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Article

ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF NATURAL OILS – AN OPPORTUNITY TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE ON THE EXAMPLE OF PSEUDOMONAS SPP.

1. Introduction The increase in consumption of antibiotics has provoked the formation of resistance mechanisms in bacteria as a result of chromosomal changes or the exchange of genetic material via plasmids and transposons. This problem involves many pathogenic bacteria, including Pseudomonas spp. For instance, P. aeruginosa (responsible for severe nosocomial infections) is a clinically significant pathogen with confirmed resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones

Katarzyna Leja, Kamila Szudera-Kończal, Kamila Myszka, Katarzyna Czaczyk

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 177–190

Short Communication

Use of Amplification Fragment Length Polymorphism to Genotype Pseudomonas stutzeri Strains Following Exposure to Ultraviolet Light A

Changes in ultraviolet light radiation can act as a selective force on the genetic and physiological traits of a microbial community. Two strains of the common soil bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri, isolated from aquifer cores and from human spinal fluid were exposed to ultraviolet light. Amplification length polymorphism analysis (AFLP) was used to genotype this bacterial species and evaluate the effect of UVA-exposure on genomic DNA extracted from 18 survival colonies of the two strains

Lisa Lombardi, Marina Zoppo, Cosmeri Rizzato, Colin Gerard Egan, Roberto Scarpato, Arianna Tavanti

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 107–111

Short Communication

Influence of Pseudomonas and Bacillus Strains Isolated from Lolium perenne Rhizospheric Soil in Vojvodina (Serbia) on Planth Growth and Soil Microbial Communities

The aim of this study was the isolation of Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. strains from rhizospheric soil and monitoring the impact of two isolates denoted as P12 (Pseudomonas sp.) and B1 (Bacillus sp.) on the parameters of English ryegrass (Lolium perenne) yield and activity of the soil microbial communities. During 2012–2014, a plot experiment was set up following the randomized block system. Better effect on the plant growth was recorded with the use of Pseudomonas sp. P12 isolate

Dragana R. Stamenov, Simonida Djuric, Timea Hajnal-Jafari, Snežana Andjelkovic

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 269–272

Short Communication

Clonal Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Meknes Region, Morocco

From 123 clinical and environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 24 strains were selected for their similar antibioresistance, virulence and biofilm formation profiles, to examine their diversity and occurrence of clones within two hospitals and different natural sites in Meknes (Morocco). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, using DraI enzyme, didn’t reveal a close relationship between clinical and environmentalisolates nor between strains of the two hospitals. 19 genotypes were

Itto Maroui, Abouddihaj Barguigua, Asmae Aboulkacem, Hanane Elhafa, Khadija Ouarrak, Mohammed Sbiti, Lhoussain Louzi, Mohammed Timinouni, Abdelhaq Belhaj

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 397–400

Original Paper

The Prevalence of Exoenzyme S Gene in Multidrug-Sensitive and Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Strains

Pseudomonas aeruginosa rods are one of the most commonly isolated microorganisms from clinical specimens, usually responsible for nosocomial infections. Antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa strains may present reduced expression of virulence factors. This fact may be caused by appropriate genome management to adapt to changing conditions of the hospital environment. Virulence factors genes maybe replaced by those crucial to survive, like antimicrobial resistance genes. The aim of this study was

Tomasz Bogiel, Aleksander Deptuła, Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg, Małgorzata Prażyńska, Agnieszka Mikucka, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 427–431

Original Paper

Gene Expression during BTEX Biodegradation by a Microbial Consortium Acclimatized to Unleaded Gasoline and a Pseudomonas putida Strain (HM346961) Isolated from It

Pseudomonas putida strain (HM346961) was isolated from a consortium of bacteria acclimatized to unleaded gasoline-contaminated water. The consortium can efficiently remove benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) isomers, and a similar capability was observed with the P. putida strain. Proteome of this strain showed certain similarities with that of other strains exposed to the hydrocarbon com­pounds. Furthermore, the toluene di-oxygenase (tod) gene was up-regulated in P. putida

Jesús A. Morlett Chávez, Jorge Á. Ascacio Martínez, William E. Haskins, Hugo A. Barrera Saldaña, Karim Acuña Askar

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 189–199

Original Paper

Metallo-Beta-Lactamase Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Healthcare Setting in Alexandria, Egypt

Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as a major healthcare associated pathogen that creates a serious public health disaster in both develop­ing and developed countries. In this work we aimed at studying the occurrence of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing P. aeruginosa in a healthcare setting in Alexandria, Egypt. This cross sectional study included 1583 clinical samples that were collected from patients admit­ted to Alexandria University Students’ Hospital. P. aeruginosa

Amani F. Abaza, Soraya A. El Shazly, Heba S.A. Selim, Gehan S.A. Aly

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 297–308

Original Paper

Effectiveness of Antipseudomonal Antibiotics and Mechanisms of Multidrug Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading human pathogen that causes serious infections at various tissues and organs leading to life threaten­ing health problems and possible deadly outcomes. Resistance patterns vary widely whether it is from hospitals or community acquired infections. Reporting resistance profiles to a certain antibiotics provide valuable information in a given setting, but may be extrapolated outside the sampling location. In the present study, P. aeruginosa isolates were

Mohamed E. El Zowalaty, Béla Gyetvai

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 23–32

Article

Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on Watermelon

Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R, and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode: RKN) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). In a greenhouse trial,Wayne 1R root dip suppressed numbers of RKN eggs per gram root on ‘Charleston Gray’ watermelon

SUSAN L. F. MEYER, KATHRYNE L. EVERTS, BRIAN MCSPADDEN GARDENER, EDWARD P. MASLER, HAZEM M. E. ABDELNABBY, ANDREA M. SKANTAR

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 43–53

Research Article

BACTERIAL METALLOTHIONEINS

involved in zinc homeostasis, while in Pseudomonas they are linked to cadmium detoxification. In Mycobacterium, MTs bind copper ions and may play a pivotal role in the virulence of these bacteria. The presence of MTs in other groups of bacteria remains questionable. Problems with identification of new bacterial MTs are mainly associated with low level of homology between MT amino acid sequences of different bacterial groups. Further research is needed to evaluate the physiological functions of

Agnieszka Mierek-Adamska, Wioleta Tylman-Mojżeszek, Zuzanna Znajewska, Grażyna B. Dąbrowska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 171–179

Short Communication

Susceptibility of Vascular Implants to Colonization in vitro by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

We compared association of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis with nine vascular implants after co-culture. Vascular implants were composed of various materials such as warp knitted polyester (with or without gelatin and silver ions), expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and biological materials – surface treated porcine pericardial patch and Omniflow II. The lowest overall number of associated bacteria was detected for

Witold Woźniak, Aleksandra Kozińska, Piotr Ciostek, Izabela Sitkiewicz

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 125–129

Original Paper

Interaction of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria with Ceramic Nanomaterials Obtained by Combustion Synthesis – Adsorption and Cytotoxicity Studies

This paper presents the interactions of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas putida) bacteria with ceramic materials obtained by combustion synthesis. These studies were conducted based on an analysis of the adsorption of bacteria onto aggregates of ceramic materials in an aqueous suspension. The materials used in the studies were of a nanostructured nature and consisted mainly of carbides: silicon carbide (SiC) in the form of nanofibers (NFs) and nanorods (NRs

Andrzej Borkowski, Filip Owczarek, Mateusz Szala, Marek Selwet

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 161–170

Research Article

Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria in Aqueous Media: Assessing the Potential of Real-Time Electromagnetic Wave Sensing

This paper reports on the capabilities of a novel electromagnetic wave sensing method to detect and identify the presence of various pathogenic bacteria in aqueous media. In particular, the change in the electromagnetic wave signal in microwave frequency range is used as an indicator of bacteria presence. The assessment was conducted by recording reflected signal spectra when the sensor was in contact with deionised water, Escherichia coli, sterile nutrient broth and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

I. Nakouti, O. Korostynska, A. Mason, A. I. Al-Shamma’a

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 5, 1–6

Original Paper

Characterization of a Highly Enriched Microbial Consortium Reductively Dechlorinating 2,3-Dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol and the Corresponding cprA Genes from River Sediment

detected in the dechlorinating microcosms including members of the genera Citrobac­ter, Geobacter, Pseudomonas, Desulfitobacterium, Desulfovibrio and Clostridium. Highly enriched dechlorinating cultures were dominated by four bacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Desulfitobacterium, and Clostridium. Desulfitobacterium represented the major fraction in DGGE profiles indicating its importance in dechlorination activity, which was further confirmed by its absence resulting in complete

Wael S. El-Sayed

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 341–352

Short Communication

The Effect of Local Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy on the Composition of Bacterial Flora in Chronic Venous Leg Ulcer

negative bacteria and candida. Pseudomonas aueruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were the most common pre-and post-treatment isolates. PRP therapy and increased the variety of microbial flora.

Witold Woźniak, Monika Tarnas, Tomasz Miłek, R. Krzysztof Mlosek, Piotr Ciostek

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 353–357

Short Communication

Endophytic Detection in Selected European Herbal Plants

were found to inhibit fungal growth. Of these, five had strong antifun­gal properties. These selected isolates were identified as: Pseudomonas azotoformans, P. cedrina, Bacillus subtilis group and Erwinia persicina.

Agata Goryluk-Salmonowicz, Monika Piórek, Hanna Rekosz-Burlaga, Marcin Studnicki, Mieczysław Błaszczyk

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 369–375

Mini Review

Non-antibiotics, Efflux Pumps and Drug Resistance of Gram-negative Rods

AGNIESZKA EWA LAUDY

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 129–135

Original Paper

Isolation and Characterization of α-Endosulfan Degrading Bacteria from the Microflora of Cockroaches

Extensive applications of organochlorine pesticides like endosulfan have led to the contamination of soil and environments. Five different bacteria were isolated from cockroaches living in pesticide contaminated environments. According to morphological, physiological, bio­chemical properties, and total cellular fatty acid profile by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs), the isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa G1, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2, Bacillus atrophaeus G3

Murat Ozdal, Ozlem Gur Ozdal, Omer Faruk Algur

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 63–68

Short Communication

Inhibition of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria by a Photoactivated Porphyrin

The authors studied the in vitro antibacterial activity of the photo-activated porphyrin meso-tri(N-methyl-pyridyl), mono(N-tetradecyl-pyridyl)porphine (C14) against four multidrug-resistant bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis (Gram-positive), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative). Using 10 μg/ml of porphyrin and 60 sec irradiation we observed the remarkable suscep­tibility of S. aureus and E. faecalis to treatment while, under the same conditions, E

Moreno Bondi, Anna Mazzini, Simona De Niederhäusern, Ramona Iseppi, Patrizia Messi

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 533–536

Research Article

PATHOGENIC FREE-LIVING AMOEBA

Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is a need for more research on free-living amoeba invasions in humans, particularly on the methods of diagnosis and appropriate forms of pharmacological therapy. Despite the undeniable role of free-living amoeba in the transmission of pathogenic bacteria, there is still insufficient amount of research and optimal diagnostic

Natalia Łanocha-Arendarczyk, Danuta Kosik-Bogacka, Wojciech Zaorski, Karolina Kot, Katarzyna Galant, Aleksandra Łanocha

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 106–112

Original Paper

Characterisation of Antimicrobial Properties of Extracts of Selected Medicinal Plants

antimicrobial activity against the tested strains was demonstrated by black elder (Sambucus nigra L.), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) extracts. The study showed the diverse morphological activity of specific parts of elderberry and quince, which is the effect of different polyphenolic profile of these plants. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis showed the highest sensitivity to the effect of

Monika Cioch, Paweł Satora, Magdalena Skotniczy, Dorota Semik-Szczurak, Tomasz Tarko

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 463–472

Original Paper

Characterization of Bacteria Isolation of Bacteria from Pinyon Rhizosphere, Producing Biosurfactants from Agro-Industrial Waste

strains belonged to Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus pumilus and Rhizobium sp. All strains assayed were able to grow and showed halos around the colonies as evidence of biosurfactants production on Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide agar with crude glycerol and lactoserum as substrate. In a mineral salt liquid medium enriched with both wastes, the biosurfactants were produced and collected from free cell medium after 72 h incubation. The biosurfactants produced reduced the surface

Arnoldo Wong-Villarreal, Lizbeth Reyes-López, Hipólito Corzo González, Cristina Blanco González, Gustavo Yáñez-Ocampo

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 183–189

Mini Review

Microbial Products and Biofertilizers in Improving Growth and Productivity of Apple – a Review

but mediate the process of producing crops and foods naturally. This method avoids the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers and genetically modified organisms to influence the growth of crops. In addition to their role in enhancing the growth of the plants, biofertilizers can act as biocontrol agents in the rhizosphere at the same time. Biofertilizers are very safe for human, animal and environment. The use of Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Pseudomonas, Acetobacter, Burkholderia, Bacillus

Walid Fediala Abd El-Gleel Mosa, Lidia Sas-Paszt, Mateusz Frąc, Paweł Trzciński

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 243–251

Original Paper

The Diversity, Growth Promoting Abilities and Anti-microbial Activities of Bacteria Isolated from the Fruiting Body of Agaricus bisporus

Gram-negative Alcaligenes and Pseudomonas genera. The bacteria isolated from the fruiting body of A. bisporus had broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and potential mushroom growth-promoting abilities.

Quanju Xiang, Lihua Luo, Yuhuan Liang, Qiang Chen, Xiaoping Zhang, Yunfu Gu

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 201–207

original-paper

Biodiversity of Bacteria Associated with Eight Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) P. Kumm. Strains from Poland, Japan and the USA

, 799f, and 1492r primers, according to a procedure designed to distinguish bacteria and plant mitochondrial the 16S rRNA gene fragment as described by Chelius and Triplett (2001). DNA from Pseudomonas fluorescens PE16 strain was used as bacterial control. DNA isolated from maize cv. Cyrkon (Zea mays L.) was used as plant control. The controls were shared by the Agriculture Microbiology Lab at the Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences. The electrophoresis of the products obtained was

MARIUSZ ADAMSKI, STANISLAW J. PIETR

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 71–81

original-paper

Bacterial Diversity in Roots, Stems, and Leaves of Chinese Medicinal Plant Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis

%), and Pseudomonas (3.81%). The main genera observed in leaves were norank_c__Cyanobacteria (90.37%), norank_f__Mitochondria (1.29%), and Rhizobium (0.66%). The differences of norank_c__Cyanobacteria, Bacillus and Sphingobium were statistically significant (p < 0.05 or 0.01, Supplementary file 3). Fig. 6. Percent of community abundance on Genus level of roots, stems, and leaves (n = 6). S represents stems, R represents root, and L represents leaf. Functional characteristics of bacteria. According

TIAN-HAO LIU, YIN ZHOU, WEN-CONG TAO, YANG LIU, XIAO-MEI ZHANG, SHOU-ZHENG TIAN

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 91–97

Original Paper

Characterization of Endolithic Culturable Microbial Communities in Carbonate Rocks from a Typical Karst Canyon in Guizhou (China)

all bacteria isolated from dolomite and limestone rocks were divided into 4 bacterial groups, including Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. For these two kinds of rocks, Proteobacteria was the first dominant group, and Gammaproteobacteria occupied the greatest proportion which might be closely related to Pseudomonas in phylogeny to be the most dominant genera after isolation. Actinobacteria and Bacillus bacteria were also widespread in these two kinds of rock environments

Yuan Tang, Jian-Zhong Cheng, Bin Lian

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 413–423

Article

THE ROLE OF THE STRINGENT COMPONENTS IN THE REGULATION OF VIRULENCE

enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa posiadają enzymy RelA i SpoT. Bakterie Gram-dodatnie (Bacillus anthracis, B. subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus coelicolor, Enterococcus faecalis) posiadają zarówno dwufunkcyjne białka RSH (RelA/SpoT homologue), jak i małe syntetazy RelP i RelQ. Obecność małych syntetaz stwierdzono także u niektórych bakterii posiadających enzymy Rel i SpoT jak np. syntetaza RelV u Gram-ujemnej Vibrio cholerae [19]. Istnienie wielu enzymów związanych z syntezą i hydrolizą

Klaudyna Krause, Klaudia Milewska, Agnieszka Szalewska-Pałasz

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 247–258

original-paper

New Look on Antifungal Activity of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs)

do not exhibit toxicity for mammalian cells (Milic et al. 2015; Zhang et al. 2016a). However, some cytostatic and anti-cancer activity is reported at these concentrations (AshaRani et al. 2009). Antibacterial activity of AgNPs is rather well documented in the literature, mainly against the following species: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli (Yoon et al. 2007; Li et al. 2010; Guzman et al. 2012, Kanawaria et al. 2018). Some information

BARBARA ŻAROWSKA, TOMASZ KOŹLECKI, MICHAŁ PIEGZA, KATARZYNA JAROS-KOŹLECKA, MAŁGORZATA ROBAK

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 515–525

original-paper

Oligotrophic Nitrification and Denitrification Bacterial Communities in a Constructed Sewage Treatment Ecosystem and Nitrogen Removal of Delftia tsuruhatensis NF4

Zhou 2016). Pseudomonas accounted for 4.4% of the assigned sequences in CRIC. Pseudomonas had characteristics of aerobic denitrification that utilizes ammonium and nitrate simultaneously under the oligotrophic niche (Zhu et al. 2012). Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, and unidentified_Rhizobiaceae had an average abundance of 0.5–5.7% in IC, CRIC, and EC samples, and the population of these bacteria dramatically increased after subsequent culture on medium. Based on the above results, the water

RUILAN YANG, JING LI, LUYAO WEI-XIE, LIN SHAO

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 99–108

original-paper

Patterns of Drug-Resistant Bacteria in a General Hospital, China, 2011–2016

a more complete picture of bacterial infections and to help clinicians and decision-making departments undertake the proper decisions for patients and antibiotic use. Experimental Materials and Methods Based on the data from a general hospital in Zhengzhou, Henan province, China from 2011 to 2016, five dominant bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) were investigated in this study. The antibiotic

TINGTING MAO, HUIJUAN ZHAI, GUANGCAI DUAN, HAIYAN YANG

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 225–232

original-paper

Significance of Infections in Implant Loss After Breast Reconstruction in the Course of Breast Cancer Treatment

only based on clinical symptoms without microbiological diagnosis and no microorganisms were grown in six out of 39 cases of infections (15.4%). In 24 out of 28 (85.7%) microbiologically confirmed cases of infection, bacteria were present in monoculture, in four cases (14.3%) polybacterial infections were found. Among the etiological agents were: coagulase-negative staphylococci (31.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (18.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (9.4%), Enterobacter cloacae (18.8%), Pseudomonas

MARIA SZYMANKIEWICZ, TOMASZ NOWIKIEWICZ, MARTA BIEDKA

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 343–351

Original Paper

Production, Characterization and Valuable Applications of Exopolysaccharides from Marine Bacillus subtilis SH1

;saccharides in different medical applications. Results concluded that, EPS exhibited antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus faecalis and the highest antibacterial activity (7.8, 9 and 10.4 AU/ml) was against S. faecalis at 50, 100 and 200 mg/ml respectively. The EPS exhibited various degree of antitumor effect toward the tested cell lines (MCF-7, HCT-116 and HepG2). In addition, EPS exhibited antiviral activity at 500 μg/ml. The antioxidant

Sahar W.M. Hassan, Hassan A.H. Ibrahim

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 449–461

Article

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF BACTERIA A GROWING THREAT FOR ANIMALS AND PUBLIC HEALTH

multidrug-resistance, have a zoonotic potential, and are also a potential reservoir of resistance genes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa are often responsible for otititis externa and otitis media, pyoderma or nosocomial infections. Multidrug resistance is a characteristic feature of these bacteria, although in contrast to strains found in humans, so far there is no pandrug-resistance (PDR) phenomenon in isolates of animal origin. Approximately 7% of isolates display resistance to gentamycin and 3% of isolates

Marian Binek, Magdalena Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena Rzewuska, Dorota Chrobak-Chmiel, Agnieszka Sałamaszyńska-Guz

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 259–270

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