First report of Mesocriconema sphaerocephalum (Taylor, 1936) Loof, 1989 associated with carrot (Daucus carota subsp. Stativus) in Vietnam

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Journal of Nematology

Society of Nematologists

Subject: Life Sciences

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ISSN: 0022-300X
eISSN: 2640-396X

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First report of Mesocriconema sphaerocephalum (Taylor, 1936) Loof, 1989 associated with carrot (Daucus carota subsp. Stativus) in Vietnam

Thi Duyen Nguyen / Huu Tien Nguyen / Thi Mai Linh Le / Thi Tuyet Thu Tran / Neriza Nobleza / Quang Phap Trinh *

Keywords : Carrot, Criconematidae, Daucus carota subsp, Stativus, Mesocriconema sphaerocephalum, Ring nematode, Vietnam

Citation Information : Journal of Nematology. Volume 51, Pages 1-4, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/jofnem-2019-048

License : (CC-BY-4.0)

Received Date : 31-May-2019 / Published Online: 23-July-2019

ARTICLE

ABSTRACT

Our study recorded the presence of Mesocriconema sphaerocephalum on carrot in Hanoi city and Hai Duong province in Vietnam. This species was identified by morphometric, morphological characterizations, and molecular characterization of D2D3 of 28S rDNA sequence. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. sphaerocephalum on carrot in Vietnam.

Graphical ABSTRACT

Mesocriconema spp. belongs to the family Criconematidae Taylor, 1936 (1914) (Thorne, 1949). Species in this group are known as the ring nematodes, and they are one of important ectoparasitic nematodes that can be a potential threat at high soil population density. Some species of the ring nematodes caused yield loss up to 50% such as Macroposthonia ornatum (Raski, 1958) Loof and De Grisse, 1989 in pod field (Siddiqi, 2000).

Our study recorded Mesocriconema sphaerocephalum (Taylor, 1936) Loof, 1989 on carrot in Hanoi city and Hai Duong province in Vietnam. Mesocriconema sphaerocephalum was found on 10% of 130 soil samples. Density of this nematode was up to 45 individuals/250 g soil. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. sphaerocephalum on carrot.

Materials and methods

Nematodes were extracted from soil samples using modified Baermann tray method (Whitehead and Hemming, 1965). For morphological characterizations, permanent slides of nematodes were observed through the Carl Zeiss Axio Lab.A1 light microscope. Measurements and pictures were taken using a ZEN lite software on ZEISS Axiocam ERc5s digital camera (Nguyen et al., 2017).

For molecular studies, Primers D2A (5′-ACAAGTACCGTGGGGAAA GTTG-3′) and D3B (5′-TCGGAAGGAACCAGCTAC TA-3′) were used to amplify D2D3 of 28S rDNA region (Nguyen et al., 2017). Obtained sequence was used for a Blast search in GenBank (Altschul et al., 1997). The data set was analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML) method in MEGA 6 program with 1,000 bootstrap replications. The best fit model of DNA evolution was obtained using the Model test in MEGA 6 (Nguyen et al., 2017).

Results and discussion

Morphological characterization

Measurements of M. sphaerocephalum in this study are in agreement with measurement of M. sphaerocephalum in Geraert (2010) (Table 1). Females of M. sphaerocephalum on carrots are characterized by the following traits: body curved ventrally (Fig. 1A); lip region bearing two annuli with flattened labial disc (Fig. 1B); first body annulus much smaller than second one with smooth edge, sloping posteriorly (Fig. 1B); cuticle annuli at mid-body 4 to 5 µm wide; anastomoses numerous at lateral field, forming zigzag lines (Fig. 1D,G); stylet robust, knobs 9 to 10 µm wide (Fig. 1C); vulva located near posterior end; tail rounded (Fig. 1F).

Table 1.

Measurements of females of M. sphaerocephalum on carrot in Vietnam. All measurements are in µm and in form: mean ± SD (range), except for ratio.

10.21307_jofnem-2019-048-t001.jpg
Figure 1:

Mesocriconema sphaerocephalum on carrot in Vietnam. (A) entire body; (B) head region; (C) stylet; (D) anastomoses at mid-body; (E) pharyngeal region; (F) tail region; (G) anastomoses at tail region (Scale bar: 10 µm).

10.21307_jofnem-2019-048-f001.jpg

Molecular characterization

D2D3 of 28S rDNA sequence of M. sphaerocephalum in this study was 730 bp, submitted to GenBank under accession number: MK026628. It is 99% similar to M. sphaerocephalum (AB933464) in GenBank. This sequence varied 0 to 2% compared to other sequences of M. sphaerocephalum in GenBank. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree placed sequence of M. sphaerocephalum on carrots together with other sequences of M. sphaerocephalum from GenBank (Fig. 2).

Figure 2:

Phylogenetic tree generated from D2D3 of 28S rDNA sequences based on ML method (TN93 + G model) with 1,000 replications. Sequence of Mesocriconema sphaerocephalum on carrot in Vietnam is in red.

10.21307_jofnem-2019-048-f002.jpg

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the project of Vietnam National University, Hanoi (code: QG.16.19); this project provided Criconematidae specimens on citrus in Hoa Binh to compare to the specimen in this study.

References


  1. Altschul, S. F., Madden, T. L., Schäffer, A. A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W. and Lipman, D. J. 1997. Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Research 25:3389–402.
    [PUBMED] [CROSSREF]
  2. Geraert, E. 2010. The Criconematidae of the world: identification of the family Criconematidae (Nematoda). Academia Press, Ghent.
  3. Nguyen, T. D., Le, T. M. L., Nguyen, H. T., Nguyen, T. A. D., Liébanas, G. and Trinh, Q. P. 2017. Morphological and molecular characteristics of Pratylenchus haiduongensis sp. n., a new species of root-lesion nematode associated with carrot in Vietnam. Journal of Nematology. 49:276–85.
    [PUBMED]
  4. Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: parasites of plants and insects CABI, London.
    [CROSSREF]
  5. Whitehead, A. G. and Hemming, J. R. 1965. A comparison of some quantitative methods of extracting small vermiform nematodes from soil. Annals of Applied Biology 55:25–38.
    [CROSSREF]
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FIGURES & TABLES

Figure 1:

Mesocriconema sphaerocephalum on carrot in Vietnam. (A) entire body; (B) head region; (C) stylet; (D) anastomoses at mid-body; (E) pharyngeal region; (F) tail region; (G) anastomoses at tail region (Scale bar: 10 µm).

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

Figure 2:

Phylogenetic tree generated from D2D3 of 28S rDNA sequences based on ML method (TN93 + G model) with 1,000 replications. Sequence of Mesocriconema sphaerocephalum on carrot in Vietnam is in red.

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

REFERENCES

  1. Altschul, S. F., Madden, T. L., Schäffer, A. A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W. and Lipman, D. J. 1997. Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Research 25:3389–402.
    [PUBMED] [CROSSREF]
  2. Geraert, E. 2010. The Criconematidae of the world: identification of the family Criconematidae (Nematoda). Academia Press, Ghent.
  3. Nguyen, T. D., Le, T. M. L., Nguyen, H. T., Nguyen, T. A. D., Liébanas, G. and Trinh, Q. P. 2017. Morphological and molecular characteristics of Pratylenchus haiduongensis sp. n., a new species of root-lesion nematode associated with carrot in Vietnam. Journal of Nematology. 49:276–85.
    [PUBMED]
  4. Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: parasites of plants and insects CABI, London.
    [CROSSREF]
  5. Whitehead, A. G. and Hemming, J. R. 1965. A comparison of some quantitative methods of extracting small vermiform nematodes from soil. Annals of Applied Biology 55:25–38.
    [CROSSREF]

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