SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : Journal of Ultrasonography. Volume 15, Issue 63, Pages 423-428, DOI: https://doi.org/10.15557/JoU.2015.0039
License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Received Date : 02-November-2015 / Accepted: 23-November-2015 / Published Online: 13-September-2016
Obesity as a disease of affl uence also affects younger children. Numerous observations suggest a link between excessive body weight and thyroid function disorders.
Subclinical hypothyroidism has been diagnosed increasingly frequently in patients with obesity. A growing number of papers also point to morphological changes of the thyroid
gland in the ultrasound examination in obese children. These reports mainly concern changes in echogenicity. The present paper discusses the most important aspects of
this topic on the basis of the literature as well as containing a brief analysis based on own experiences.
1. Nathan BM, Moran A: Metabolic complications of obesity in childhood and adolescence: more than just diabetes. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 200; 15: 21–9.
2. Ortiga-Carvalho TM, Oliveira KJ, Soares BA, Pazos-Moura CC: The role of leptin in the regulation of TSH secretion in the fed state: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Endocrinol 2002; 174: 121–125.
3. Canaris GJ, Manowitz NR, Mayor G, Ridgway EC: The Colorado thyroid disease prevalence study. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 526–534.
4. Trzebińska A, Dobruch-Sobczak K, Jakubowski W, Jędrzejowski M:Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Ultrasound examination of thyroid gland and ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy. J Ultrason 2014; 14: 49–60.
5. Wesche MF, Wiersinga WM, Smits NJ: Lean body mass as a determinant of thyroid size. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998; 48: 701–706.
6. Sari R, Balci MK, Altunbas H, Karayalcin U: The effect of body weight and weight loss on thyroid volume and function in obese women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2003; 59: 258–262.
7. Stichel H, l’Allemand D, Grüters A: Thyroid function and obesity in children and adolescents. Horm Res 2000; 54: 14–19. 8. Han JM, Kim TY, Jeon MJ, Yim JH, Kim WG, Song DE et al.: Obesity is a risk factor for thyroid cancer in a large, ultrasonographically screened population. Eur J Endocrinol 2013; 168: 879–886.
9. Longhi S, Radetti G: Thyroid function and obesity. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2013; 5 (Suppl. 1): 40–44.
10. Radetti G, Kleon W, Buzi F, Crivellaro C, Pappalardo L, di Iorgi N et al.:Thyroid function and structure are affected in childhood obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93: 4749–4754.
11. Kershaw EE, Flier JS: Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 2548–2556.
12. Radetti G, Longhi S, Baiocchi M, Cassar W, Buzi F: Changes in lifestyle improve body composition, thyroid function, and structure in obese children. J Endocrinol Invest 2012; 35: 281–285.
13. Cambuli VM, Musiu MC, Incani M, Paderi M, Serpe R, Marras V et al.: Assessment of adiponectin and leptin as biomarkers of positive metabolic outcomes after lifestyle intervention in overweight and obese children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93: 3051–3057.
14. Rotondi M, Cappelli C, Leporati P, Chytiris S, Zerbini F, Fonte R et al.:A hypoechoic pattern of the thyroid at ultrasound does not indicate autoimmune thyroid diseases in patients with morbid obesity. Eur J Endocrinol 2010; 163: 105–109.
15. Poster Presentations: Horm Res Paediatr 2007; 68 (Suppl. 1): 195–237. Available from: http://www.karger.com/DOI/10.1159/000105511.