Trends of Bloodstream Infections in a University Greek Hospital during a Three-Year Period: Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Seasonality in Gram-negative Predominance


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Polish Journal of Microbiology

Polish Society of Microbiologists

Subject: Microbiology


ISSN: 1733-1331
eISSN: 2544-4646





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VOLUME 66 , ISSUE 2 (June 2017) > List of articles

Trends of Bloodstream Infections in a University Greek Hospital during a Three-Year Period: Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Seasonality in Gram-negative Predominance

Fevronia Kolonitsiou / Matthaios Papadimitriou-Olivgeris / Anastasia Spiliopoulou / Vasiliki Stamouli / Vasileios Papakostas / Eleni Apostolopoulou / Christos Panagiotopoulos / Markos Marangos / Evangelos D. Anastassiou / Myrto Christofidou / Iris Spiliopoulou *

Keywords : bacteremia, Candida non-albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistance, methicillin resistant vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE)

Citation Information : Polish Journal of Microbiology. Volume 66, Issue 2, Pages 171-180, DOI:

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 18-June-2016 / Accepted: 24-November-2016 / Published Online: 28-June-2017



The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiology, the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and bloodstream infections’ (BSIs) seasonality in a university hospital. This retrospective study was carried out in the University General Hospital of Patras, Greece, during 2011–13 y. Blood cultures from patients with clinical presentation suggestive of bloodstream infection were performed by the BacT/ALERT System. Isolates were identified by Vitek 2 Advanced Expert System. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method and E-test. Resistance genes (mecA in staphylococci; vanA/vanB/vanC in enterococci; blaKPC/blaVIM/blaNDM in Klebsiella spp.) were detected by PCR. In total, 4607 (9.7%) blood cultures were positive from 47451 sets sent to Department of Microbiology, represent­ing 1732 BSIs. Gram-negative bacteria (52.3%) were the most commonly isolated, followed by Gram-positive (39.5%), fungi (6.6%) and anaerobes bacteria (1.8%). The highest contamination rate was observed among Gram-positive bacteria (42.3%). Among 330 CNS and 150 Staphylococcus aureus, 281 (85.2%) and 60 (40.0%) were mecA-positive, respectively. From 113 enterococci, eight were vanA, two vanB and two vanC-positives. Of the total 207 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (73.4%), 202 carried blaKPC, four blaKPC and blaVIM and one blaVIM. A significant increase in monthly BSIs’ incidence was shown (R2: 0.449), which may be attributed to a rise of Gram-positive BSIs (R2: 0.337). Gram-positive BSIs were less frequent in spring (P < 0.001), summer (P < 0.001), and autumn (P < 0.001), as compared to winter months, while Gram-negative bacteria (P < 0.001) and fungi (P < 0.001) were more frequent in summer months. BSIs due to methicillin resistant S. aureus and carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria increased during the study period. The increasing incidence of BSIs can be attributed to an increase of Gram-positive BSI incidence, even though Gram-negative bacteria remained the predominant ones. Seasonality may play a role in the predominance of Gram-negative’s BSI.

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