Description and Distribution of Three Criconematid Nematodes from Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China

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VOLUME 50 , ISSUE 1 (May 2018) > List of articles

Description and Distribution of Three Criconematid Nematodes from Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China

Maria Munawar / Thomas O. Powers / Zhongling Tian / Timothy Harris / Rebecca Higgins / Jingwu Zheng *

Citation Information : Journal of Nematology. Volume 50, Issue 1, Pages 1-24, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/jofnem-2018-010

License : (PUBLISHER)

Published Online: 15-August-2017

ARTICLE

ABSTRACT

Populations of Criconemoides parvus, Discocriconemella hengsungica, and Discocriconemella limitanea, isolated in Hangzhou, China from the rhizosphere soil of woody perennials were characterized morphologically and molecularly. The morphometric data of the Chinese populations were compared with populations from other regions of the world. DNA barcoding with the mitochondrial COI gene confirmed conspecificity of Chinese and Costa Rican populations of D. limitanea. Phylogenetic assessment using a near full-length 18S ribosomal DNA sequence provided weak support for a grouping of Criconemoides parvus from China and C. annulatus from western North America. The phylogenetic position of D. hengsungica from China and an unknown species of Discocriconemella from Thailand relative to D. limitanea suggests that the genus Discocriconemella is not monophyletic. The study provides the first record of D. hengsungica in China and confirms the presence of C. parvus previously reported from China. Biogeographic implications of these nematode distributions are discussed.

Graphical ABSTRACT

Species of genera Criconemoides (Taylor, 1936) and Discocriconemella (De Grisse & Loof, 1965) have global distributions (Geraert, 2010, Eskandari et al., 2010) and are known to be associated with agricultural crops, grasslands and woody perennials (Siddiqi, 2000). At present, the genus Criconemoides contains 42 valid species (Geraert, 2010) with only three species (C. informis (Micoletzky, 1922) Taylor, 1936; C. parvus Raski, 1952, and C. zavadskii (Taulaganov, 1941) Raski, 1958) reported from China. Discocriconemella, after the transfer of D. inarata Hoffman, 1974 to Mesocriconema (Powers et al., 2010; 2014) contains 27 valid species. Only D. limitanea (Luc, 1959) De Grisse and Loof, 1965 was formerly known to be reported from China (Yin et al., 1994; Ye et al., 1997; Zhang et al., 1997; Li et al., 2006).

During a routine nematological survey of Hangzhou city, Zhejiang province, China, large populations of three criconematids were recovered from the rhizosphere of woody perennials. Morphological studies revealed the identity of these nematodes as C. parvus, D. hengsungica (Choi & Geraert, 1975) and D. limitanea. Previously, C. parvus was reported from Shandong (Liu et al., 2004) and Liaoning provinces (Tan and Ye, 2009) in Pisum sativum and Pinus sp. rhizosphere, respectively. However, no morphological descriptions or photo documentations were presented in the Chinese literature to confirm the actual identity of C. parvus. Similarly, D. limitanea was reported from Guangzhou (Yin et al., 1994), Guangdong (Ye et al., 1997), Fujian (Zhang et al., 1997) and Yunan (Li et al., 2006) provinces, in the rhizosphere of fruits and Rosaceae plants. Most of the descriptions are in Chinese and without photo documentation or molecular data.

Discocriconemella hengsungica was originally described from Korea, and is the only record of its occurrence (Choi and Geraert, 1975), but there is no molecular information available for this species.

Thus, the objectives of the study were to: (1) establish the identity of these three species by morphological and molecular characterization, (2) integrate the morphometric characterization of Chinese populations of D. limitanea and C. parvus with measurements reported from different countries, (3) evaluate the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of these species within Criconematidae using 18S and COI DNA sequence.

Materials and methods

Nematode detection and morphological observations: Soil samples were collected from undisturbed natural locations in the Hangzhou Botanical Garden. Nematodes were extracted from soil using a modified Cobb sieving and flotation–centrifugation method (Jenkins, 1964). Nematodes were killed and fixed in hot 4% formaldehyde, infiltrated with glycerin following the method of Seinhorst (1959), and mounted on slides for observation and preservation. The measurements and light micrographs of nematodes were accomplished using an ocular micrometer and a Zeiss Stemi 2000-C compound microscope.

Nematodes were also examined using a Hitachi TM-1000 scanning electron microscope (SEM). For the SEM examination, the nematodes were fixed in a mixture of 2.5% paraformaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde, washed three times in 0.1 M cocodylate buffer, post-fixed in 1% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in a series of ethanol solutions and critical point-dried with CO2. After mounting on stubs, the samples were coated with gold. Specimens from Costa Rica were processed for SEM using the methods described in Powers et al. (2010).

Molecular analyses

DNA samples from China were prepared according to Zheng et al. (2003). Individual nematodes were transferred into an Eppendorf tube containing 16 µL ddH2O. Two microliters PCR buffer solution was added to each tube. Nematodes were crushed using a sterilized pipette tip, briefly spun and immediately frozen at −68oC for at least 30 min. The tubes were heated to 85oC for 2 min, briefly spun, followed by the addition of 2 µL proteinase K. The tubes were incubated at 56oC for 1 to 2 hrs, followed by 10 min at 95oC. After incubation, these tubes were cooled at 4oC and used for PCR (Zheng et al., 2003). Several sets of primers (synthesized by Invitrogen, Shanghai, China) were used in the PCR analyses to amplify the near full-length18S region of rDNA and COI region. Two sets of primers: the forward 18S39F (5′-AAA GAT TAA GCC ATG CAT G-3′) and the reverse 18S977R (5′-TTT ACG GTT AGA ACT AGG GCG G-3′), the forward 18S900F (5′-AAG ACG GAC TAC AGC GAA AG-3′) and the reverse 18S1713R (5′-TCA CCT ACA GCT ACC TTG TTA CG-3′) for amplification of the nearly full-length 18S rRNA (Olson et al., 2017). For the amplification of COI the primers used were COI-F5-(5′-AATWTWGGTGTTGGAACTTCTTGAAC-3′) and COI-R9-(5′ CTTAAAACATAATGRAAATGWGCWACWACATAATAAGTATC-3) (Powers et al., 2014). The 25-µl PCR was performed using 2x-TsingKe Master Mix DNA polymerase (Beijing TsingKe Biotech Co., Ltd) according to the manufacturer’s protocol in a BIOER-XP thermocycler. The thermal cycler program for 18S and COI was as follows: denaturation at 95°C for 5 min, followed by 40 cycles (18S) or 50 cycles (COI) of denaturation at 94°C for 30 s, annealing at 50°C (18S) or 48°C (COI) for 30 s, and extension at 72°C for 90 s. A final extension was performed at 72°C for 5 min as described by Powers et al. (2014) and Olson et al. (2017). PCR products were separated and visualized on 1% agarose gels and stained with ethidium bromide. PCR products of sufficiently high quality were sent for sequencing by Invitrogen (Shanghai, China).

Phylogenetic analysis

Phylogenetic trees were constructed by maximum likelihood (ML) in MEGA version 6. Sequences were edited using CodonCode Aligner version 4.2 (http://www.codoncode.com/) and aligned using Muscle within MEGA version 6 (Tamura et al., 2013). Gap opening penalty was set at −400 with a gap extension penalty of 0. The general time reversible model with Gamma-distributed rates plus invariant sites (GTR+G+I) was determined to be the best substitution model by Bayesian Information Criterion using the Best Fit Substitution Model tool in MEGA 6.0. The ML trees used the all sites option for gaps and 200 bootstrap replications to assess clade support. The 18S tree used all the taxa previously presented in Powers et al. (2017) plus the eight new sequences from China. The COI tree includes the same taxa as the 18S tree, adding 79 new COI sequences to GenBank, plus 11 new sequences from China. GenBank accession numbers and associated metadata are presented in supplementary Table 1.

Table 1

Morphometric data and distribution of Criconemoides parvus. All measurements in µm.

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-t001.jpg

Results

Systematics

Criconemoides parvus (Raski, 1952) (Figs. 1, 2; Table 1)

Description

Female: Body cylindrical, ventrally arcuate after heat relaxation. The cephalic region is flat, continuous with the body contour. En face view, an oral disc with slightly elevated lateral pseudolips, oral aperture slit-like, with submedian lobes absent. Surrounding and apparently fused with the oral disc is a single labial annulus with dorsal and ventral indentations. Body annuli retrorse with posterior margins finely crenate, more prominent on the posterior body, anastomoses common in the middle of the body. Stylet is short with rounded basal knobs, DGO indistinct, and oesophagus criconematoid. Excretory pore at the base of the oesophageal bulb. Gonad monodelphic, outstretched, spermatheca oblong, filled with rod-shaped sperm, vagina straight, vulva closed, anterior and posterior annuli around the vulva larger than the preceding body annuli; discontinuous annuli are more common near the region of the vulva. Tail conoid ending in a rounded terminus and the anus is indistinct.

Male: Not found.

Locality and habitat: The population was found in the rhizosphere of Punica granatum L. from Xixi wetland, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China on May 5, 2017. The geographical location of the sampling site is 30°16'23″N; 120°3'33″E.

Differential diagnosis: Males were not described in the original description by Raski (1952). The type locality was near Winnemucca, Nevada in the mountains of western North America around the roots of Artemisia sp. Subsequent reports mention females with spermatheca filled with sperm but it was not until 34 years later that Rashid et al., (1986) described a male from an earlier Netherlands collection that included males, but did not describe them (De Grisse and Loof, 1965). Another character not mentioned in the original description is the presence of anastomoses. An Iranian population reported by Loof & Barooti (1991) and a Romanian population by Liskova et al. (2004) described anastomoses as either absent or occasional. Specimens of the Chinese population had numerous anastomoses. Most other morphological characters of the Chinese populations match the original description.

Morphometrically, the three Iranian populations described by Loof and Barooti, (1991) have bodies that are slightly longer than the original description (240-346 µm vs. 259-295 µm) and stylets that are shorter (26-32 µm vs. 38-41 µm). A Brazilian population reported by Rashid et al. (1986) had fewer body annuli (R = 124-141 vs. 142-156) as compared with the original description. Two New Zealand populations reported by Loof et al. (1997) and Wouts (2006) recorded slightly longer stylets (42-46 µm vs. 44-49 µm vs. 38-41 µm, respectively) and relatively fewer body annuli (R = 126-169 vs. 128-147 vs. 142-156, respectively) as compared with the original description. The Romanian and Slovak Republic populations reported by Popovici and Ciobanu (2000) and Liskova et al. (2004) correspond well to the original description except for a higher number of body annuli (R = 173 vs. 178 vs 142-156, respectively). When compared with the original description, the Chinese population has a slightly longer body (270-324.5 µm vs. 259-295 µm) and a shorter stylet (26.5-30.3 µm vs. 38-41 µm).

Discocriconemella hengsungica (Choi and Geraert, 1975) (Figs. 3, 4; Table 2)

Table 2

Morphometric data of Discocriconemella hengsungica. All measurements in µm.

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-t002.jpg
Figure 1

Light photomicrographs of Criconemoides parvus: A: entire female; B, C: head region; D: mid-body (arrows showing anastomosis); E, F: pharyngeal region (arrows showing position of the excretory pore); G, posterior region showing the reproductive system; H: posterior region showing crenation on annuli; I-K: female tail (arrows showing position of vulva and anus; scale bars = A =50 µm, all others 10 µm).

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-f001.jpg
Figure 2

Scanning electron microscopy of Criconemoides parvus: A-C: lip region; D: mid-body showing crenations; E-H: posterior region of the female showing vulva and anus (arrows showing position of anus; scale bars = A, B = 5 µm; C, F, G, H = 10 µm; D= 20 µm).

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-f002.jpg
Figure 3

Light photomicrographs of Discocriconemella hengsungica: A: entire female; B: mid-body (arrow showing annuli without anastomosis); C-D: head region (arrows showing flexible stylet and basal knobs); E: pharyngeal region (arrow showing position of the excretory pore); F, posterior region showing the reproductive system (arrows showing reflexed ovary, spermatheca, position of vulva and anus); G: female tail ; scale bars = A =50 µm, all others 10 µm).

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-f003.jpg
Figure 4

Scanning electron microscopy of Discocriconemella hengsungica: A: entire female; B-D: labial disc in different angles; E: mid-body annuli without anastomosis; F: posterior region of the female showing vulva and anus (arrows showing the position of anus; scale bars = A =50 µm; B-D= 10 µm; E, F=20 µm).

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-f004.jpg

Description

Female: Body cylindrical, ventrally curved after heat relaxation. Labial region a disc-like appearance in profile. En face view, does not show a discrete oral disc, instead the stylet appears to be located centrally in an inner rectangular area surrounded by a continuous, broad labial annulus with deep ventral and dorsal indentations forming two pairs of dorsal and ventral lobes combined with distinct lateral bulges. The oral disc and amphid apertures are indistinct due to amphidal excretions in SEM images. The labial annulus is separated from the body annulus by a high neck or collar. Body annuli retrorse to angular, without anastomosis or interruptions. Stylet long and flexible with anchor-shaped knobs, DGO indistinct; oesophagus criconematoid. Excretory pore located near the middle of the oesophageal bulb. Gonad monodelphic, outstretched, some individuals with reflexed ovary, spermatheca rounded filled with spherical sperm, vagina straight, and vulva closed. Tail conoid broadly rounded, and terminal annuli displaced dorsally and the anus is indistinct.

Male: Not found.

Locality and habitat: The population was found in the rhizosphere of Castanopsis sclerophylla (Lindl.) Schott from a Botanical garden in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China on March 28, 2017. The geographical location of the sampling site is ″30°15'17″N; 120°07'01″E.

Differential diagnosis: In the original description of D. hengsungica six specimens were studied. Only one female was observed with a few anastomoses. No anastomoses were observed on the Chinese specimens. The spermatheca was described as filled with sperm but no males were found. Similarly, the Chinese population had specimens with sperm-filled spermatheca, but no males were found. The original description lacks information on the morphology of the labial disc, position of excretory pore and anus, shape of vagina and vulva. Morphology of the Chinese population fits well with the characters included in the original description except for the complete absence of anastomoses. Morphometrically, the Chinese population is slightly longer (307-382 µm vs. 285-315 µm) with relatively longer stylets (100.3-113.5 µm vs. 104-108 µm) and less annuli from vulva to tail terminus (RV = 9-10 vs. 13-14). The slight morphometric differences could be attributed to fewer specimens studied in the original description and geographical variability.

Discocriconemella limitanea (Figs. 5–8; Tables 3–4)

Table 3

Morphometric data and distribution of Discocriconemella limitanea. All measurements in µm.

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-t003.jpg
Table 4

Morphometric data and distribution of Discocriconemella limitanea in Chinese provinces. All measurements in µm.

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-t004.jpg
Figure 5

Light photomicrographs of Discocriconemella limitanea: A: entire female; B: mid-body (arrow showing anastomosis); C-E: pharyngeal region (arrow showing position of the excretory pore); F: posterior region showing the reproductive system; G-I, female tail (arrows showing position of vulva and anus; scale bars = A =50 µm, all others 10 µm).

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-f005.jpg
Figure 6

Light photomicrographs of Discocriconemella limitanea from La Selva, Costa Rica; A) entire female, PNID-184030; B) entire female, PNID-184026; C) entire male PNID-151041; D) female tail, PNID-184031; E) female anterior, PNID-184031.

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-f006.jpg
Figure 7

Scanning electron microscopy of Discocriconemella limitanea: A) entire female; B-E: oral disc in different angles; F-H: posterior region of the female showing vulva and anus (arrows showing position of the anus; scale bars = A =50 µm; B-G = 10 µm; H = 20 µm).

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-f007.jpg
Figure 8

Scanning electron microscopy of Discocriconemella limitanea female from La Selva and Las Cruces, Costa Rica: A,B) entire female; C-H) head profiles in different angles; I-K) female posterior region showing vulva and anus.

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-f008.jpg

Description

Female: Body stout, ventrally arcuate after heat relaxation, lip region with disc-like appearance. En face view, a labial annulus with deep dorsal and ventral indentations, the oral opening appearing as a slit on a rounded oral disc flanked by two lateral amphidial apertures. The lateral edges of the labial annulus straight, lacking a central bulge. Body annuli retrorse, finely crenate edges, frequent anastomoses or discontinuous annuli that demarcate lateral lines. Stylet robust, anchor-shaped knobs, DGO indistinct. Oesophagus criconematoid. Excretory pore at the base of the oesophageal bulb. Gonad monodelphic, prodelphic, outstretched, spermatheca oblong rounded, filled with spherical sperm, vagina straight, vulva closed. Ventral post-vulval region straight, narrowing immediately posterior to the vulva, elongate-conoid. The terminal annulus is simple or lobed. Anus indistinct in light microscopy.

Male: Not found in Chinese population.

Locality and habitat: The population was found in the rhizosphere of Magnolia grandiflora Linn from a Botanical garden, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China on April 13, 2017. The geographical position of the sampling site is ″30°15'09″N; 120°07'01″E.

Differential diagnosis: In the original description males were not described; however, most populations of D. limitanea are reported to have spermatheca filled with sperm. Several reports include the description of a male. Powers et al. (2011) listed a single male (GB #FJ489535) still within the cuticle of the previous molt (Fig. 6C). The specimen had a body length of 258 µm, spicule of 19 µm, and gubernaculum of 5 µm. In the female, the relatively abrupt constriction of the post-vulval body was not described or illustrated in the original description, but the populations from Malaysia (Sauer and Winoto, 1975), Brazil (Rashid et al., 1986), India (Rahaman and Ahmed, 1994) and Ecuador (Talavera and Hunt, 1997) reported the narrowing of the post-vulval body profile. The South African population (Van den berg and Cadet, 1992) was reported to have distinct tooth-like projections on the margins of the ventral body annuli. The Brazilian population (Loof and Sharma, 1980) was reported to have a conspicuous break between the fourth and fifth annuli.

Morphometrically, the Congo population (Coomans, 1966) is slightly longer than the original description (260-280 µm vs. 207-228 µm. The Ivory Coast population (Luc, 1970) was reported to have the shortest body length (180 µm) and smallest stylet (38 µm) in the population compared with the original description. The Malaysian and Ecuadorean populations were reported to have larger V values (90-93 vs. 89.1-94.3 vs. 87-89, respectively) and smaller stylets (45-53 µm vs. 35-51 µm vs. 52-53 µm, respectively) in relation to the original description. The two Brazilian populations reported by Loof and Sharma (1980) and Rashid et al. (1986) are a mixture of small and large specimens. These two populations also differ from each other morphometrically; the notable difference of these two populations from the original description is the variable body length (167-306 µm vs. 190-280 µm vs. 207-228 µm, respectively) and stylet lengths (50-77 µm vs. 43-52 µm vs. 52-53 µm respectively). The South African, Indian and Venezuelan populations are morphologically close to the original description, except that the South African population has a longer body length (260-280 µm vs. 207-228 µm) while the body length of the Venezuelan population is shorter (191-280 µm vs. 207-228 µm), and the Indian population was reported to have smaller stylets (48-51 µm vs. 52-53 µm). The Chinese population in this study matches well with the original description except for a slightly longer body length (220-260 µm vs. 207-228 µm) and longer stylet length (53-60 µm vs. 52-53 µm). Overall, the morphometrics are within the range of variation of the species according to the populations described by various authors.

Five additional populations of D. limitanea from China have been reported from Guangzhou, Guangdong, Fujian and Yunan provinces. Nematodes from all of these populations have overlapping morphometric ranges, fit well within with the original description and Confirm to the species as described by multiple authors (Luc, 1970; Rashid et al., 1986; Rahaman and Ahmed, 1994; Talavera and Hunt, 1997).

Molecular profiles and phylogenetic status

Several key systematic features of criconematid nematodes are revealed by the 18S and COI phylogenetic trees. First, in the 18S tree (Fig. 9) which provides better resolution at the deeper nodes in the tree, there is strong bootstrap support (99%) for a clade that combines Discocriconemella limitanea from China with conspecific specimens from Costa Rica. This clade confirms the species identification and provides evidence of an amphi-Pacific disjunction, the first molecular data from a nematode to support this distribution pattern. Studies of many plant species suggest this is one of several intercontinental distribution patterns that link Asia and North America (Li and Wen, 2013; 2014; Fritsch et al., 2015). COI (Fig. 10) also supports this grouping at a lower support value (82%). Similarly, Criconemoides parvus groups with C. annulatus Cobb in Taylor, 1936 from western U.S. in the 18S tree, albeit at a relatively low support value (58%). There are no molecular data of C. parvus from North America, although the type locality is in the western state of Nevada. The placement of Discocriconemella hengsungica and an unknown Discocriconemella specimen from Thailand, in both 18S and COI trees, provides strong evidence that the genus Discocriconemella is not a monophyletic group. Discocriconemella hengsungica is a member of a larger criconematid clade that predominantly includes nematodes that possess scales or projections on the cuticle in at least one life stage. Xenocriconemella (De Grisse and Loof, 1965) is also a member of this group which adds evidence that cuticle projections are not reliable taxonomic characters in establishing the genera (Powers et al., 2017).

Overall, the addition of these species from China to a reference dataset of criconematid nematodes provides insight into the biogeography of nematodes in general. It is likely that additional collections of plant parasitic nematodes from Asia will also contribute to fundamental questions of angiosperm biogeography (Raven and Axelrod, 1974; Fritsch et al., 2015; Wen et al., 2016).

Figure 9

Maximum likelihood tree of 232 18 S criconematid sequences. Substitution model GTR+G+I and 200 bootstrap replications. Each specimen is identified by a Nematode Identification number or GenBank Accession number (for taxa not sequenced by the authors), species name, and location as supplied by the author. Brackets are provided to indicate genera or specific species. Bootstrap values over 50 are applied by nodes in red. Specimens from China are highlighted in yellow.

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-f009.jpg
Figure 10

Maximum likelihood COI tree of 175 criconematid sequences. Substitution model GTR+G+I and 200 bootstrap replications. Each specimen is identified by a Nematode Identification number, species name and location. Bootstrap values of more than 50 are applied by nodes in red. Specimens from China are highlighted in yellow.

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-f0010.jpg
Table AI

Table of location data and GenBank accession numbers for specimens appearing on the COI maximum likelihood tree, in tree order.

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-t00A1.jpg
Table AII

Table of location data and GenBank accession numbers for new Discocriconemella limitanea, Criconemoides parvus and Discocriconemella hengsungica specimens appearing on the 18S maximum likelihood tree, in tree order.

10.21307_jofnem-2018-010-t00A2.jpg

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project no. 31371921) and by U.S. National Science Foundation Proposal DEB-1145440. The authors acknowledge Dr. N. H. Rong and X. Li, for providing assistance in the preparation of SEM and R. Cai and N. Qu for helping with the samplings.

Appendix

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FIGURES & TABLES

Figure 1

Light photomicrographs of Criconemoides parvus: A: entire female; B, C: head region; D: mid-body (arrows showing anastomosis); E, F: pharyngeal region (arrows showing position of the excretory pore); G, posterior region showing the reproductive system; H: posterior region showing crenation on annuli; I-K: female tail (arrows showing position of vulva and anus; scale bars = A =50 µm, all others 10 µm).

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 10

Maximum likelihood COI tree of 175 criconematid sequences. Substitution model GTR+G+I and 200 bootstrap replications. Each specimen is identified by a Nematode Identification number, species name and location. Bootstrap values of more than 50 are applied by nodes in red. Specimens from China are highlighted in yellow.

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 2

Scanning electron microscopy of Criconemoides parvus: A-C: lip region; D: mid-body showing crenations; E-H: posterior region of the female showing vulva and anus (arrows showing position of anus; scale bars = A, B = 5 µm; C, F, G, H = 10 µm; D= 20 µm).

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 3

Light photomicrographs of Discocriconemella hengsungica: A: entire female; B: mid-body (arrow showing annuli without anastomosis); C-D: head region (arrows showing flexible stylet and basal knobs); E: pharyngeal region (arrow showing position of the excretory pore); F, posterior region showing the reproductive system (arrows showing reflexed ovary, spermatheca, position of vulva and anus); G: female tail ; scale bars = A =50 µm, all others 10 µm).

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 4

Scanning electron microscopy of Discocriconemella hengsungica: A: entire female; B-D: labial disc in different angles; E: mid-body annuli without anastomosis; F: posterior region of the female showing vulva and anus (arrows showing the position of anus; scale bars = A =50 µm; B-D= 10 µm; E, F=20 µm).

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 5

Light photomicrographs of Discocriconemella limitanea: A: entire female; B: mid-body (arrow showing anastomosis); C-E: pharyngeal region (arrow showing position of the excretory pore); F: posterior region showing the reproductive system; G-I, female tail (arrows showing position of vulva and anus; scale bars = A =50 µm, all others 10 µm).

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 6

Light photomicrographs of Discocriconemella limitanea from La Selva, Costa Rica; A) entire female, PNID-184030; B) entire female, PNID-184026; C) entire male PNID-151041; D) female tail, PNID-184031; E) female anterior, PNID-184031.

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 7

Scanning electron microscopy of Discocriconemella limitanea: A) entire female; B-E: oral disc in different angles; F-H: posterior region of the female showing vulva and anus (arrows showing position of the anus; scale bars = A =50 µm; B-G = 10 µm; H = 20 µm).

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 8

Scanning electron microscopy of Discocriconemella limitanea female from La Selva and Las Cruces, Costa Rica: A,B) entire female; C-H) head profiles in different angles; I-K) female posterior region showing vulva and anus.

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 9

Maximum likelihood tree of 232 18 S criconematid sequences. Substitution model GTR+G+I and 200 bootstrap replications. Each specimen is identified by a Nematode Identification number or GenBank Accession number (for taxa not sequenced by the authors), species name, and location as supplied by the author. Brackets are provided to indicate genera or specific species. Bootstrap values over 50 are applied by nodes in red. Specimens from China are highlighted in yellow.

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

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