SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : Polish Journal of Microbiology. VOLUME 66 , ISSUE 4 , ISSN (Online) 2544-4646, DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0010.7038, December 2017
License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Received Date : 22-February-2017 / Accepted: 17-May-2017 / Published Online: 04-December-2017
Diabetic population were reported more likely to suffer carriage and infection with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) than non-diabetic population. We aim to elucidate the prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among diabetic population in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2004. Univariate analyses were conducted using Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact probability test or student t test, as appropriate. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression was conducted to assess the association between influencing factors and S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage. 1010 diabetic participants were included in the study. The prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage were 28.32% and 1.09%, respectively. After the logistic regression, ever had a painful sensation or tingling in hands or feet past three months (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.359, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.146–0.882) was significant among S. aureus nasal carriage and gender (OR = 3.410, 95% CI, 1.091–10.653) was significant among MRSA nasal carriage. The proportions of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) A, SEB, SEC, SED, Toxic-shock syndrome toxin-1, and Panton Valentine Leukocidin toxin among S. aureus strains were 18.75%, 3.13%, 12.50%, 15.63%, 28.13%, and 9.38%, respectively. 63.63% of MRSA strains were community-acquired, 27.27% were hospital-acquired, and 9.09% were non-typeable. Diabetic patients might be more likely to carry S. aureus and MRSA in the United States. Improving hand hygiene compliance, reducing antibiotic overuse, screening for carriers, and decolonization are recommended to reduce the spread of S. aureus and MRSA, especially in community.
Ahluwalia A., A. Sood, A. Sood, R. Lakshmy, A. Kapil and R.M. Pandey. 2000. Nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabet. Med. 17: 487–488.
Campbell K.A., C. Cunningham, S. Hasan, L. Hutzler and J.R. Bosco. 2015. Risk Factors for Developing Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization in Spine and Arthroplasty Surgery. Bull. Hosp. Jt. Dis. (2013). 73: 276–281.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/about_nhanes.htm.
Chen C.C. and S.E. Pass. 2013. Risk factors for and impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in patients in a medical intensive care unit. Am. J. Infect. Control. 41: 1100–1101.
Chen C.S., C.Y. Chen and Y.C. Huang. 2012. Nasal carriage rate and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among medical students at a Taiwanese university. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 16: e799–e803.
Daeschlein G., S. von Podewils, T. Bloom, O. Assadian, M. Napp, H. Haase and M. Junger. 2015. Risk factors for MRSA colonization in dermatologic patients in Germany. J. Dtsch. Dermatol. Ges. 13: 1015–1022.
de Kraker M.E., V. Jarlier, J.C. Monen, O. E. Heuer, van de N. Sande and H. Grundmann. 2013. The changing epidemiology of bacteraemias in Europe: trends from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 19: 860–868.
Freitas E.A., R.M. Harris, R.K. Blake and C.D. Salgado. 2010. Prevalence of USA300 strain type of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among patients with nasal colonization identified with active surveillance. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 31: 469–475.
Gastmeier P., F. Schwab, E. Meyer and C. Geffers. 2012. [Excess mortality and prolongation of stay due to bloodstream infections caused by multiresistant pathogens in Germany]. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 137: 1689–1692.
Geofrey A., A. Abade and S. Aboud. 2015. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients and health care workers at Muhimbili national hospital, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2012. Pan. Afr. Med. J. 21: 211.
Hart J., E.J. Hamilton, A. Makepeace, W.A. Davis, E. Latkovic, E.M. Lim, J.R. Dyer and T.M. Davis. 2015. Prevalence, riskfactors and sequelae of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II. J. Diabetes Complications. 29: 1092–1097.
Hefzy E.M., G.M. Hassan and E.R.F. Abd. 2016. Detection of panton-valentine leukocidin-positive, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among Egyptian Health Care workers. Surg. Infect (Larchmt) 17: 369–375.
Hernandez-Porto M., M. Lecuona, A. Aguirre-Jaime, B. Castro,T. Delgado, M. Cuervo, Y. Pedroso and A. Arias. 2015. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus collected in a Spanish hospital. Microb. Drug Resist. 21: 201–208.
Huifen Y., Z. Junshao, Q. Wenzhou, F. Yi, Y. Ling and G. Defan. 2015. Study on colonization status and risk factors of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in patients of intense care units. Chin. J. Disinf. 32: 24–26.
IDF. 2014. International Diabetes Federation Annual Report 2014. International Diabetes Federation. 2014: 6.
Ito T., K., Okuma X.X. Ma, H. Yuzawa and K. Hiramatsu. 2003. Insights on antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from its whole genome: genomic island SCC. Drug Resist. Updat. 6:41–52.
Junhua M., C. Junchang, W. Rui and Z. Chunrong. 2005. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and drug resistance in patients with diabetes Mellitus. Chin J. Nosocomiol. 15: 830–831.
Karadag-Oncel E., N. Gonc, Altay O., A.B. Cengiz, A. Ozon,A. Pinar, M. Ceyhan, A. Alikasifoglu, Y. Akyon, N. Kandemir and others. 2015. Prevalence of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children with diabetes mellitus: Trends between 2005 and 2013. Am. J. Infect. Control. 43: 1015–1107.
Karanika S., F.N. Zervou, I.M. Zacharioudakis, S. Paudel andE. Mylonakis. 2015. Risk factors for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in dialysis patients: a meta-analysis. J. Hosp. Infect. 91: 257–263.
Kejela T. and K. Bacha. 2013. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among primary school children and prisoners in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia. Ann. Clin. Microbiol Antimicrob. 12: 11.
Knox J., A.C. Uhlemann and F.D. Lowy. 2015. Staphylococcus aureus infections: transmission within households and the community. Trends Microbiol. 23: 437–444.
Kong C., H.M. Neoh and S. Nathan. 2016. Targeting Staphylococcus aureus toxins: A potential form of anti-virulence therapy. Toxins (Basel) 8: 72.
Kutlu S.S., N. Cevahir, S. Akalin, F. Akin, C.S. Dirgen, M. Bastemir and K. Tekin. 2012. Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in a diabetic outpatient population: a prospective cohort study. Am. J. Infect. Control. 40: 365–368.
Larkin S.M., D.N. Williams, M.T. Osterholm, R.W. Tofte and Z. Posalaky. 1982. Toxic shock syndrome: clinical, laboratory, and pathologic findings in nine fatal cases. Ann. Intern. Med. 96: 858–864.
Lin C.F., C.L. Chen, W.C. Huang, Y.L. Cheng, C.Y. Hsieh, C.Y. Wang and M.Y. Hong. 2010. Different types of cell death induced by enterotoxins. Toxins (Basel) 2: 2158–2176.
Lodise T.P. and P.S. McKinnon. 2005. Clinical and economic impact of methicillin resistance in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 52: 113–122.
Lowy F.D. 1998. Staphylococcus aureus infections. New Engl. J. Med. 339: 520–532.
Morgenstern M., C. Erichsen, S. Hackl, J. Mily, M. Militz, J. Friederichs, S. Hungerer, V. Buhren, T.F. Moriarty, V. Post and others. 2016. Antibiotic resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci in an International Cohort of Surgeons: A prospective point-prevalence study. PLoS One. 11: e148437.
National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS). 2004. System Report, data summary from January 1992 through June 2004, issued October 2004. Am. J. Infect. Control. 32: 470–485.
Okuma K., K. Iwakawa, J.D. Turnidge, W.B. Grubb, J.M., Bell F.G. O’Brien, G.W. Coombs, J. W. Pearman, F.C. Tenover, M. Kapi and others. 2002. Dissemination of new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones in the community. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 4289–4294.
Otto M. 2010. Basis of virulence in community-associated methicil-lin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 64: 143–162.
Otto M. 2014. Staphylococcus aureus toxins. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 17: 32–37.
Qiongxiang Z. 2014. Multivariate logostic regression analysis of risk among community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and colonization. Hebei Medical Journal. 36: 1876–1878.
Samanta D., J.L. Batte, S.N. Brown, A.G. Crosby, L.A. Marcos and M.O. Elasri 2015. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bac-teremia at a major hospital in southern Mississippi. Am. J. Infect. Control. 43: 540–542.
Santosaningsih D., S. Santoso, N.S. Budayanti, Suata K., E.S. Lestari, H. Wahjono, A. Djamal, K. Kuntaman, A. van Belkum, M. Laurens and others. 2016. Characterization of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates harboring mecA or panton-valentine leukocidin genes from four tertiary care hospitals in Indonesia. Trop. Med. Int. Health. 21: 610–618.
Saxena A.K., B.R. Panhotra, C.K. Venkateshappa, D.S. Sundaram, M. Naguib, W. Uzzaman and M.K. Al. 2002. The impact of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA & MSSA) on vascular access-related septicemia among patients with type-II diabetes on dialysis. Ren. Fail. 24: 763–777.
Soltani B., A.A. Taghavi, A. Moravveji, M. Erami, R.M. Haji,R. Moniri and M. Namazi. 2014. Risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization of healthy children. Jundishapur. J. Microbiol. 7: e20025.
Wertheim H.F., D.C. Melles, Vos M.C., W. van Leeuwen, A. van Belkum, H.A. Verbrugh and J.L. Nouwen. 2005. The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus infections. Lancet Infect. Dis. 5: 751–762.
Yan L., X. Ping, D. Lin, Q. Ou and Z. Yao. 2015. Nasal colonization prevalence and risk factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in type 2 diabetic patients from communities. J. Pract. Med. 31: 4133–4135.