A Longitudinal Analysis of Gendered  Association Patterns: Homophily and Social  Distance in the General Social Survey

Publications

Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Journal of Social Structure

International Network for Social Network Analysis

Subject: Social Sciences

GET ALERTS

eISSN: 1529-1227

DESCRIPTION

36
Reader(s)
60
Visit(s)
0
Comment(s)
0
Share(s)

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue / page

Archive
Volume 22 (2021)
Volume 21 (2020)
Volume 20 (2019)
Volume 19 (2018)
Volume 18 (2017)
Volume 17 (2016)
Volume 16 (2015)
Volume 15 (2014)
Volume 14 (2013)
Volume 13 (2012)
Volume 12 (2011)
Volume 11 (2010)
Volume 10 (2009)
Related articles

VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 1 (December 2015) > List of articles

A Longitudinal Analysis of Gendered  Association Patterns: Homophily and Social  Distance in the General Social Survey

Matthew E. Brashears

Keywords : General social survey, discussion relations, gender, social distance, homophily, longitudinal, ego networks

Citation Information : Journal of Social Structure. Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 1-26, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/joss-2019-013

License : (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Published Online: 13-August-2019

ARTICLE

ABSTRACT

How has the passage of time impacted the ego networks of males and females? I compare the homophily and social distances of males and females using the 1985 and 2004 GSS networks modules. The results indicate that change has been gradual and incremental rather than radical. In 2004 less social distance separates associates for women than for men, and males differentiate more among levels of education. The results suggest that macro-level structural changes have not been sufficient to produce similarly large changes in ego network composition.

Content not available PDF Share

FIGURES & TABLES

REFERENCES

Agresti, A. 2002. “Categorical Data Analysis.” Wiley Interscience, Hoboken, NJ.

Ainsworth, J.W. and V.J. Roscigno. 2005. “Stratification, school-work linkages and vocational education.” Social Forces 84: 257-284. 

Bailey, S. and P.V. Marsden. 1999. “Interpretation and interview context: examining the general social survey name generator using cognitive methods.” Social Networks 21: 287-309.

Beattie, I.R. 2002. “Are all ‘adolescent econometricians’ created equal? Racial, class, and gender differences in college enrollment.” Sociology of Education 75: 19-43.

Blau, P.M. 1977. Inequality and Heterogeneity: A Primitive Theory of Social Structure. The Free Press, New York, NY.

Blau, P.M. and J.E. Schwartz. 1984. Cross-Cutting Social Circles: Testing a Macrosociological Theory of Intergroup Relations. Academic Press, New York, NY.

Brashears, M.E. 2008. “Gender and homophily: Differences in male and female association in Blau space.” Social Science Research 37: 400-415.

Brashears, M.E. 2011. “Small networks and high isolation? A reexamination of American discussion networks.” Social Networks 33: 331-341.

Brashears, Matthew E. 2014. “ ‘Trivial’ topics and rich ties: The relationship between discussion topic, alter role, and resource availability using the ‘Important Matters’ name generator.” Sociological Science 1:493-511. DOI 10.15195/v1.a27

 Buchmann, C., T.A. DiPrete and A. McDaniel. 2006. “Gender inequalities in education.” Annual Review of Sociology 34: 319-337.

Burt, R.S. 1991. “Measuring age as a structural concept.” Social Networks 13: 1-34.

Carlson, Susan M. 1992. “Trends in race/sex occupational inequality: Conceptual and measurement issues.” Social Problems 39: 268-290.

Charles, M. 2003. “Deciphering sex segregation: vertical and horizontal inequalities in ten national labor markets.” Acta Sociologica 46: 267-287.

Cohen, P.N. 2004. “The gender division of labor: ‘keeping house’ and occupational segregation in the United States.” Gender and Society 18: 239-252.

Correll, S.J. 2001. “Gender and the career choice process: The role of biased self-assessments.” The American Journal of Sociology 106: 1691-1730.

Davis, J.A., T.W. Smith, P.V. Marsden, J. Kim, S. Kim, A. Lynch, J. Son, C. Gershenson, J.

Hemley, K. Dhadialla and M. Bretschneider. 2008. General Social Surveys 1972-2006: Cumulative Codebook. National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

Feld, S.L. 1981. “The focused organization of social ties.” The American Journal of Sociology 86: 1015-1035.

Fischer, C. 2009. “The 2004 GSS finding of shrunken social networks: An artifact?” American Sociological Review 74: 657-669.

Goodman, L.A. 1979. “Simple models for the analysis of association in cross-classifications having ordered categories.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 74: 537-552.

Goodman, L.A. 1985. “The analysis of cross-classified data having ordered and/or unordered categories: Association models, correlation models, and asymmetry models for contingency tables with or without missing entries.” Annals of Statistics 13: 10-69.

Granovetter, M. 1973. “The strength of weak ties.” The American Journal of Sociology 78: 13601380.

Hampton, K.N. and B. Wellman. 2003. “Neighboring in Netville: How the Internet supports community and social capital in a wired suburb.” City & Community 2: 277-311. 

Hampton, K.N., L. F. Sessions, and E.J. Her. 2010. “Core networks, social isolation, and new media: Internet and mobile phone use, network size, and diversity.” Information, Communication & Society 14: 130-155.

Holt, D.A.J. Scott and P.D. Ewings. 1980. “Chi-square tests with survey data.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 143: 302-320.

Huffman, M.L. and P.N. Cohen. 2004. “Occupational segregation and the gender gap in workplace authority: National versus local labor markets.” Sociological Forum 19: 121-147.

Ibarra, H. 1992. “Homophily and differential returns: Sex differences in network structure and access in an advertising firm.” Administrative Science Quarterly 37: 422-447.

Jacobs, J.A. 1996. “Gender inequality and higher education.” Annual Review of Sociology 22: 153-185.

Kish, L. 1965. Survey Sampling. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.

Lazarsfeld, P. & R. Merton. 1954. “Friendship as a social process: A substantive and methodological analysis.” In Freedom and Control in Modern Society. Morroe Berger ed. Van Nostrand, New York, NY.

Mandel, H. and M Semyonov. 2005. “Family policies, wage structures, and gender gaps: Sources of earnings inequality in 20 countries.” American Sociological Review 70: 949-967.

Marin, A. 2004. “Are respondents more likely to list alters with certain characteristics? Implications for name generator data.” Social Networks 26: 289-307.

Marsden, P.V. 1988. “Homogeneity in confiding relations.” Social Networks 10: 57-76.

McPherson, M. 2004. “A Blau space primer: Prolegomenon to an ecology of affiliation.” Industrial and Corporate Change 13: 263-280.

McPherson, J.M. and L. Smith-Lovin. 1982. “Women and weak ties: Differences by sex in the size of voluntary organizations.” The American Journal of Sociology 87: 883-904.

McPherson, J.M. and L. Smith-Lovin. 1986. “Sex segregation in voluntary associations.” American Sociological Review 51: 61-79.

McPherson, J.M, L. Smith-Lovin, & J. Cook. 2001. “Birds of a feather: Homophily and social networks.” Annual Review of Sociology 27: 415-444.

McPherson, M., L. Smith-Lovin and M.E. Brashears. 2006. “Social isolation in America: Changes in core discussion networks over two decades.” American Sociological Review 71: 353-375.

McPherson, M., L. Smith-Lovin and M.E. Brashears. 2008. “Erratum: Social isolation in America: Changes in core discussion networks over two decades.” American Sociological Review 73: 1022.

McPherson, M., L. Smith-Lovin and M.E. Brashears. 2009. “Models and marginals: Using survey evidence to study social networks.” American Sociological Review 74: 670-681.

Mickelson, R.A. 2003. “Gender, Bourdieu, and the anomaly of women’s achievement redux.” Sociology of Education 76: 373-375.

Moore, G. 1990. “Structural determinants of men’s and women’s personal networks.” American Sociological Review 55: 726-735.

Paik, Anthony and Kenneth Sanchagrin. 2013. “Social isolation in America: An artifact.” American Sociological Review 78: 339-360.

Popielarz, Pamela A. 1999. “(In) voluntary association: A multilevel analysis of gender segregation in voluntary organizations.” Gender and Society 13: 234-250.

Powers, D.A. and Y. Xie. 2000. Statistical Methods for Categorical Data Analysis. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Rainie, L., J. Horrigan, B. Wellman and J. Boase. 2006. “The strength of Internet ties.” Pew Internet and American Life Project, January 25, 2006, http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2006/The-Strength-of-Internet-Ties.aspx, accessed on March 16, 2011.

Reskin, B. 1993. “Sex segregation in the workplace.” Annual Review of Sociology 19: 241-270.

Roth, L.M. 2004. “Engendering inequality: Processes of sex-segregation on Wall Street.” Sociological Forum 19: 203-228.

Ruan, D. 1998. “The content of the general social survey discussion networks: An exploration of the general social survey discussion name generator in a Chinese context.” Social Networks 20: 247-264.

Schlottman, A.M. and H.W. Herzog, Jr. 1984. “Career and geographic mobility interactions: Implications for the age selectivity of migration.” The Journal of Human Resources 19: 72-86.

Smith, J., M. McPherson and L. Smith-Lovin. 2014. “Social distance in the United States: Sex, race, religion, age, and education homophily among confidants, 1985 to 2004.” American Sociological Review 79: 432-456.

Smith-Lovin, L. and M. McPherson. 1993. “You are who you know: A network approach to gender.” in Theory on Gender, Feminism on Theory. Paula England ed. Aldine de Gruyther, New York, NY.

Tufekci, Zeynep and Matthew E. Brashears. 2014. “Are we all equally at home socializing online? Cyberasociality and evidence for an unequal distribution of disdain for digitally-mediated sociality.” Information, Communication and Society 17: 486-502.

Van der Ploeg, S. 1994. “Educational expansion and returns on credentials.” European Sociological Review 10: 63-78.

Xie, Y. 1992. “The log-multiplicative layer effect model for comparing mobility tables.” American Sociological Review 57: 380-395.

EXTRA FILES

COMMENTS