SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : Polish Journal of Microbiology. VOLUME 66 , ISSUE 1 , ISSN (Online) 2544-4646, DOI: 10.5604/17331331.1235227, March 2017
License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Received Date : 25-April-2016 / Accepted: 13-December-2016 / Published Online: 30-March-2017
Antimicrobial properties of platelet rich plasma (PRP) against various microorganisms have been recently pointed out. PRP could be an alternative to conventional antibiotics in preventing oral and periodontal infections. We examined whether PRP has in vitro antimicrobial properties against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prophyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were obtained from whole blood of 10 healthy volunteers and 10 periodontitis patients. In vitro laboratory susceptibility was carried out using the modified agar diffusion method by measuring the diameters of inhibition zones on agar plates coated with selected microbial strains. Both calcium chloride (CaCl2) activated and non activated samples were tested. Both activated PRP and PPP, of both patients and controls, effectively inhibited the growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and C. albicans. However, a statistically significant difference in favor of PRP was found indicating more susceptibility to PRP than PPP (p < 0.05). Non activated PRP and PPP exhibited negative zones of inhibition against the studied microorganisms. There was no activity against S. aureus. No statistically significant difference was found between the antimicrobial effects of PRP and/or PPP obtained from patients and controls (p > 0.05). We conclude that PRP is a potentially useful substance against oral and periodontal pathogens. Activated PRP was found to be more active than activated PPP and the activation of coagulation is a fundamental step. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of PRP and/or PPP seems not to be affected by periodontitis.
Anitua E. 1999. Plasma rich in growth factors: preliminary results of use in the preparation of future sites for implants. Int. J. Oral. Maxillofac. Implants 14: 529–535.
Anitua E., I. Andía, M. Sanchez, J. Azofra, M. del Mar Zalduendo, M. de la Fuente, P. Nurden and A.T. Nurden. 2005. Autologous preparations rich in growth factors promote proliferation and induce VEGF and HGF production by human tendon cells in culture. J. Orthop. Res. 23: 281–286.
Anitua E., G. Orive, J.J. Aguirre and I. Andia. 2008. Five-year clinical evaluation of short dental implants placed in posterior areas: a retrospective study. J. Periodontol. 79: 42–48.
Anitua E., R. Alonso, C. Girbau, J.J. Aguirre, F. Muruzabal and G. Orive. 2012. Antibacterial effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF®-Endoret®) against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 37: 652–657.
Armitage G.C. 1999. Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions. Ann. Periodontal 4: 1–6.
Assirelli E., G. Filardo, E. Mariani, E. Kon, A. Roffi, F. Vaccaro, M. Marcacci, A. Facchini and L. Pulsatelli. 2015. Effect of two different preparations of platelet-rich plasma on synoviocytes. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol. Arthrosc. 23: 2690–2703.
Bielecki T., T.S. Gazdzik and T. Szczepanski. 2006. What do we use: platelet-rich plasma or platelet-rich gel? Bone 39: 1388.
Bielecki T.M., T.S. Gazdzik, J. Arendt, T. Szczepanski, W. Krol and T. Wielkoszynski. 2007. Antibacterial effect of autologous platelet gel enriched with growth factors and other active substances: an in vitro study. J. Bone Joint. Surg. (Br). 89: 417–420.
Burnouf T., M.L. Chou, Y.W. Wu, C.Y. Su and L.W. Lee. 2013. Antimicrobial activity of platelet (PLT)-poor plasma, PLT-rich plasma, PLT gel, and solvent/ detergent-treated PLT lysate biomaterials against wound bacteria. Transfusion 53: 138–146.
Cavallo C., G. Filardo, E. Mariani, E. Kon, M. Marcacci, M.T. Pereira Ruiz, A. Facchini and B. Grigolo. 2014. Comparison of platelet-rich plasma formulations for cartilage healing: an in vitro study. J. Bone Joint. Surg. Am. 96: 423–429.
Cuesta A.I., V. Jewtuchowicz, M.I. Brusca, M.L. Nastri and A.C. Rosa. 2010. Prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the oral cavity and periodontal pockets of periodontal disease patients. Acta Odontol. Latinoam 23: 20–26.
Drago L., M. Bortolin, C. Vassena, S. Taschieri and M. Del Fabbro. 2013. Antimicrobial activity of pure platelet-rich plasma against microorganisms isolated from oral cavity. BMC Microbiol. 13: 47.
Ehrenfest D.M.D., G. Sammartino, J.A. Shibli, H. Wang, D. Zou and J. Bernard. 2013. Guidelines for the publication of articles related to platelet concentrates (Platelet-Rich Plasma – PRP, or Platelet-Rich Fibrin – PRF): the international classification of the POSEIDO. Poseido J. 1: 17–28.
El-Solh A.A., C. Pietrantoni, A. Bhat, M. Okada, J. Zambon, A.A. Quilina and E. Berbary. 2004. Colonization of dental plaques: a reservoir of respiratory pathogens for hospital acquired pneumo-nia in institutionalized elders. Chest 126: 1575–1582.
Farah C.S., N. Lynch and M.J. McCullough. 2010. Oral fungal infections: an update for the general practitioner. Aust. Dent. J. 55: 48–54.
Hampton M.B., A.J. Kettle and C.C. Winterbourn. 1996. Involvement of superoxide and myeloperoxidase in oxygen-dependent killing of Staphylococcus aureus by neutrophils. Infect. Immun. 64: 3512–3517.
Jia W., C. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Chen and Y. Jiang. 2010. An experimental study on antimicrobial efficacy of platelet-rich plasma for bone infection prophylaxis. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 24: 964–870.
Krijgsveld J., S.A. Zaat, J. Meeldijk, P.A. van Veelen, G. Fang, B. Poolman, E. Brandt, J.E. Ehlert, A.J. Kuijpers, G.H. Engbers and others. 2000. Thrombocidins, microbicidal proteins fromhuman blood platelets, are c-terminal deletion products of CXC chemokines. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 20374–20381.
Li H., T. Hamza, J.E Tidwell, N. Clovis and B. Li. 2013. Unique antimicrobial effects of platelet-rich plasma and its efficacy as a prophylaxis to prevent implant-associated spinal infection. Adv. Healthc. Mater. 2: 1277–1284.
Mariani E., V. Canella, A. Berlingeri, A. Bielli, L. Cattini, M.P. Landini, E. Kon, M. Marcacci, B. Di Matteo and G. Filardo. 2015. Leukocyte presence does not increase microbicidal activity of platelet-rich plasma in vitro. BMC Microbiology 15: 149.
Moojen D.J., P.A. Everts, R.M. Schure, E.P. Overdevest, Z.A. Van, J.T. Knape, R.M. Castelein, L.B. Creemers and W.J. Dhert. 2008. Antimicrobial activity of platelet-leukocyte gel against Staphylococ-cus aureus. J. Orthop. Re. 26: 404–10.
Murray P.R., E.J. Baron, M.A. Pfaller, F.C. Tenover, R.H. Yolken (eds). 1999. Manual of clinical microbiology, 7th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
Passariello C., M. Puttini, V. Iebba, P. Pera and P. Gigola. 2012. Influence of oral conditions on colonization by highly toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains. Oral Dis. 18: 402–409.
Slots J. 1982. Selective medium for isolation of A. actinomycetemcomitans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15: 606–609.
Slots J. 1986. Rapid identification of important periodontal microorganisms by cultivation. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 1: 49–55.
Slots J. 1987. Detection of colonies of Bacteroides gingivalis by a rapid fluorescence assay for trypsin-like activity. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 2: 139–141.
Smith A.J., M.S. Jackson and J. Bagg. 2001. The ecology of Staphylococcus species in the oral cavity. J. Med. Microbiol. 50: 940–946.
Smith A.J., D. Robertson, M.K. Tang, M.S. Jackson, D. MacKenzie and J. Bagg. 2003. Staphylococcus aureus in the oral cavity: a three-year retrospective analysis of clinical laboratory data. Br. Dent. J. 195: 701–703.
Tang Y.-Q., M.R. Yeaman and M.E. Selsted. 2002. Antimicrobial peptides from human platelets. Infect. Immun. 70: 6524–6533.
Teles R.P., A.D., Haffajee and S.S. Socransky. 2006. Microbiological goals of periodontal therapy. Periodontology 42: 180–218.
Terpenning M.S., G.W. Taylor, D.E. Lopatin, C.K. Kerr, B.L. Domin- guez and W.J. Loesche. 2001. Aspiration pneumonia: dental and oral risk factors in an older veteran population. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 49: 557–563.
van Winkelhoff A. J., M. Clement and J. de Graaff. 1988. rapid characterization of oral and non-oral pigmented Bacteroides species with the ATB Anaerobes ID system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 1063–1065.
Werner S. and R. Grose. 2003. Regulation of wound healing by growth factors and cytokines. Physiol. Rev. 83: 835–870
Wu T., M.R. Yeaman and A.S Bayer. 1994. In vitro resistance to platelet microbicidal protein correlates with endocarditis source among bacteremic staphylococcal and streptococcal isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38(4): 729–732.
Yang L.C., S.W. Hu, M. Yan, J.J. Yang, S.H. Tsou and Y.Y. Lin. 2015. Antimicrobial activity of platelet-rich plasma and other plasma preparations against periodontal pathogens. J. Periodontol. 86(2): 310–318.
Yeaman M.R., A.S. Bayer, S.-P. Koo, W. Foss and P.M. Sullam. 1998. Platelet microbicidal proteins and neutrophil defensin disrupt the Staphylococcus aureus cytoplasmic membrane by distinct mechanisms of action. J. Clin. Invest. 101: 178–187.
Yeaman M.R. and A.S. Bayer. 1999. Antimicrobial peptides from platelets
Yeaman M.R. 1997. The role of platelets in antimicrobial host defense. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25: 951–970.
Zalavras C.G., M.J. Patzakis and P. Holtom. 2004. Local antibiotic therapy in the treatment of open fractures and osteomyelitis. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 427: 86–93.