Patient samples are routinely typed for ABO prior to transfusion. Determining the ABO group requires both red blood cell (RBC) antigen typing for A and B (forward type) and testing for anti-A and anti-B in the plasma (reverse type). An ABO discrepancy exists when the result of an ABO RBC typing, or forward type, does not agree with the result of the plasma typing, or reverse type. This brief review examines several causes of ABO discrepancies encountered in the clinical transfusion service
Geralyn M. Meny
Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 76–81
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of ABO and Rh phenotypes in the general Pakistan population. This information could be used to help reduce the rate of alloimmunization in patients with blood disorders, such as thalassemia major, who require frequent blood transfusions. A total of 242 patients with blood disorders requiring frequent blood transfusions were enrolled in the study. ABO and Rh typing was performed on samples from these patients using tube and gel methods
Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 170–173
HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from red blood cell (RBC)-incompatible donors is not uncommon. The engraftment process following ABO-incompatible allogeneic HSCT results in the transition from patient blood group to donor blood group in the recipient. In contrast, most non-hematopoietic tissues retain expression of the patient’s original blood group for life, and these antigens may adsorb from the plasma onto the donor-derived RBCs. Correct serologic
Dianne E. Grey,
Elizabeth A. Fong,
Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 99–104
et al.5 reported the following prevalence rates in a northern Indian blood donor population: 34.6 percent M+N–, 54.1 percent M+N+, and 11.3 percent M–N+. Because the M antigen is destroyed by routinely available proteolytic enzymes, anti-M does not react with enzyme-treated red blood cells (RBCs).6 Anti-M is generally active below 37°C, with optimum activity at 4°C.6 Hence, these antibodies are generally ignored in transfusion practice, although they can interfere in ABO plasma grouping and cause
Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 165–169
patient transfusion. It is imperative that reagent-dependent reactivity is recognized and resolved during the investigation of ABO discrepancies, positive RBC antibody screens and antibody identification panels, and crossmatch reactivity.
Gavin C. Patch,
Charles F. Hutchinson,
Nancy A. Lang,
Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 96–99
to a 2–5 percent suspension in PBS.
Test DTT-treated cells with serum containing the antibody in question. Test K+ treated RBCs with anti-K.
DTT = dithiothreitol; PBS = phosphate-buffered saline; RBCs = red blood cells.
Treatment of autologous RBCs with 0.01 M DTT can resolve spontaneous agglutination due to potent IgM autoantibodies that interfere with ABO/Rh and direct antiglobulin testing.4
Monoclonal anti-CD38 (daratumumab), approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for
Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 170–172
Antibody detection and identification are processes that are commonly performed in the transfusion service before the transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs). Antibody identification usually follows the discovery of a positive antibody detection test, or other factors such as ABO serum/cell discrepancy or incompatible crossmatch.1 Antibody identification is a necessary practice in blood banking to determine blood products that are suitable for transfusion to an individual
Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 155–158
the presence of complement in vitro. First believed to be part of the ABO system, it was later shown that the gene encoding the glycosyltransferase giving rise to FORS1 expression is GBGT1. This gene had previously been deemed nonfunctional in humans, but a mutation, so far only detected in FORS1+ individuals, restores the enzymatic activity. Tissue distribution of the antigen in FORS1+ individuals has not been studied in detail, although the gene is expressed in several cell types. The antigen
Annika K. Hult,
Martin L. Olsson
Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 64–72
higher level of progesterone(10).
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, pattern, and characteristics of gallbladder disease in gravid Nigerian women and to elucidate any association of gallbladder disease in pregnancy with gravidity and ABO blood group.
Materials and methods
This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of six hundred and fifty six gravid women at Union Diagnostics and Clinical Services Plc, Yaba, Lagos state, Nigeria from March 2015 to March 2016. The
Bukunmi Michael Idowu,
Stephen Olaoluwa Onigbinde,
Isaiah Uzezi Ebie,
Michael Temidayo Adeyemi
Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 79, 269–275
Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 135–139
Polyagglutination is a rare and underdiagnosed condition, characterized by agglutination of red blood cells (RBCs) with almost all ABO-compatible adult sera. Polyagglutination can occur when a cryptantigen is exposed on RBCs via microbial enzyme activity. Because nearly all adults naturally produce antibodies against cryptantigens, transfusion of plasma can cause unexpected hemolysis and hematologic complications, such as thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, in patients
Ryan P. Jajosky,
Lloyd O. Cook,
James F. Shikle,
Roni J. Bollag
Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 51–55