A Very Rare Malformation Affecting the Female Genital System of one Labronema Specimen (Dorylaimida, Dorylaimidae)

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Journal of Nematology

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A Very Rare Malformation Affecting the Female Genital System of one Labronema Specimen (Dorylaimida, Dorylaimidae)

Reyes Peña-Santiago *

Citation Information : Journal of Nematology. Volume 51, Pages 1-4, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/jofnem-2019-017

License : (OPEN-ACCESS)

Published Online: 17-April-2019

ARTICLE

ABSTRACT

Graphical ABSTRACT

Several kinds of abnormalities or malformations affecting the female genital system of Dorylaimid nematodes have been repeatedly reported in longidorid forms, more occasionally in free-living taxa. These anomalies include total or partial duplication of the system, a didelphic-opisthodelphic condition, total or partial reduction of one genital branch, and the existence of two (or even three) vulvae (see Table 1 for a compendium of previous records). Radivojević (2005) described and discussed with some detail the nature of these anomalies.

Table 1

Malformations observed in the female genital system of dorylaims.

10.21307_jofnem-2019-017-t001.jpg

One female of the genus Labronema Thorne, 1939, recently collected in the course of a nematological survey, shows one of the rarest abnormalities so far observed, as the individual lacks both vulva and vagina. The specimen was collected in a grassy and stony soil at 1,800 m.a.s.l. on the mountain of La Pandera, Province of Jaén, Spain. The individual represents a population belonging to a non-described species of the genus Labronema, which will be characterized and described in a separate contribution.

Leaving aside the absence of vulva and vagina, the general morphology (Fig. 1) and morphometry (Table 2) of this female are totally comparable to those observed in other females of the same population. In particular, the length of neither its genital branches (anterior 324 µm or 18% of body length, posterior 362 µm or 20% of body length) nor ovaries (anterior 107, posterior 87 µm) differ from those of normal females (207–368 µm or 13–20% of body length, 43–180 µm, respectively). Nonetheless, some differences are observed in the morphology of genital tract. On one hand, the posterior oviduct appears visibly inflated at its distal part and significantly longer (187 µm) than that observed in normal females (72–147 µm), probably due to fixation process, as the anterior one is comparable to that of normal females (140 and 43–180 µm, respectively). On the other hand, the uteri are apparently simple and tube-like (Fig. 1B,C) (vs complex, tripartite in normal females; Fig. 1F), and sperm cells, always abundant in normal females as the population is bisexual with both females and males nearly equally present, are not found within the genital tracts of the abnormal female. A somewhat similar anomaly was reported by Radivojević (2005) in Xiphinema dentatum, in this case also with a significant reduction of both uteri.

Table 2

Morphometrics of Labronema sp. from Spain. Measurements in µm, except L in mm, and in the form: average ± sd (range).

10.21307_jofnem-2019-017-t002.jpg
Figure 1

Light micrographs of Labronema sp. A–E and G–I, abnormal female; F, normal female. A: anterior region in median lateral view; B: posterior genital branch (arrow pointing at the supposed position of vulva); C, E: genital system (arrow pointing at the supposed position of vulva); F: posterior genital branch; G: lip region in lateral surface view; H: entire body; I: caudal region (arrow pointing at anus). (Scale bars: A, G, I = 10 µm; B, D = 50 µm; C, E, F = 100 µm).

10.21307_jofnem-2019-017-f001.jpg

Vulvaless or Vul mutants, which lack not only a vulva but also a vagina, have been generated in experimental studies with Caenorhabditis elegans (Horvitz and Sulston, 1980; Ferguson and Horvitz, 1985; Greenwald, 1997; Sternberg, 2005), Pristionchus pacificus (Eizinger and Sommer, 1997) and Oscheius tipulae (Dichtel-Danjoy and Félix, 2004), an indication that the developmental anomaly noted herein might have a genetic basis. Additionally, environmental conditions might drive the development of vulval anomalies, as demonstrated by Braendle and Félix (2008), in both wild-type and mutant animals of Caenorhabditis spp. As mentioned above, the abnormal female herein reported was collected at a moderately high elevation (1,800 m), and might be, for instance, exposed to an extremely stressful environment during its development.

References


  1. Barsi, L. . 1994. Bivulval females of Longidorus euonymus, Xiphinema diversicaudatum and X. vuittenezi (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Nematologia Mediterranea 17: 97–108.
  2. Braendle, C. and Félix, M. A. . 2008. Plasticity and errors of a robust developmental system in different environments. Developmental Cell 15: 714–24.
  3. Brown, D. J. F. and Coiro, M. I. . 1984. A description of a bivulval, didelphic, prodelphic gravid Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Nematologia Mediterranea 12: 151–4.
  4. Catalano, L. . 1991. A bivulval female of Xiphinema index (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Nematologia Mediterranea 19: 223.
  5. Cho, M. R. and Robbins, R. T. . 1990. Observations of all postembryonic stages of Xiphinema coxi coxi (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Journal of Nematology 22: 69–78.
  6. Coiro, M. I. and Lamberti, F. . 1980. A female of Xiphinema vuittenezi with two vulvae. Nematologia Mediterranea 8: 87–9.
  7. Dichtel-Danjoy, M. L. and Félix, M. A. . 2004. The two steps of vulval induction in Oscheius tipulae CEW1 recruit common regulators including a MEK kinase. Developmental Biology 265: 113–26.
  8. Eizinger, A. and Sommer, R. J. . 1997. The homeotic gene lin-39 and the evolution of nematode epidermal cell fates. Science 2785337: 452–455.
  9. Ferguson, E. L. and Horvitz, H. R. . 1985. Identification and characterization of 22 genes that affect the vulval cell lineages of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . Genetics 110: 17–72.
  10. Geraert, E. . 1963. Aporcelaimus female with two vulvae. Nematologica 9: 302–3.
  11. Greenwald, I. . 1997. Development of the Vulva. In Riddle, D. , Blumenthal, T. , Meyer, B. and Priess, J. . (Eds), C. elegans II. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY: 519–41.
  12. Horvitz, H. R. and Sulston, J. E. . 1980. Isolation and genetic characterization of cell-lineage mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics 96: 435–54.
  13. Jairajpuri, M. S. and Ahmad, S. . 1969. Record of bivulvar specimens of Longidorus sp. and Nygolaimus sp. Science and Culture 35: 492.
  14. Kornobis, F. W. . 2012. First record of Longidorus danuvii Barsi, Lamberti & De Luca, 2007 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Poland with description of pathologies of the lip region and reproductive system. Helminthologia 49: 104–7.
  15. Kumari, S. and Decraemer, W. . 2006. A female of Xiphinema vuittenezi (Nematoda: Longidoridae) with two vulvae and abundant number of males in a soil simple. Nematology 8: 943–7.
  16. Kumari, S. and Decraemer, W. . 2009. A single bivulval female of Xiphinema diversicaudatum and two bivulval females of Xiphinema vuittenezi (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Helminthologia 46: 250–2.
  17. Lamberti, F. , Agostinelli, A. and Neto, E. S. S. . 1987. A bivulval Longidorus laevicapitatus from Sao Tomé. Nematologia Mediterranea 15: 379–81.
  18. Loof, P. A. A. . 1969. Taxonomy of some species of the genus Mesodorylaimus Andrássy, 1959. (Dorylaimoidea). Nematologica 15: 253–74.
  19. Peña-Santiago, R. . 1986. Eudorylaimus sp. con sistema genital duplicado. Nematologia Mediterranea 14: 147–50.
  20. Radivojević, M. . 1991. Xiphinema turcicum Luc & Dalmasso, 1964 first stage juvenile with double spear, and female with two vulvae. Revue de Nématologie 14: 321–2.
  21. Radivojević, M. . 2005. Genital organ anomalies in Xiphinema dentatum (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Nematology 7: 295–9.
  22. Sirca, S. , Stare, B. G. , Plesko, I. M. , Marn, M. V. and Urek, G. . 2007. First record of Longidorus juvenilis and L. leptocephalus (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) in Slovenia and their morphometrical and ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Russian Journal of Nematology 15: 1–8.
  23. Sternberg, P. W. . 2005. Vulval development. The C. elegans Research Community, ed. WormBook. doi/10.1895/wormbook.1.6.1.
  24. Valocká, B. and Sabová, M. . 1980. Morphological anomalies in the reproductive system of Mesodorylaimus bastiani (Bütschli, 1873) Andrássy, 1959. Helminthologia 17: 141–4.
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FIGURES & TABLES

Figure 1

Light micrographs of Labronema sp. A–E and G–I, abnormal female; F, normal female. A: anterior region in median lateral view; B: posterior genital branch (arrow pointing at the supposed position of vulva); C, E: genital system (arrow pointing at the supposed position of vulva); F: posterior genital branch; G: lip region in lateral surface view; H: entire body; I: caudal region (arrow pointing at anus). (Scale bars: A, G, I = 10 µm; B, D = 50 µm; C, E, F = 100 µm).

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REFERENCES

  1. Barsi, L. . 1994. Bivulval females of Longidorus euonymus, Xiphinema diversicaudatum and X. vuittenezi (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Nematologia Mediterranea 17: 97–108.
  2. Braendle, C. and Félix, M. A. . 2008. Plasticity and errors of a robust developmental system in different environments. Developmental Cell 15: 714–24.
  3. Brown, D. J. F. and Coiro, M. I. . 1984. A description of a bivulval, didelphic, prodelphic gravid Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Nematologia Mediterranea 12: 151–4.
  4. Catalano, L. . 1991. A bivulval female of Xiphinema index (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Nematologia Mediterranea 19: 223.
  5. Cho, M. R. and Robbins, R. T. . 1990. Observations of all postembryonic stages of Xiphinema coxi coxi (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Journal of Nematology 22: 69–78.
  6. Coiro, M. I. and Lamberti, F. . 1980. A female of Xiphinema vuittenezi with two vulvae. Nematologia Mediterranea 8: 87–9.
  7. Dichtel-Danjoy, M. L. and Félix, M. A. . 2004. The two steps of vulval induction in Oscheius tipulae CEW1 recruit common regulators including a MEK kinase. Developmental Biology 265: 113–26.
  8. Eizinger, A. and Sommer, R. J. . 1997. The homeotic gene lin-39 and the evolution of nematode epidermal cell fates. Science 2785337: 452–455.
  9. Ferguson, E. L. and Horvitz, H. R. . 1985. Identification and characterization of 22 genes that affect the vulval cell lineages of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . Genetics 110: 17–72.
  10. Geraert, E. . 1963. Aporcelaimus female with two vulvae. Nematologica 9: 302–3.
  11. Greenwald, I. . 1997. Development of the Vulva. In Riddle, D. , Blumenthal, T. , Meyer, B. and Priess, J. . (Eds), C. elegans II. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY: 519–41.
  12. Horvitz, H. R. and Sulston, J. E. . 1980. Isolation and genetic characterization of cell-lineage mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics 96: 435–54.
  13. Jairajpuri, M. S. and Ahmad, S. . 1969. Record of bivulvar specimens of Longidorus sp. and Nygolaimus sp. Science and Culture 35: 492.
  14. Kornobis, F. W. . 2012. First record of Longidorus danuvii Barsi, Lamberti & De Luca, 2007 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Poland with description of pathologies of the lip region and reproductive system. Helminthologia 49: 104–7.
  15. Kumari, S. and Decraemer, W. . 2006. A female of Xiphinema vuittenezi (Nematoda: Longidoridae) with two vulvae and abundant number of males in a soil simple. Nematology 8: 943–7.
  16. Kumari, S. and Decraemer, W. . 2009. A single bivulval female of Xiphinema diversicaudatum and two bivulval females of Xiphinema vuittenezi (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Helminthologia 46: 250–2.
  17. Lamberti, F. , Agostinelli, A. and Neto, E. S. S. . 1987. A bivulval Longidorus laevicapitatus from Sao Tomé. Nematologia Mediterranea 15: 379–81.
  18. Loof, P. A. A. . 1969. Taxonomy of some species of the genus Mesodorylaimus Andrássy, 1959. (Dorylaimoidea). Nematologica 15: 253–74.
  19. Peña-Santiago, R. . 1986. Eudorylaimus sp. con sistema genital duplicado. Nematologia Mediterranea 14: 147–50.
  20. Radivojević, M. . 1991. Xiphinema turcicum Luc & Dalmasso, 1964 first stage juvenile with double spear, and female with two vulvae. Revue de Nématologie 14: 321–2.
  21. Radivojević, M. . 2005. Genital organ anomalies in Xiphinema dentatum (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Nematology 7: 295–9.
  22. Sirca, S. , Stare, B. G. , Plesko, I. M. , Marn, M. V. and Urek, G. . 2007. First record of Longidorus juvenilis and L. leptocephalus (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) in Slovenia and their morphometrical and ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Russian Journal of Nematology 15: 1–8.
  23. Sternberg, P. W. . 2005. Vulval development. The C. elegans Research Community, ed. WormBook. doi/10.1895/wormbook.1.6.1.
  24. Valocká, B. and Sabová, M. . 1980. Morphological anomalies in the reproductive system of Mesodorylaimus bastiani (Bütschli, 1873) Andrássy, 1959. Helminthologia 17: 141–4.

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