From Latent Tuberculosis Infection to Tuberculosis. News in Diagnosticsb (QuantiFERON-Plus)


Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Polish Journal of Microbiology

Polish Society of Microbiologists

Subject: Microbiology


ISSN: 1733-1331
eISSN: 2544-4646





Volume / Issue / page

Related articles

VOLUME 66 , ISSUE 1 (March 2017) > List of articles

From Latent Tuberculosis Infection to Tuberculosis. News in Diagnosticsb (QuantiFERON-Plus)

Dagmara I. Borkowska * / Agnieszka M. Napiórkowska / Sylwia A. Brzezińska / Monika Kozińska / Anna T. Zabost / Ewa M. Augustynowicz-Kopeć

Keywords : Mycobacterium tuberculosis, interferon-gamma release assays, latent tuberculosis infection, tuberculin skin test, tuberculosis

Citation Information : Polish Journal of Microbiology. Volume 66, Issue 1, Pages 5-8, DOI:

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 19-August-2016 / Accepted: 27-January-2017 / Published Online: 30-March-2017



It is estimated that one third of the world’s population have latent tuberculosis infection and that this is a significant reservoir for future tuberculosis cases. Most cases occur within two years following initial infection. The identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection is difficult due to the lack of an ideal diagnostic assay and incomplete understanding of latent infection. Currently, there are three tests: the oldest tuberculin skin test, T-SPOT.TB and the latest QuantiFERON-Plus for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infec­tion. The interpretation of the test results must be used in the conjunction with a patient’s epidemiological history, risk assessment, current clinical status, radiography and microbiological methods to ensure accurate diagnosis.

Content not available PDF Share



Barcellini L., E. Borroni, J. Brown, E. Brunetti, L. Codecasa,F. Cugnata, P.D. Monte, C.D. Serio, D. Goletti and others. 2016. First independent evaluation of QuantiFERON-TB Plus performance. Eur. Respir. J., 2016.04.30.


Borkowska D., Z. Zwolska, D. Michałowska-Mitczuk, M. Korzeniewska-Koseła, A. Zabost, A. Napiórkowska, M. Kozińska, S. Krzezińska and E. Augustynowicz-Kopeć. 2011. Interferon-gamma assay T-SPOT.TB in the diagnostics of latent tuberculosis infection. Pneumonol. Alergol. Pol. 79: 264–271.


Diel R, R. Loddenkemper and A. Nienhaus. 2010. Evidence-based comparison of commercial interferon-γ release assays for detecting active TB. Chest 137: 952–968.


Diel R., D. Goletti, G. Ferrara, G. Bothamley, D. Cirillo, B. Kampmann, C. Lange, M. Losi, R. Markova, G.B. Migliori and others. 2011. Interferon-gamma release assays for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur. Respir. J. 37: 88–99.


European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). 2011. Use of interferon-gamma release assays in support of TB diagnosis, pp. 1–32. ECDC. Stockholm.


Getahun H., R.E. Chaisson and M. Raviglione. 2015. Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 373: 1179–1180.


Hermansen T.S., T. Lillebaek, K.L. Kristensen, P.H. Andersen and P. Ravn. 2016. Prognostic value of interferon-γ release assays, a population-based study from a TB low-incidence country. Thorax. 71: 652–658.


Hoffmann H, K. Avsar, R. Göres, S.C. Mavi and S. Hofmann-Thiel. 2016. Equal sensitivity of the new generation QuantiFERON-TB Gold plus in direct comparison with the previous test version QuantiFERON-TB Gold IT. Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 2016.04.30.


van Ingen J., R. de Zwaan, R. Dekhuijzen, M. Boeree and D. van Soolingen. 2009. Region of difference 1 in nontuberculous Mycobacterium species adds a phylogenetic and taxonomical character. J. Bacteriol. 191: 5865–5867.


Kang Y.A., H.W. Lee, H.I. Yoon, B. Cho, S.K. Han, Y.S. Shim and J.J. Jim. 2005. Discrepancy between the tuberculin skin test and the whole-blood interferon gamma assay for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in an intermediate tuberculosis-burdencountry. JAMA 293: 2756–2785.


Korzeniewska-Koseła M. 2016. Tuberculosis and lung diseasesin Poland in 2015. (In Polish). Institute Tuberculosis and LungDiseases, Warsaw.


Kruczak K., W. Skucha, M. Duplaga, M. Sanak and E. Niżankowska-Mogilnicka. 2009. Assessment of the latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with QuantiFERON-GIT (QFT-GIT) assay in selected risk groups in Krakow. (In Polish) Borgis – Nowa Medycyna 1: 37–42.


Lalvani A. 2007. Diagnosing tuberculosis infection in the 21st century. New tools to tackle an old enemy. Chest 131: 1898–1906.


Lim W.S. 2016. From latent to active TB: are IGRAs of any use? Thorax. 71: 585–586.


Mack U., G.B. Migliori, M. Sester, H.L. Rieder, S. Ehlers, D. Goletti, A. Bossink, K. Magdorf, C. Hölscher, B. Kampmann and others. 2009. LTBI: latent tuberculosis infection or lasting immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis? A TBNET consensus statement. Eur. Respir. J. 33: 956–973.


Menzies D., M. Pai and G. Comstock. 2007. Meta-analysis: new tests in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: areas of uncertainty and recommendations for research. Ann. Intern. Med. 146: 340–354.


Pai M., C.M. Denkinger, S.V. Kik, M.X. Rangaka, A. Zwerling,O. Oxlade, J.Z. Metcalfe, A. Cattamanchi, D.W. Dowdy, K. Dhedaand others. 2014. Gamma interferon release assays for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 27: 3–20.


QuantiFeron-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) ELISA package insert., 2016.04.30.


Rangaka M.X., K.A. Wilkinson, J.R. Glynn, D. Ling, D. Menzies, J. Mwansa-Kambafwile, K. Fielding, R.J. Wilkinson and M. Pai. 2012. Predictive value of interferon-γ release assays for incident active tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta analysis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 12: 45–55.


Salgame P., C. Geadas, L. Collins, E. Jones-Lopez, J.J. Ellner. 2015. Latent tuberculosis infection – Revisiting and revising concepts. Tuberculosis. 95: 373–384.


Sester M., G. Sotgiu, C. Lange, C. Giehl, E. Girardi, G.B. Migliori, A. Bossink, K. Dheda, R. Diel, J. Dominguez and others. 2011. Interferon-γ release assays for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur. Respir. J. 37: 100–111.


Sloot R., M.F. Schim van der Loeff, P.M. Kouw and M.W. Borgdorff. 2014. Risk of tuberculosis after recent exposure. A 10-year follow-up study of contacts in Amsterdam. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190: 1044–1052.


Trajman A., R.E. Steffen and D. Menzies. 2013. Interferon-gamma release assays versus tuberculin skin testing for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: An overview of the evidence. Pulm. Med. 601737., 2016.04.30.


T-SPOT.TB packane insert. 2013., 2016.04.30.


Turetz M.L. and K.C. Ma. 2016. Diagnosis and management of latent tuberculosis. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 29: 205–211.


Uplekar M., D. Weil, K. Lonnroth, E. Jaramillo, C. Lienhardt, H.M. Dias, D. Falzon, K. Floyd, G. Gargioni, H. Getahun and others. 2016. WHO’s new end TB strategy. Lancet 385: 1799–1801.


World Health Organization (WHO). 2008. Global tuberculosis control: surveillance, planning, financing, pp. 1–294. WHO. Geneva.


Zellweger J.P., G. Sotgiu, M. Block, S. Dore, N. Altet, R. Blunschi, M. Bogyi, G. Bothamley, C. Bothe, L. Codecasa and others. 2015. Risk assessment of tuberculosis in contacts by IFN-γ release assays. A tuberculosis network European Trial Group Study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 191: 1176–1184.