Prevalence, Influencing Factors, Antibiotic Resistance, Toxin and Molecular Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Nasal Carriage among Diabetic Population in the United States, 2001–2004


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Polish Journal of Microbiology

Polish Society of Microbiologists

Subject: Microbiology


ISSN: 1733-1331
eISSN: 2544-4646





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VOLUME 66 , ISSUE 4 (December 2017) > List of articles

Prevalence, Influencing Factors, Antibiotic Resistance, Toxin and Molecular Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Nasal Carriage among Diabetic Population in the United States, 2001–2004

Jialing Lin / Yang Peng / Chan Bai / Ting Zhang / Haoqu Zheng / Xiaojie Wang / Jiaping Ye / Xiaohua Ye / Ying Li / Zhenjiang Yao *

Keywords : Staphylococcus aureus, diabetics, MRSA, nasal carriage, NHANES

Citation Information : Polish Journal of Microbiology. Volume 66, Issue 4, Pages 439-448, DOI:

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 22-February-2017 / Accepted: 17-May-2017 / Published Online: 04-December-2017



Diabetic population were reported more likely to suffer carriage and infection with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) than non-diabetic population. We aim to elucidate the prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among diabetic population in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2004. Univariate analyses were conducted using Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact probability test or student t test, as appropriate. Multivariate analy­sis using logistic regression was conducted to assess the association between influencing factors and S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage. 1010 diabetic participants were included in the study. The prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage were 28.32% and 1.09%, respec­tively. After the logistic regression, ever had a painful sensation or tingling in hands or feet past three months (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.359, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.146–0.882) was significant among S. aureus nasal carriage and gender (OR = 3.410, 95% CI, 1.091–10.653) was significant among MRSA nasal carriage. The proportions of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) A, SEB, SEC, SED, Toxic-shock syn­drome toxin-1, and Panton Valentine Leukocidin toxin among S. aureus strains were 18.75%, 3.13%, 12.50%, 15.63%, 28.13%, and 9.38%, respectively. 63.63% of MRSA strains were community-acquired, 27.27% were hospital-acquired, and 9.09% were non-typeable. Diabetic patients might be more likely to carry S. aureus and MRSA in the United States. Improving hand hygiene compliance, reducing antibiotic overuse, screening for carriers, and decolonization are recommended to reduce the spread of S. aureus and MRSA, especially in community.

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