxter, M. L. 2002. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Strongyloides and related nematodes. International Journal of Zoology 32:1507–1517. https://www.ncbi.nlm.
  13. Esmaeili, M., Heydari, R., Majd Taheri, Z., Fang, Y., and Li, H.2016. Description of Cryptaphelenchus iranicus n. sp. (Nematoda:Ektaphelenchinae) recovered from bark samples of Pinus nigra from Iran. Zootaxa 4139:117–127.
  14. Fuchs, A. G. 1915. Die Naturgeschichte der Nematoden und einiger anderen Parasiten. I. Des Ips typographus L. 2. Des Hylobius abietis L.Zoologische Jahrb€ucher, Abteilung f€ur Systematik, € Okologie und Geographie
    der Tiere 38:109–222.
  15. Fuchs, A. G. 1930. Neue an Borken- und R€usselk€afer gebundene Nematoden, halbparasitischeund Wohnungseinmieter. Zoologische Jahrb€ucher, Abteilung f€ur Systematik. € Okologie und Geographie der
    Tiere 59:505–646.
  16. Fuchs, A. G. 1937. Neue parasitische und halbparasitische Nematoden bei Borkenk€afern und einige andere Nematoden. I. Teil. Zoologische Jahrb€ucher, Abteilung f€ur Systematik. €O kologie und Geographie der
    Tiere 70:291–380.
  17. Goodey, T. 1945. A note on the subfamily Turbatricinae and the genus Turbator Goodey, 1943. Journal of Helminthology 21:1–9.
  18. Holterman, M., Van Der Wurff, A., van den Elsen, S., van Megen, H., Bongers, T., Holovachov, O., Bakker, J., and Helder, J.2006. Phylum-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward crown clades. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23:1792–1800.
  19. Hunt, D. J. 1993. Aphelenchida, longidoridae and trichodoridae,their systematics and bionomics. Oxon, UK: CAB International.
  20. Hunt, D. J. 2008. A checklist of the Aphelenchoidea (Nematoda:Tylenchina). Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics 10 (2007):99–135.
  21. Huson, D. H., and Scornavacca, C. 2012. Dendroscope 3: An interactive tool for rooted phylogenetic trees and networks. Systematic Biology 61:1061–1067.
  22. Kanzaki, N., and Giblin-Davis, R. M. 2012. Aphelenchoidea. Pp.161–208 in R. H. Manzanilla-Lopez and N. Marban-Mendoza, eds. Practical plant nematology. Jalisco, Mexico: Colegio de Postgraduados and Mundi-Prensa, Biblioteca Basica de Agricultura.
  23. Kakuliya, G. A. 1967. [New nematode genus, Devibursaphelenchus n. g. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae).]. Soobschcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR 47:439–443. (In Russian.).
  24. Kakulia, G. A. 1989. [Parasitic nematodes of insects (Rhabditidaand Tylenchida) and biological methods of controlling them.]. Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 210 pp. (In Russian.)
  25. Korentchenko, E. A. 1987. [Cryptaphelenchus diversispicularis n. sp.(Tylenchida, Aphelenchoididae): A new nematode of the bark beetle, Ips subelongatus (Coleoptera: Ipidae).]. Parazitologiya 21:73–78. (In Russian.)
  26. Katoh, K., and Standley, D. M. 2013. MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30:772–780.
  27. Kurashvili, B. E., Kakulia, G. A., and Devdariani, T. S. G. 1980.
    [Parasitic nematodes of the bark-beetles in Georgia.] Metsniereba, Tbilisi, Georgia, 172 pp. (In Russian.)
  28. Larget, B., and Simon, D. L. 1999. Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for the Bayesian analysis of phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16:750–759
  29. Lazarevskaya, S. L. 1961. [On the nematode fauna of Acanthocinus aedilis (Cerambycidae).] Helminthologia 3:212–220. (In Russian.)
  30. Lazarevskaya, S. L. 1963. [Nematode fauna of Orthotomicus laricis and O. proximus (Coleoptera: Ipidae).] Helminthologia 4:254–265.(In Russian.)
  31. Massey, C. L. 1974. Biology and taxonomy of nematode parasites and associates of bark beetles in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 446, USDA, Forest Service, Washington, USA, v + 233 pp.
  32. Nunn, G. B. 1992. Nematode molecular evolution. Ph.D. dissertation,University of Nottingham, UK.
  33. Nylander, J. A. 2004. MrModeltest v2. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
  34. Paramonov, A. A. 1964. [Fundamentals of Phytohelminthology. Vol. II.Taxonomy of phytonematodes.]. Nauka, Moscow, 466 pp. (In Russian.)
  35. Pedram, M., Pourjam, E., Atighi, M. R., Ye, W., and Houshmand, A. 2012. Description of Ektaphelenchoides sylvestris sp. nov. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) from Iran. Annales Zoologici 62:325–329.
  36. Poinar, G. O., Jr. 2011. The evolutionary history of nematodes as revealed in stone, Amber and Mummies. Pp 429 in D. Hunt and R. N. Perry, eds. Nematology monographs and perspectives.
  37. Rambaut, A., and Drummond, A. J. 2009. Tracer v1.6.
  38. Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., van der Mark, P., Ayres, D. L.,Darling, A., Hohna, S. B., Larget, B., Liu, L., Suchard, M. A., and Huelsenbeck, J. P. 2012. MrBayes 3.2: efficient bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology 61:539–542.
  39. R€uhm, W. 1954. Einige neue, ipidenspezifische Nematodenarten. Zoologischer Anzeiger 153:221–242.
  40. R€uhm, W. 1956. Die Nematoden der Ipiden. Parasitologische Schriftenreihe 6:1–435.
  41. R€uhm,W., and Chararas, C. 1957. Description, biologieet histologie de quatre especes nouvelles de nematodes parasites de Dryocoetes hectographus Reit. (Col. Scolytidae). Entomophaga 2:253–269.
  42. Silvestro, D., and Michalak, I. 2011. RaxmlGUI: A graphical frontend for raxML. Organisms Diversity and Evolution 12:335–337.
  43. Soleymanzadeh, M., Pedram, M., Pourjam, E., and A lvarez-Ortega, S. 2016. Description of Lelenchus brevislitus n. sp. (Nematoda:Tylenchidae), an example of a cryptic species from Iran and its phylogenetic
    relationships with other species in the family. Nematology 18:987–998.
  44. Thorne, G. 1935. Nemic parasites and associates of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus monticolae) in Utah. Journal of Agricultural Research 51:131–144.
  45. Whitehead, A. G., and Hemming, J. R. 1965. A comparison of some quantitative methods for extracting small vermiform nematodes from soil. Annals of Applied Biology 55:25–38.
  46. Yaghoubi, A., Pourjam, E., Atighi, M. R., and Pedram, M. 2014. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Ektaphelenchoides ruehmi sp. n. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) from south-western Iran. Russian Journal of Nematology 22:31–38.