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Report | 01-December-2019

Alloimmunization of patients by blood units harboring distinct DEL variants

The alloimmunization potential of many RHD variants is unknown, and it can be explored by lookback and traceback studies. Héma-Québec (HQ) investigated the RHD status of 3980 D– repeat blood donors. Thirteen were found to be RHD positive: 4 RHD*ψ, and 1 RHD*487delACAG, which show a D– phenotype; and 1 RHD*885T and 7 RHD*(93–94insT) causing a DEL phenotype when C antigen is present. Lookback studies were done to verify the alloimmunization potential of these

Maryse St-Louis, André Lebrun, Mindy Goldman, Marianne Lavoie

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 136–140

Case report | 16-March-2020

Autoantibody formation after alloimmunization inducing bystander immune hemolysis

The development of RBC autoantibodies resulting from or associated with allogeneic blood transfusions is not an easily determined complication of RBC transfusions. This report discusses one patient who developed RBC autoantibodies in association with an allogeneic blood transfusion and alloimmunization leading to a temporary bystander immune hemolysis. A 72-year-old woman was hospitalized as a result of severe anemia and received two units of ABO- and D-compatible RBCs. She had a history of two

Mariza Mota, C. Bley, M.G. Aravechia, N. Hamerschlak, A. Sakashita, J.M. Kutner, L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1, 9–12

Article | 16-October-2019

Anti-Vel alloimmunization and severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

therapy has been noted to date. We report such a case recently encountered at our Fetal Center. Case Report The patient was a 31-year-old woman (gravida/para/abortus [GPA] = G2P1000) who was referred to our Fetal Center from a neighboring state for evaluation of Vel alloimmunization. Her past history was significant, with the finding of a positive antibody detection test and identification of anti-Vel during her previous pregnancy. Based on literature reports of only mild-to-moderate HDFN in

K.J. Moise, Y. Morales, M.F. Bertholf, S.N. Rossmann, Y. Bai

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 152–154

Case report | 01-December-2019

Alloimmunization to Kell blood group system antigen owing to unmatched blood transfusion in a resource-poor setting

One of the major drawbacks of multiple blood transfusions in patients with thalassemia is the risk of development of alloimmunization to various red cell antigens within blood group systems such as Rh, Kell, Duffy, and Kidd. The problem is greater in developing countries because of lack of awareness and insufficient availability of specific typing antisera and antibody screening panels owing to financial constraints. It is of utmost importance to provide D, C, c, E, e, and K phenotype-matched

Sheetal Malhotra, Gagandeep Kaur, Sabita Basu, Ravneet Ravneet, Geetanjali Jindal

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 45–48

Article | 14-October-2020

Intravenous Rh immune globulin prevents alloimmunization in D– granulocyte recipients but obscures the detection of an alloanti-K

Rh immune globulin (RhIG) has been used to prevent alloimmunization in D– recipients of apheresis platelet transfusions from D+ donors that may contain up to 5 mL of D+ red blood cells (RBCs). Granulocyte concentrates contain approximately 30 mL of RBCs and it has been necessary to give D– recipients granulocyte transfusions from D+ donors. Intravenous RhIG has not yet been demonstrated to be effective in preventing D alloimmunization with granulocyte transfusions. Four D&ndash

D.F. Stroncek, J.L. Procter, L. Moses, C. Bolan, G.J. Pomper, C. Conry-Cantilens, H.L. Malech, H.G. Klein, S.F. Leitman

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 2, 37–41

Article | 17-February-2021

Identifying obstetrics patients in whom RHD genotyping can be used to assess risk of D alloimmunization

The D antigen is different from many other blood group antigens in that the antigen is not derived from one or a few amino acids, but rather from the presence of the entire protein; thus it contains many epitopes. Genetic variation within the RHD gene can alter expression of the antigen both qualitatively and quantitatively. A D protein that lacks one or more of the epitopes is referred to as a partial D antigen, and loss of epitopes is associated with risk of alloimmunization from exposure to

T.N. Horn, J. Keller, M.A. Keller, L. Klinger

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 146–151

Report | 01-December-2019

Detection and identification of plateletassociated alloantibodies by a solidphase modified antigen capture enzymelinked immunosorbent assay method and its correlation to platelet refractoriness in multiplatelet concentrate–transfused patients

Platelets express a variety of polymorphic glycoproteins (GPs), such as GPIIb/IIIa, GPIb/IX, GPIa/IIa, GPIV, and class I human leukocyte antigen. In the platelet transfusion setting, alloimmunization involves the production of antibodies against these glycoproteins. Patients transfused with multiple units of platelet concentrates for longer periods are the main individuals with platelet alloimmunization. This study was performed to detect the development of platelet antibodies in patients who

Neelesh Jain, Ravi Shankar Sarkar, Joseph Philip

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 3, 123–125

Report | 16-March-2020

D+ platelet transfusions in D– patients: cause for concern?

prophylactic Rh immunoglobulin (RhIG), results in D alloimmunization. The transfusion records of all patients who received platelet transfusions from December 2004 to March 2007 were reviewed. Transfusion recipients were evaluated with pretransfusion ABO and D typings, and an antibody screen. Recipients were reevaluated in the same manner before subsequent transfusions. Transfusion records of 114 D– patients were analyzed. Overall, 104 patients received D+ platelets; 67 had repeat antibody screening

Angela N. Bartley, John B. Carpenter, Mary P. Berg

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1, 5–8

Original Paper | 09-October-2019

Modeling alloantibody formation to highincidence red blood cell antigens in immune responders using genotypic data  

Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is unpredictable and poorly understood. Patients who are negative for highincidence antigens (HIAs) are at risk for developing the corresponding antibodies. Molecular methods can easily predict the lack of an antigen and thus, the risk of an individual to become immunized. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for HIA alloimmunization in patients at risk based on genotyping results. Genotyping using a molecular method (HEA BeadChip&trade

Patricia A.R. Brunker, Keerthana Ravindran, R. Sue Shirey

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 1, 9–14

Report | 01-December-2019

Directed blood donor program decreases donor exposure for children with sickle cell disease requiring chronic transfusion

In children with sickle cell disease (SCD), primary and secondary prevention of strokes require indefinite regular blood transfusion therapy. The risks associated with repeated transfusions include alloimmunization and increased donor exposure. The Charles Drew Program is a directed blood donor program designed to lower donor exposure, decreasing the associated complications of transfusion; however, no evidence exists demonstrating the magnitude of the benefit to the recipient. Further, the use

Dionna O. Roberts, Brittany Covert, Terianne Lindsey, Vincent Edwards, Lisa McLaughlin, John Theus, Ricardo J. Wray, Keri Jupka, David Baker, Mary Robbins, Michael R. DeBaun

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 1, 7–12

Review | 01-December-2019

Immunosuppressive protocols for transplantation and certain hematologic malignancies can prevent the primary immune response to the D blood group antigen

A review of the published literature on Rh alloimmunization reveals that its incidence varies with the volume of infused D+ red blood cells (RBCs), the probable Rh genotype of the RBCs, and the immune competency of the D– recipient. Among the reports of Rh alloimmunization in different clinical circumstances, we identified five studies in which a combined total of 62 D– recipients of hematopoietic stem cell or solid-organ transplants were transfused with D+ RBCs and none (0%) formed

Adair Seager, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 3, 110–114

Case report

Weak D type 67 in four related Canadian blood donors

Correct donor D typing is critical to prevent recipient alloimmunization. No method can detect all variants, and the immunogenicity of many variants is unknown. Routine ABO and D serologic typings are performed in our laboratory by automated microplate testing. Until 2011, routine confirmation of D– status of first-time donors was performed by the manual tube indirect antiglobulin test (IAT); this was replaced by automated solidphase testing including weak D testing by IAT. Selected

Philip Berardi, Emma Bessette, Michiko Ng, Nancy Angus, Debra Lane, Lise Gariepy, Katerina Pavenski, Gorka Ochoa-Garay, Jacqueline Cote, Mindy Goldman

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 159–162

Article | 22-January-2021

Routine indirect antiglobulin testing of blood donors—a further step toward blood safety: an experience from a tertiary care center in northern India

center at the time we established an immunohematology (IH) workup laboratory. We also report the incidence of RBC alloimmunization in healthy blood donors from a tertiary care center in northern India. Material and Methods A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in the Department of Transfusion Medicine at a tertiary care referral and teaching institute from September 2017 to January 2019 to assess the incidence of RBC alloimmunization in healthy blood donors. The blood donors were

S. Malhotra, G. Negi, D. Kaur, S.K. Meinia, A.K. Tiwari, S. Mitra

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 3, 93–98

Report | 09-October-2019

Trends of ABO and Rh phenotypes in transfusion-dependent patients in Pakistan

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of ABO and Rh phenotypes in the general Pakistan population. This information could be used to help reduce the rate of alloimmunization in patients with blood disorders, such as thalassemia major, who require frequent blood transfusions. A total of 242 patients with blood disorders requiring frequent blood transfusions were enrolled in the study. ABO and Rh typing was performed on samples from these patients using tube and gel methods

Nida Anwar, Munira Borhany, Saqib Ansari, Sana Khurram, Uzma Zaidi, Imran Naseer, Muhammad Nadeem, Tahir Shamsi

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 170–173

Case report | 12-March-2020

Alloimmunization to the D antigen by a patient with weak D type 21

Heather McGann, Robert E. Wenk

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 1, 27–29

Case report | 01-December-2019

Red blood cell phenotype matching for various ethnic groups

Patients requiring chronic transfusion support are at risk of alloimmunization after red blood cell (RBC) transfusion because of a disparity between donor and recipient antigen profiles. This research explored the probability of obtaining an exact extended phenotype match between blood donors randomly selected from our institution and patients randomly selected from particular ethnic groups. Blood samples from 1,000 blood donors tested by molecular method were evaluated for the predicted

Karafa S.W. Badjie, Craig D. Tauscher, Camille M. van Buskirk, Clare Wong, Sarah M. Jenkins, Carin Y. Smith, James R. Stubbs

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 1, 12–19

Report | 09-October-2019

Laboratory management of perinatal patients with apparently "new" anti-D

alloimmunizing events, and the physicians were asked their opinion on the likely cause for the anti-D. Based on survey responses, updated RhIG information, and results of follow-up serology, anti-D was determined to be attributable  to previously unreported RhIG in 44 of 91 (48.3%) cases and to active immunization (immune anti-D) in 36 of 91 cases (39.6%). A probable cause for alloimmunization was reported in 14 of 52 (26.9%) returned surveys. Anti-D alloimmunization continues to occur in our prenatal

Judith L. Hannon, Gwen Clarke

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 108–111

Article | 03-November-2020

Immunoprophylaxis using intravenous Rh immune globulin should be standard practice when selected D-negative patients are transfused with D-positive random donor platelets

two pregnancies more than 40 years ago, prior to the availability of immunoprophylaxis by Rh immune globulin (RhIG). Although studies have shown that as many as 19 percent of D– people may develop anti-D following transfusion of platelets from D+ donors, there is no specific standard requiring immunoprophylaxis with RhIG to prevent Rh alloimmunization after transfusion of random donor platelet concentrates from D+ donors. In contrast, vigorous efforts are routine for preventing Rh

Clinton A. Ewing, Dawn H. Rumsey, Albert F. Langeberg, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 4, 133–137

Article | 17-February-2021

A prospective, observational study for optimization of antibody screening in pretransfusion compatibility testing

. With increasing medical tourism in India, multiply transfused patients visit various tertiary care centers in search of better health care; thus, including these patients in the data of Indian studies might lead to overestimation of the prevalence of RBC alloimmunization. The present study was planned to evaluate the use of AS during pretransfusion testing with the following objectives: 1)To study the prevalence of clinically significant antibodies only in the Indian population. 2)To study the

P. Pandey, D. Setya, R. Srivastava, M.K. Singh

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 1, 19–28

Report | 01-December-2019

Blood group antigen distribution in Lao blood donors

;), 3.04 percent C−, 2.39 percent e−, and 5.17 percent M−. The high prevalence of C, e, and Fya and immunogenicity of these antigens may induce alloimmunization in transfusion-dependent patients, creating difficulties providing blood from Lao donors. The information obtained from this study will be useful for improving transfusion therapy in the country, especially for estimation of the availability of compatible blood for patients who have produced antibodies.

Chirapha Keokhamphoui, Yupa Urwijitaroon, Douangchanh Kongphaly, Te Thammavong

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 132–136

Case report | 09-October-2019

Two cases of the variant RHD*DAU5 allele associated with maternal alloanti-D  

(HDFN) as D alloimmunization can occur with some D variants. Here, we describe two cases of the RHD*DAU5 allele associated with maternal alloanti-D in patients of African ancestry. Two obstetric patients were initially serologically classified as D+ with negative antibody detection tests on routine prenatal testing. Repeat testing at delivery identified anti-D in both patients with no history of RhIG administration or transfusion. DNA sequencing revealed that both patients possessed the RHD*DAU5

Jennifer A. Duncan, Susan Nahirniak, Rodrigo Onell, Gwen Clarke

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 60–63

Report

Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors

Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and

Lorena I. Aranda, Linda A. Smith, Scott Jones, Rachel Beddard

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 166–173

Article | 06-December-2020

Alloimmunization by blood group antigens from bone allografts

C. Elizabeth Musclow, Glen Dietz, Robert S. Bell, Madeleine Beaudry-Clouatre

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 102–104

Report | 01-December-2019

Identifying D-positive donors using a second automated testing platform

estimated the number of cases of alloimmunization in women younger than 50 years likely to be prevented by the addition of Galileo testing. From May 2011 to May 2012, 910,220 donor samples were tested; 15,441 were first-time donors with concordant D– results. Five donors tested D– on the PK7300 and weak D+ on the Galileo; one was found to be a false positive on further testing. On manual testing, the other four donors had positive indirect antiglobulin test results with one to three of the

Mindy Goldman, Ilona Resz, Jacqueline Cote, Gorka Ochoa, Nancy Angus

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 3, 97–100

Report | 01-December-2019

Transfusion practices for patients with sickle cell disease at major academic medical centers participating in the Atlanta Sickle Cell Consortium

The Atlanta Sickle Cell Consortium represents more than 2600 pediatric and adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) in the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, area receiving care at four major locations, each providing comprehensive care 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Both transfusion services that support these sites use two levels of prospective phenotype matching to decrease the rates of alloimmunization. Although exact rates are unknown and are currently under investigation

Anne M. Winkler, Cassandra D. Josephson

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 1, 24–26

Review | 09-October-2019

DEL phenotype

associated with D alloimmunization. East Asian immigrants constitute 2.1 percent of the 318.9 million persons residing in the United States, and an estimated 2.8 percent are blood donors. Using these statistics, we estimate that 68–683 units of DEL RBCs from donors of East Asian ancestry are transfused as D– annually in the United States. Given the reports from East Asia of D alloimmunization attributed to transfusion of DEL RBCs, one would expect an occasional report of D alloimmunization in

Dong Hyang Kwon, S. Gerald Sandler, Willy Albert Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 125–132

Report | 16-October-2019

Rh and Kell blood group antigen prevalence in a multi-ethnic cohort in Nigeria: implications for local transfusion service

Kell (K) system antigens in Nigeria with the goal of understanding alloimmunization risk in transfusion recipients and improving transfusion safety through the availability of resources, such as antisera for extended RBC typing and antigen panels for alloantibody detection. A multi-ethnic cohort of 302 healthy Nigerian individuals was created to study RBC antigen prevalence. The antigen status of these individuals for Rh and K antigens was determined using commercially prepared antisera and

Ademola Samson Adewoyin, Grace Ming Lee, Titilope Adenike Adeyemo, Omolade Augustina Awodu

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 2, 61–65

Case report | 09-November-2020

A case of hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Kpa

A patient with hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) due to maternal anti-Kpa alloimmunization is described. Although there are few reports in the literature, it appears that HDN due to anti-Kpa is often mild and transfusion therapy is rarely required. However, in this case, the baby’s hemoglobin progressively decreased and on day 18 a blood transfusion was administered, but jaundice was not severe enough for exchange transfusion.

Laura Costamagna, Mario Barbarini, Gianluca Viarengo, Ambrogio Pagani, Paola Isernia, Laura Salvaneschi

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 2, 61–62

Article | 15-April-2020

Update on HDFN: new information on long-standing controversies

from anti-D was a significant cause of perinatal mortality or long-term disability. Routine administration of RhIG to D– women during pregnancy and shortly after the birth of D+ infants effectively reduced the incidence of HDFN caused by anti-D. Maternal alloimmunization to other RBC antigens in the Rh, Kell, and other blood group systems can not be routinely prevented and these antibodies can also cause HDFN. Advances in prenatal care, noninvasive monitoring, and intrauterine transfusion

Anne F. Eder

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 188–195

Article | 09-November-2020

Absence of hemolysis after a kidney transplant in an E+ recipient from a donor with anti-E

Marcia C. Zago-Novaretti, Carlos Roberto Jorge, Eduardo Jens, Pedro Enrique Dorihiac-Llacer, Dalton de Alencar Fischer Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 138–140

Article | 17-February-2021

Identification of rare blood types in southern Brazil: impact on transfusion support

carried out in Chile, with 4716 general patients and an average of 4.2 RBC units transfused, showed a 1.02 percent prevalence for alloimmunization.10 In patients with SCD, the rate of alloimmunization varies from 7 to 47 percent depending on age and exposure to RBC transfusions compared with 5 percent among other patients with chronic anemia.11–13 In these situations, if these patients are previously alloimmunized against high-prevalence antigens or against multiple common antigens, the blood supply

C.D.S.R. de Araújo, B.A. Machado, C.D. Reche, L. Maroni, L.C. Garlet, M.M.P. dos Santos, M. Beber, A. Pasqualotti, L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 152–156

Report | 14-March-2020

The significance of a positive DAT in thalassemia patients

The DAT is performed for the detection of antibody or complement on the surface of RBCs. Our institution previously performed DATs on all chronically transfused thalassemia patients before each transfusion episode to detect early alloimmunization. The medical records of all thalassemia patients treated at our institution from 2004 to 2007 were reviewed to determine the significance of the high rate of positive DATs (52.5% of 80 patients). The majority of IgG-reactive DATs were associated with a

Suzanne A. Arinsburg, Donna L. Skerrett, Dorothy Kleinert, Patricia J. Giardina, Melissa M. Cushing

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 87–91

Article | 22-November-2020

Development of a flow cytometric test for the detection of D-positive fetal cells after fetomaternal hemorrhage and a survey of the prevalence in D-negative women

A sensitive test for the presence of D-positive fetal red blood cells (RBCs) in the maternal circulation of D-negative women has been developed. It was used to investigate the possibility that the occasional failure in preventing alloimmunization might be due to the administration of inadequate amounts of prophylactic anti-D Rh immune globulin. The standard dose in Australia contains 125µg of antibody, and can suppress immunization by an estimated 6 mL of packed D-positive RBCs. A

Margaret Nelson, Hazel Popp, Kathy Horky, Cecily Forsyth, John Gibson

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 2, 55–59

Article | 17-February-2021

Severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-E and anti-Jka

Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization to antigens other than D, such as C, c, E, e, and antigens in the Kell, MNS, and Duffy blood group systems, has emerged as an important cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN).1 Antibody screening for these antibodies is not routinely practiced for all antenatal patients in developing countries, mainly because of financial constraints. We report a case of HDFN in a female baby due to maternal alloimmunization against Rh and Kidd blood

S. Mandal, S. Malhotra, G. Negi, A. Tiwari, S. Mitra, S. Basu, P. Singh

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 2, 60–63

Review | 16-October-2019

A review of in vitro methods to predict the clinical significance of red blood cell alloantibodies

This review was derived from a presentation made on September 2, 2016, for the first Academy Day presented by the Working Party on Immunohematology at the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) Congress in Dubai. The focus of this review is on the clinical significance of alloimmunization in transfusion—specifically, the parameters that contribute to a clinically significant alloantibody. The areas of focus were as follows: Introduction, Technical Aspects, and Indications and

Sandra J. Nance

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 1, 11–15

Article | 15-April-2020

Molecular characterization of GYPB and RH in donors in the American Rare Donor Program

referred were hrB– and carry at least one hybrid RHD-CE(3-7)-D gene that encodes a variant C antigen linked to RHCE*ceS that encodes the VS+V– phenotype. Surprisingly, the majority of donors were heterozygous, some even carrying conventional alleles, suggesting that the loss of expression of the hrB epitopes on RBCs is a dominant phenotype. Although antigen-matching of patients with SCD with donors for C, E, and K antigens has decreased the incidence of alloimmunization, some patients still

Sunitha Vege, Connie M. Westhoff

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 3, 143–147

Report | 01-December-2019

The prevention and management of alloimmunization in sickle cell disease: the benefit of extended phenotypic matching of red blood cells

Elliott Vichinsky

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 1, 20–23

Case report | 01-December-2019

Weak D type 42 cases found in individuals of European descent

Maryse St-Louis, Martine Richard, Marie Côté, Carole Éthier, Anne Long

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 1, 20–24

Article | 03-November-2020

Rapid screening of platelet donors for PlA1 (HPA-1a) alloantigen using a solid-phase microplate immunoassay

Jo L. Procter, Faye E. Vique, Ed Alegre, Junichi Honda, Kazuhiko Matsuo, Diane Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 4, 141–145

Case report | 01-December-2019

Posttransplant maternal anti-D: a case study and review

, the antibody screen was negative. After the patient was admitted for the nonviable pregnancy, the products of con-ception were found to be D+ by DNA testing for RHD. There were no documented transfusions or pregnancies during the interval in which anti-D appeared. The timing of the alloimmunization was unusual. In a subsequent pregnancy, fetal D typing was performed by molecular methods.

Lisa Senzel, Cecilia Avila, Tahmeena Ahmed, Harjeet Gill, Kim Hue-Roye, Christine Lomas-Francis, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 55–59

Case report | 14-October-2020

Autoanti-D in a patient after cladribine treatment for lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma

phenotype of the patient as ccDEe. No hemolysis was evident, as judged by the absence of anemia, a bilirubin of 15.7 μmol/L, and lactic dehydrogenase of 412 IU/L. When an anti-D is identified in a D+ blood recipient, a passive transfer of anti-D, and an alloimmunization in a recipient with a weak D phenotype, should be ruled out. Finally, as in our case, an autoantibody is an additional possibility.

Joan Cid, Victor Beltran, L. Escoda, Enric Elies, Carmen Martin-Vega

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 16–18

Article | 09-October-2019

Applications of selected cells in immunohematology in a developing country: case studies

Ravi C. Dara Dara, Aseem Kumar Tiwari, Dinesh Arora, Subhasis Mitra, Geet Aggarwal, Devi Prasad Acharya, Gunjan Bhardwaj

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 1, 27–35

Article | 18-October-2020

PEG-coated red blood cells—simplifying blood transfusion in the new millennium?

Timothy C. Fisher

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 1, 37–48

Review

Kell and Kx blood group systems

, and alloantibodies to Kell antigens can cause transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Kell alloantibodies in pregnancy are known to suppress erythropoiesis, which can result in serious disease despite low amniotic bilirubin levels and low antibody titers. Late-onset anemia with reticulocytopenia is thought to be attributable to the continual suppression of erythropoiesis from residual alloantibody in the infant. Alloimmunization to XK protein is rare, and expressed

Gregory A. Denomme

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 14–19

Case report | 14-December-2020

Case report and review: alloimmunization, delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction, and clinically significant anti-Yta in a patient with ß-thalassemia/sickle cell anemia

Christopher D. Hillyer, Jacquelynn M. Hall, Karen O. Tiegerman, Eugene M. Berkman

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 4, 102–106

Report | 09-October-2019

Human platelet antigen allelic diversity in Peninsular Malaysia

selection, and admixture with the relatively recent arrivals such as Chinese, Indians, and Malay subethnic groups. Medical consequences of this genetic complexity are also discussed, including the risks of platelet alloimmunization associated with random platelet transfusion and gestation.

Wan Ubaidillah Wan Syafawati, Zulkafli Zefarina, Zafarina Zafarina, Mohd Nazri Hassan, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Sundararajulu Panneerchelvam, Geoffrey Keith Chambers, Hisham Atan Edinur

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 143–160

Case report

Severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-C+G

Riina Jernman, Vedran Stefanovic, Anu Korhonen, Katri Haimila, Inna Sareneva, Kati Sulin, Malla Kuosmanen, Susanna Sainio

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 3, 123–127

Case report | 09-November-2020

Case report: reporting anti-G as anti-C+D may have misleading clinical implications

Four months after a D– male was transfused with four units of D– red blood cells (RBCs), the results of a standard pretransfusion antibody screen and alloantibody identification panel detected anti-C+D in his serum. This report was interpreted by his physician to be evidence of alloimmunization to the D antigen, which triggered concern that the patient had been transfused previously with D+ RBCs as the result of an error in blood typing or personal identification. After a review of

Archiaus L. Mosley, Jr., Mary Beth Trich, Nanette C. Thomas, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 2, 58–60

Case report | 09-November-2020

Quantitating fetomaternal hemorrhages of D+ red cells using an FITC-conjugated IgG monoclonal anti-D by flow cytometry: a case report

patient who presented with a large fetal bleed (approx. 80mL) as determined using the Kleihauer method. We compared the efficacy of the direct FC technique to the rosetting and Kleihauer tests in estimating the quantity of Rh immunoglobulin (RhIg) to be administered to the mother to suppress Rh alloimmunization. Both the Kleihauer and the direct FC gave precise estimates of 80mL for the size of bleed, whereas the rosetting test failed to be as precise. The former tests predicted that a 10,000 iu dose

Anatole Lubenko, John Raymond Collier, Mark Williams, Damien Hindmarch, Sally Rosemary Wilson, Julie Pluck

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 12–14

review-article | 31-December-2019

Fetal cardiac function by three-dimensional ultrasound using 4D-STIC and VOCAL – an update

malformations. In recent years, functional echocardiography has been used to study fetuses with a structurally normal heart but who are susceptible to hemodynamic changes due to the presence of extra-cardiac conditions, including, among others, fetal growth restriction, tumors/masses, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, fetal anemia (Rh alloimmunization), congenital infections, or maternal diseases such as diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, and Graves’ disease(8–11). The assessment of cardiac

Nathalie Jeanne Bravo-Valenzuela, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Milene Carvalho Carrilho, Ana Letícia Siqueira Pontes, Caroline Cevante Chagas, Christiane Simioni, Edward Araujo Júnior

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 79, 287–294

Article | 17-February-2021

Two Thai Burmese descendants with A4GALT*01N.21, p phenotype, and anti-PP1Pk

K. Intharanut, W. Sasikarn, W. Chusri, O. Nathalang

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 2, 64–68

Review | 09-October-2019

A Caucasian JK*A/JK*B woman with Jk(a+b–) red blood cells, anti-Jkb, and a novel JK*B allele c.1038delG

the expressed exons 4–11. This allele has been provisionally named JK*02N.14, subject to approval by the International Society of Blood Transfusion Working Party. The site of this variant is closer to the C-terminus than that of any allele associated with the Jk(a–b–) phenotype reported to date. Routine genotyping of patients with RBC alloantibodies can reveal variants posing potential risk of alloimmunization. Continuing investigation of Kidd variants may shed light on the

Glenn Ramsey, Ricardo D. Sumugod, Paul F. Lindholm, Jules G. Zinni, Jessica A. Keller, Trina Horn, Margaret A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 91–95

Article | 17-February-2021

Concordance of two polymerase chain reaction–based blood group genotyping platforms for patients with sickle cell disease

Alloimmunization is a known complication in which patients develop antibodies to non-self, red blood cell (RBC) antigens after exposure through transfusion, transplant, or pregnancy. Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are especially vulnerable, with up to 47 percent of transfused patients reported to be alloimmunized.1–8 A majority of these alloimmunization events occur within the Rh and Kell blood group systems. Providing antigen-matched blood for antigens in these two blood group systems

C.A. Sheppard, N.L. Bolen, G. Meny, M. Kalvelage, G. Ochoa-Garay

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 123–128

Report

Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch using low-ionic-strength saline–albumin enhancement medium and reduced incubation time: effectiveness in the detection of most clinically significant antibodies and impact on blood utilization

Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch (IAT-XM) using enhancement media such as low-ionic-strength saline (LISS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) usually requires 15 minutes of incubation. These methods are necessary when testing samples from blood recipients who have a higher risk of alloimmunization. In emergency situations, IAT-XM can be time-consuming and can influence presurgery routine, resulting in more red blood cell (RBC) units being tested and stored to avoid the transfusion of 

Carla Luana Dinardo, Sílvia Leão Bonifácio, Alfredo Mendrone Júnior

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 1–5

Article | 28-April-2020

Reactivity of FDA-approved anti-D reagents with partial D red blood cells

required, albeit that Rh alloimmunization by RBCs with a weak or partial D phenotype is uncommon. Further, because of differences in performance characteristics among FDA-approved reagents, conflicts between donor center D typing and transfusion service confirmatory test results are inevitable.

W. John Judd, Marilyn Moulds, Gloria Schlanser

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 4, 146–148

Report | 14-March-2020

Absence of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn despite maternal high-titer IgG anti-Ku

Ram M. Kakaiya, Angelica Whaley, Christine Howard-Menk, Jigna Rami, Mona Papari, Sally Campbell-Lee, Zbigniew Malecki

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 119–122

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