The Role of Staphylococcus aureus in Secondary Infections in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis (AD)

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Polish Journal of Microbiology

Polish Society of Microbiologists

Subject: Microbiology

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ISSN: 1733-1331
eISSN: 2544-4646

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VOLUME 65 , ISSUE 3 (August 2016) > List of articles

The Role of Staphylococcus aureus in Secondary Infections in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis (AD)

Aneta Buda / Jacek Międzobrodzki *

Keywords : Staphylococcus aureus, atopic dermatitis (AD), opportunistic infections, secondary staphylococcal infections, skin lesions

Citation Information : Polish Journal of Microbiology. VOLUME 65 , ISSUE 3 , ISSN (Online) 2544-4646, DOI: 10.5604/17331331.1215600, August 2016

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 26-February-2016 / Accepted: 11-April-2016 / Published Online: 26-August-2016

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ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the mucous membrane of the nasal vestibule of a significant number of healthy people. These microorgan­isms are opportunistic pathogens, that in favorable conditions, may cause infections of various course, location or manifestation. Second­ary infections emerge in cases when other risk factors contribute to such a change. One of the diseases during which S. aureus changes its saprophytic character to a pathogenic one is atopic dermatitis (AD), an allergic skin condition of a chronic and recurrent nature. Patients with AD are highly predisposed to secondary staphylococcal infections due to active S. aureus colonization of the stratum corneum, dam­age of the skin barrier or a defective immune response. Microorganisms present in skin lesions destroy the tissue by secreting enzymes and toxins, and additionally stimulate secondary allergic reactions. The toxins secreted by strains of S. aureus also act as superantigens and penetrate the skin barrier contributing to a chronic inflammation of the atopic skin lesions. The S. aureus species also releases proinflam­matory proteins, including enzymes that cause tissue damage. When initiating treatment it is particularly important to properly assess that the onset of the secondary bacterial infection is caused by S. aureus and thus justifying the inclusion of antibiotic therapy. Depending on the severity and extent of the staphylococcal infection, topical antibiotics are used, usually mupirocin or fusidic acid, or general antibiotic treatment is introduced. Another therapeutic strategy without antibiotics has given a positive effect in patients.

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