Inter-Firm Social Networks Created by Mobile Laborers: A Case Study on Siteler in Ankara


Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Journal of Social Structure

International Network for Social Network Analysis

Subject: Social Sciences


eISSN: 1529-1227





Volume / Issue / page

Volume 22 (2021)
Volume 21 (2020)
Volume 20 (2019)
Volume 19 (2018)
Volume 18 (2017)
Volume 17 (2016)
Volume 16 (2015)
Volume 15 (2014)
Volume 14 (2013)
Volume 13 (2012)
Volume 12 (2011)
Volume 11 (2010)
Volume 10 (2009)
Related articles

VOLUME 12 , ISSUE 1 (December 2011) > List of articles

Inter-Firm Social Networks Created by Mobile Laborers: A Case Study on Siteler in Ankara

Burak Beyhan

Keywords : Labor mobility, industrial clusters, innovation, social network analysis

Citation Information : Journal of Social Structure. Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 1-33, DOI:

License : (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Published Online: 13-January-2020



Labor mobility, both as a mechanism of knowledge diffusion and as a kind of social glue that holds together small production communities operative within a given territory, deserves serious consideration. In this context, focusing on a specific industrial cluster in Ankara, this paper reveals the extent and characteristics of the social networks created by the mobile laborers in order to understand the interconnections between social context, knowledge spillovers, innovation and labor mobility. For this purpose a step-wise algorithm is employed in order to identify social sub-groups by employing social network analysis and by drawing on the flow data constructed for this study. What is evident from this study is that the social network created by the mobility of laborers in Siteler, an industrial cluster specialized in furniture production, reveals a topography of social relations that cannot be split into equally large blocks but eventually parceled out to micro parts consisting of generally 2 or 3 firms. Interestingly, the contexts of innovation also unveil that innovative firms tend to be located at an intermediate position, not an upper and central position, within the topography of the network.

Content not available PDF Share



Aslesen, H.V., Isaksen, A. and Stambøl, L.S. (2004). “KIBS and Industrial Development of Cities: Labour Mobility, Innovation and Client Interaction.” Paper prepared for the 44th Congress of the European Regional Science Association, Porto 25.-30.

Bakke, E.W. (1954). Introduction, in Labor Mobility and Economic Opportunity: Essays, Cambridge (Mass) M.I.T. Press, 1-7.

Beyhan, B. (2005). “Index Creator: A Set of Excel Macros for Calculation of LQ, Chi-Sqr and Dissimilarity Indices with additional support for Find-Maximum-Assign-tag.” (last accessed at 18.08.2006) (no longer available at the respective website).

Beyhan, B. (2007). Evrim Benzetisi, Kurumsal İktisat ve Çağdaş Bölge-Mekan Bilimi (Evolutionary Metaphor, Institutional Economics and Contemporary Regional-Spatial Science). In E. Özveren (ed.), Kurumsal İktisat, İmge: Ankara, 401-440.

Beyhan, B. (2009). Toplumsal-Bilişsel Yakınlık ve İşgücü Hareketliliği: Hemşehrilik İlişkileri Üzerinden Birİrdeleme (Social-Cognitive Distance and Labor Mobility: An Examination Through the Fellowmen Relationships). In 21.Yüzyılda Türkiye'de Sosyal Bilimler ve Toplum Sorunları Sempozyumu Bildiri Kitabı, 271303.

Borgatti, S.P. (2002). NetDraw: Graph Visualization Software. Harvard: Analytic Technologies.

Borgatti, S.P., Everett, M.G. and Freeman, L.C. (2002). Ucinet for Windows: Software for Social Network Analysis. Harvard, MA: Analytic Technologies.

Breschi, S. and Lissoni, F. (2003). Mobility and Social Networks: Localised Knowledge Spillovers Revisited. CESPRI Working Papers 142, CESPRI, Centre for Research on Innovation and Internationalisation, Universita’ Bocconi, Milano, Italy.

Bunting, R.L. (1961). A Test of the Theory of Geographic Mobility. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 15, 1: 75-82.

Burt, R.S. (1992). Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press: Cambridge.

Camagni, R. (1991). “Local Milieu, Uncertainty and Innovation Networks: Towards a New Dynamic Theory of Economic Space.” In R. Camagni (ed.), Innovation Networks: Spatial Perspectives. Belhaven Press: New York, 121-144.

Cantner, U. and Graf, H. (2006). “The Network of Innovators in Jena: An Application of Social Network Analysis” Research Policy 35: 463–480.

Casper, S. (2007). “How Do Technology Clusters Emerge and Become Sustainable? Social Network Formation and Inter-Firm Mobility within The San Diego Biotechnology Cluster.” Research Policy 36: 438–455.

Castillo, V., Novick, M., Rojo, S. and Yoguel, G. (2006). “Employment Paths and Labor Mobility: Restrictions on the Development of Technical Competences” Globelics Africa Conference, South Africa.

Clayton, C. (1980). “Interdependence in Urban Systems and Its Application to Political Reorganization.” Geografiska Annaler, Series B, Human Geography 62, 1: 11-20.

Dahl, M.S. (2002). “Embedded Knowledge Flows Through Labor Mobility in Regional Clusters in Denmark.” Paper to be presented at the DRUID Summer Conference on Industrial Dynamics of the New and Old Economy: Who is Embracing Whom?, Copenhagen/Elsinore, Denmark.

Dahl, M.S. (2004). “Embodied Knowledge Diffusion, Labor Mobility and Regional Dynamics: Do Social Factors Limit the Development Potential of Regions?” Paper to be presented at the DRUID Summer Conference 2004 on Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, Elsinore, Denmark.

de Blasio, G. and Di Addario, S. (2002). “Labor Market Pooling: Evidence from Italian Industrial Districts.” Paper presented in Temi di discussione series, number 453, October.

Derudder, B. and Taylor, P. (2005). “The Cliquishness of World Cities. Global Networks 5, 1: 71–91.

Everett, M.G. and Borgatti, S.P. (1998). “Analyzing Clique Overlap.” Connections 21, 1: 49-61.

Faust, K. (2006). “Comparing Social Networks: Size, Density, and Local Structure.” Metodološki zvezki 3, 2: 185216.

Frederiksen, L. and Sedita, S.R. (2005). “Embodied Knowledge Transfer: Comparing Inter-firm Labor Mobility in the Music Industry and Manufacturing Industries.” DRUID Working Paper No. 05-14.

Graf, H. and Henning, T. (2006). “Public Research in Regional Networks of Innovators: A Comparative Study of Four East-German Regions.” Freiberg Working Papers, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg.

Granovetter, M. (1973). “The Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology 78, 6: 1360-1380.

Greenberg, D. and Mccall, J. (1974). “Teacher Mobility and Allocation.” Journal of Human Resources 9, 4: 480502.

Jonsson, P.F., Cavanna, T., Zicha, D. and Bates, P.A. (2006). Cluster Analysis of Networks Generated through Homology: Automatic Identification of Important Protein Communities Involved in Cancer Metastasis. BMC Bioinformatics 7, 2: 1-13.

Kerr, C. (1954). “The Balkanization of Labor Markets.” In Labor Mobility and Economic Opportunity: Essays, Cambridge (Mass) M.I.T. Press, 92-110.

Lam, A. and Lundvall, B.A. (2004). “The Learning Organisation and National Systems of Competence Building and Innovation.” Working Paper No. 4, Brunel University, Brunel Research in Enterprise, Innovation, Sustainability, and Ethics (BRESE), Uxbridge, West London.

Lansing, J.B. and Mueller, E. (1967). The Geographic Mobility of Labor, Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Møen, J. (2000). “Is Mobility of Technical Personnel a Source of R&D Spillovers?” Working Paper 7834, NBER Working Paper Series.

Myers, C.A. (1954). “Labor Mobility in Two Communities.” In Labor Mobility and Economic Opportunity: Essays, Cambridge (Mass) M.I.T. Press, 68-79.

Palmer, G.L. (1954). “Interpreting Patterns of Labor Mobility.” In Labor Mobility and Economic Opportunity: Essays, Cambridge (Mass) M.I.T. Press, 47-67.

Palmer, G.L. and Brainerd, C.P. (1954). Labor Mobility in Six Cities: A Report on the Survey of Patterns and Factors in Labor Mobility, 1940-1950. New York: Social Science Research Council.

Parnes, H.S. (1954). Research on Labor Mobility: An Appraisal of Research Findings in the United States. New York: Social Science Research Council.

Power, D. and Lundmark, M. (2003). “Working Through Knowledge Pools: The Effect of Labour Market Dynamics on the Transference of Knowledge and Ideas in Industrial Clusters.” DRUID Summer Conference 2003 on Creating, Sharing and Transferring Knowledge.

Wirth, L. (1938). “Urbanism as a Way of Life.” The American Journal of Sociology 44, 1: 1-24.

Wolfe, D.A. and Gertler, M.S. (2004). “Clusters from the Inside and Out: Local Dynamics and Global Linkages.” Urban Studies 41, 5/6: 1071-1093.

Yoder, D. (1954). “Manpower Mobility: Two Studies.” In Labor Mobility and Economic Opportunity: Essays, Cambridge (Mass) M.I.T. Press, 80-91.

Zarka, C. (1967). “Policies for Promoting Labor Mobility in Selected Western European Countries.” International Labor Review: 509-524.