SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : Journal of Ultrasonography. Volume 15, Issue 62, Pages 267-273, DOI: https://doi.org/10.15557/JoU.2015.0023
License : (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)
Received Date : 11-September-2014 / Accepted: 29-May-2015 / Published Online: 13-September-2016
Aim: Ultrasound assessment of morphological parameters of the internal jugular veins and vertebral veins in healthy individuals as well as their dependence on the patient’s position. Material: The examinations were conducted in 185 healthy individuals (101 females and 84 males) aged 18–89. Ultrasound examinations were conducted with the use of a linear probe with the frequency of 5–9 MHz in the supine (0°) and sitting position (90°). Results: In 154 cases (83.2%) on the left side and in 150 cases (81.1%) on the right side, the jugular veins were completely closed in the sitting position. In 31 cases (16.8%) on the left side and in 35 cases (18.9%) on the right side, they were merely narrowed. By contrast with the jugular veins, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vertebral veins was greater in the sitting position than in the supine position in a statistically signifi cant way. The CSA values of the jugular veins in the supine position ranged from 0 cm2 to 4.3 cm2. There were no statistically signifi cant differences in the CSA between men and women. The cross-sectional area of the right jugular vein in the supine position was greater in a statistically signifi cant way than that of the left jugular vein. In this study population, the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the jugular veins on both sides amounted to 8.5:1. Conclusions: The width of the jugular and vertebral veins signifi cantly varies depending on the patient’s position. The range of the CSA values for the jugular veins is broad, which should be taken into account when interpreting imaging fi ndings. The internal jugular veins can show considerable asymmetry.
1. Lanzillo R, Mancini M, Liuzzi R, Di Donato O, Salvatore E, Maglio V et al.: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insuffi ciency in multiple sclerosis: a highly prevalent age-dependent phenomenon. BMC Neurol 2013; 13:20.
2. Morovic S, Zamboni P: CCSVI is associated with multiple sclerosis. Neurol Res 2012; 34: 770–779.
3. Valdueza JM, von Münster T, Hoffman O, Schreiber S, Einhäupl KM:Postural dependency of the cerebral venous outfl ow. Lancet 2000; 355:200–201.
4. Zaniewski M, Simka M: Biophysics of venous return from the brain from the perspective of the pathophysiology of chronic cerebrospinal venous insuffi ciency. Rev Recent Clin Trials 2012; 7: 88–92.
5. Menegatti E, Zamboni P: Doppler haemodynamics of cerebral venous return. Curr Neurovasc Res 2008; 5: 260–265.
6. Gisolf J, van Lieshout JJ, van Heusden K, Pott F, Stok WJ, Karemaker JM: Human cerebral venous outfl ow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure. J Physiol 2004; 560: 317–327.
7. Cirovic S, Walsh C, Fraser WD, Gulino A: The effect of posture and positive pressure breathing on the hemodynamics of the internal jugular vein. Aviat Space Environ Med 2003; 74: 125–131.
8. Tartière D, Seguin P, Juhel C, Laviolle B, Mallédant Y: Estimation of the diameter and cross-secional area of the internal jugular veins in adult patients. Crit Care 2009; 13: R197.
9. Sulek CA, Blas ML, Lobato EB: A randomized study of left versus right internal jugular vein cannulation in adults. J Clin Anesth 2000; 12:142–145.
10. Gartner LP, Hiat JL: Color Atlas of Histology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 2002.