SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : Polish Journal of Microbiology. VOLUME 66 , ISSUE 4 , ISSN (Online) 2544-4646, DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0010.7044, December 2017
License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Received Date : 17-February-2017 / Accepted: 17-May-2017 / Published Online: 04-December-2017
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) new HIV cases show the highest increase among all regions in the world. Even though Egypt has a low prevalence among the general population (< 0.02%), a national HIV epidemic occurs in certain population risk groups. The current study was conducted to asses clinical and immunological disease progression; following up viral load (VL) and detecting delta-32 CCR5 genotype polymorphism in selected cases, determining unemployment rate and identify predictors of employment for HIV-cases. A cross sectional design was adopted. HIV infected cases attending Alexandria Fever Hospital (AFH) for one year. Interview questionnaire and four CD+4 counts were done for all patients, HIV VL and delta-32 CCR5 polymorphism were done for selected cases. Sexual transmission and drug abuse are the most important risk factors. Infectious comorbidity increases the rate of HIV progression. CD4+ count at the end of the study; CD+4 (4), count was significantly higher than all other CD4+ readings among the whole cohort and among the treated group. Also, VL at the end of the study; VL(2), was significantly higher than VL(1) among the untreated group. Unemployment rate was 40%. Male gender and obtaining vocational training were significant predictors of employment. It can be concluded that having a family member living with HIV and drug abusers are high risk groups for HIV acquisition. Factors responsible for progression of HIV should be further investigated. Antiretroviral therapy is very effective in checking HIV replication rate, delaying the progression of HIV, reconstituting the immune response and should be available for all cases detected.
Dray-Spira R., F. Lert and the VESPA Study Group. 2007. Living and working with HIV in France in 2003: results from the ANRSEN12-VESPA Study. AIDS 21: S29–36.
Egypt Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) report. 2016. http://ghdx.healthdata.org/organizations/central-agency-public-mobilization-and-statistics-egypt, 2017.01.13
Egyptian national standards for blood transfusion. 2nd edition. 2011. https://www.scribd.com/doc/143156793/Egyptian-National-Blood-Standards-2nd-Edit-2011, 2017.01.15
El Beih W., G. Gaumer, G. Ezzeldin and A. Khamis. 2012. Implications of the Arab Spring on HIV and AIDS programs in Egypt and the way forward in light of the political declaration 19. International AIDS Conference. Washington DC, USA. Poster number THPE656
Elzi L., A. Conen, A. Patzen, J. Fehr, M. Cavassini and A. Calmy. 2016. Ability to Work and Employment Rates in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1-Infected Individuals Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy: The Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Open Forum Infect. Dis. doi:10.1093/ofid/ofw022.
Gamaleldein N.A. 2016. PhD Thesis. Geospatial analysis of Hepatitis C viral infection among blood donors in the main blood banks in Alexandria; A novel application of a public health tool. Egypt: Alexandria University Faculty of Medicine. Alexandria. Egypt.
Genbank. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank. 2017.01.15
Hütter G., M. Neumann, D. Nowak, S. Klein, H. Klüter andW.-K. Hofmann. 2011. The effect of the CCR5-delta32 deletion on global gene expression considering immune response and inflammation. J. Inflamm. 8: 29.
Global AIDS Update 2016. UNAIDS. 2016. www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2016/Global-AIDS-update-2016. 2017.01.5
Global gains made towards the 90–90–90 targets. UNAIDS. 2016. www.unaids.org/en/resources/presscentre/featurestories/2016/.../20160717_90-90-90, 2017.01.5
Gokengin D., F. Doroudi, J. Tohme, B Collins and N. Madani. 2016. Review HIV/AIDS: trends in the Middle East and North Africa region. I.J. Infect. Dis. 44: 66–73.
Groß M., A. Herr, M. Hower, A. Kuhlmann, J. Mahlich andM. Stoll. 2016. Unemployment, health, and education of HIV-infected males in Germany. Int. J. Public. Health. 61: 593–602.
Günthard H.F., M.S. Saag and C.A. Benson. 2016. Antiretroviral drugs for treatment and prevention of HIV infection in adults. JAMA. 316: 191–210.
Gurdasani D., L. Iles, D.G. Dillon, E.H. Young, A.D. Olson and V. Naranbhai. 2014. A systematic review of definitions of extreme phenotypes of HIV control and progression. AIDS 28: 149–162.
HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework 2012–2016 Ministry of Health, Egypt. International Labour Office. Global Wage Report 2016/17:Wage inequality in the workplace. ILO Geneva 2016; ISBN 978-92--2-130929-1
Jacobsen J.O., T.J. Saidel and V. Loo. 2014. Size Estimation of Key Affected Populations at Elevated HIV Risk in Egypt. https://www.unodc.org/documents/middleeastandnorthafrica//Publications/PSE_New_-_Draft_3_-_PLANnPLAY_-_101016.pdf. 2017.01.15
Kirkpatrick L.A. and B.C. Feeny. 2013. A simple guide to IBM SPSS statistics for version 20.0. Students ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
Legarth R., L.H. Omland and G. Kronborg. 2014. Educatio-nal attainment and risk of HIV infection, response to antiretrovi-ral treatment, and mortality in HIV-infected patients. AIDS 28:387–396.
Luft L.M., M.J. Gill and D.L. Church. 2011. HIV-1 viral diversity and its implications for viral load testing: review of current platforms. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 15: 661–670.
Manasa J., H. Musabaike, C. Masimirembwa, E. Burke andR. Luthy. 2007. Evaluation of the Partec flow cytometer against the BD FACS Calibur system for monitoring immune responses of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Zimbabwe. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 14: 293–298.
Ministry of Health and Population [Egypt], Elzanaty and Associates [Egypt], and ICF International. 2015. Egypt Health Issues Survey 2015. Cairo, Egypt and Rockville, Maryland, USA: Ministry of Health and Population and ICF International.
Mumtaz G.R., H.A. Weiss and S.L. Thomas. 2014. HIV among people who inject drugs in the Middle East and North Africa: systematic review and data synthesis. PLoS Med.11: e1001663.
National AIDS Program NAP Egypt – National HIV Program Situation and Gap Analysis Egypt April 2015. http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/country/documents/EGY_narrative_report_2015.pdf. 2017.01.13
National AIDS Program, HIV/AIDS Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey. 2010. https://www.fhi360.org/sites/default/files/media/documents/EgyptBioBSSsummaryreport2006.pdf. 2017.01.13
National Guideline on Clinical Care and Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating and Preventing HIV Infection, Egypt. 2014. http://egyaids.info/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Final-Draft-of-Care-and-ARVs-Guideline-Egypt-2014.pdf. 2017.01.05
Olson AD, L. Meyer, M. Prins, R. Thiebaut, D. Gurdasani andM. Guiguet. 2014. An Evaluation of HIV Elite Controller Definitions within a Large Seroconverter Cohort Collaboration. PLoS ONE. 9: e86719.
Poropatich K. and D.J. Sullivan. 2011. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long-term nonprogressors: the viral, genetic and immunological basis for disease nonprogression. J. Gen. Virol. 92: 247–268.
Rabkin J.G., M. McElhiney and S.J. Ferrando. 2004. Predictors of employment of men with HIV/AIDS: a longitudinal study. Psychosom. Med. 66: 72–78.
The Egyptian Society for Population Studies and ReproductiveHealth. 2013.Stigma experienced by people living with HIV in Egypt. https://www.upr-info.org/sites/default/files/document/egypt/session_20__october_2014/unct_5_agencies_upr20_egy_e_annexe1.pdf. 2017.01.02.