Antibiotics are widely used medicines in the treatment of infectious diseases. However, some of them show also non-antibiotic properties, which are increasingly used in the treatment of non-infectious diseases. The authors of this publication believe that this is one of the reasons behind antibiotic dissemination in the environment and, ipso facto, behind the increasing risk of bacterial resistance. It is worth remembering that, along with the progress in science and better knowledge of the new
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 301–312
Non-antibiotic medicinal products consist of drugs with diverse activity against bacteria. Many non-antibiotics demonstrate direct anti-bacterial activity against Gram-positive cocci. The activity observed against Gram-negative rods is much lower and non-antibiotics primarily from the following groups: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cardiovascular and antidepressant medicinal products demonstrate this activity. It has been shown that the low activity of some non-antibiotics or the
AGNIESZKA EWA LAUDY
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 129–135
of in vitro methods of spirochetes susceptibility to antibiotics has been also developed. Unfortunately, the lack of standardization often makes it impossible to compare the results of MIC and MBC. Furthermore, little is known about the interactions of the various antimicrobial substances and spirochetes. There is a need for testing of clinical strains isolated from patients after treatment, which would explain the problems associated with “refractory” cases of Lyme disease. The paper
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 335–339
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading human pathogen that causes serious infections at various tissues and organs leading to life threatening health problems and possible deadly outcomes. Resistance patterns vary widely whether it is from hospitals or community acquired infections. Reporting resistance profiles to a certain antibiotics provide valuable information in a given setting, but may be extrapolated outside the sampling location. In the present study, P. aeruginosa isolates were
Mohamed E. El Zowalaty,
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 23–32
In this article, the secondary metabolism as a basis for antibiotics production by industrial strains of Streptomyces, Penicillium chrysogenum and Acremonium chrysogenum is discussed. Images from transmission electron microscopy reveal some important features of the mycelial cells which are related to antibiotics biosynthesis. This discovery is important for further industrial strain improvement and has economic significance. Possibilities of new strategies for antimicrobial treatment are
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 422–428
Antimicrobial resistance has been one of the biggest global current issues in medicine and public health. Overuse and imprudent use of antimicrobial agents are recognized as one of the leading causes of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the attitudesof Polish physicians practicing at the community level towards antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance. The majority of physicians taking part in the survey believed that Polish people overuse antibiotics (98%). Most
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 309–319
Retrospective analysis of Streptococcus agalactiae antibiotic susceptibility isolated in 2010–2013 was performed. Penicillin was still the first-line antibiotic. Due to the high percentage of strains resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin empirical treatment with these antibiotics may not be effective. Lower resistance rate to erythromycin and clindamycin among strains isolated from infected pregnant women and newborns were observed than among strains isolated from samples from
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 265–268
, rifampicin, fusidic acid, and fosfomycin. Infections caused by these bacteria are usually treated with various combinations of ampicillin, gentamicin, cefotaxime, and chloramphenicol (Muytjens et al. 1983; Biering et al. 1989; Bar-Oz et al. 2001; Block et al. 2002). Cronobacter spp. tend to be more sensitive to most antibiotics that are being used clinically to treat infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae, although resistance to ampicillin has developed (Muytjens and van der Ros-van de Repe 1986). In
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 5–14
an oxacillin disk. An important problem for veterinary microbiological laboratories is a limited number of unified guidelines on methodology and guidelines specifying the interpretation of the results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. The lack of available recommendations for some antibiotics testing results in veterinary laboratories often using the guidelines established for human pathogens. There is an urgent need to harmonize the methods and develop guidelines for the interpretation of
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 270–277
This work aims to provide an insight into staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements and antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The dominating type was SCCmec – IV. Fifteen isolates were assigned to SCCmec type III, two isolates to SCCmec type II. Most isolates were resistant to at least three of the non-β-lactam antibiotics tested. None of the strains exhibited resistance to new generation antibiotics, such as daptomycin and linezolid. Also
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 215–217
The increase in consumption of antibiotics has provoked the formation of resistance mechanisms in bacteria as a result of chromosomal changes or the exchange of genetic material via plasmids and transposons. This problem involves many pathogenic bacteria, including Pseudomonas spp. For instance, P. aeruginosa (responsible for severe nosocomial infections) is a clinically significant pathogen with confirmed resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 177–190
antimicrobial resistance causes about 700 000 deaths worldwide each year, and if no effective action is taken, it is expected to cause 10 million deaths a year by 2050 (Hoffman et al. 2015).
Simultaneously, antibiotics that become ineffective against bacteria have been reported (Liu et al. 2016). The bacterial resistance crisis has been greatly attributed to the overuse and misuse of these antibiotics (Pathak et al. 2013; Michael et al. 2014; Tang et al. 2018). Monitoring of the epidemiology of resistance
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 225–232
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 49–62
Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent causes of urinary tract infections. Efflux system overexpression is reported to contribute to E. coli resistance to several antibiotics. Our aim in this study was to investigate the relation between antibiotic resistance and the expression of the efflux pump genes acrA and mdfA in E. coli by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. We tested the in vitro susceptibilities to 12 antibiotics in 28 clinical isolates of E. coli obtained from urine
Sarah M. Abdelhamid,
Rania R. Abozahra
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 25–30
broilers (Kirk et al. 2015; Chousalkar and Gole 2016). Application of antibiotics to fight and prevent diseases is the most common practice but their overuse favors increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria (Davies and Davies 2010; Gao et al. 2017). Concern about the development of such pathogens and the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to human microbiota have led to considerable interest in search of novel methods to fight pathogens.
Probiotic bacteria application appears a
JUSTYNA D. KOWALSKA,
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 5–18
cytotoxicity activity against HeLa and Vero cell lines were also carried out for all tested strains. All Vibrio isolates were identified to the species level and produced several hydrolytic exoenzymes. The results also revealed that all strains were expressing high rates of resistance to tested antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values showed that tetracycline and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotics against the tested bacteria. Vibrio alginolyticus and V. cholerae
Mohamed Nejib Medhioub,
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 307–318
Letter to Editor
Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 85–86
antibiotics with a broad spectrum of action . The group of elevated risk includes patients with proliferative diseases, chronic liver diseases and recipients of transplanted organs. Due to the high resistance of enterococci to disinfectants and antiseptics, these bacteria are most often transported on the surface of the hands of medical personnel in hospitals . Of great significance is the fact that Enterococcus bacteria can survive on hands for even up to 60 minutes . The transfer of bacteria
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 35–48
In the last decades, there have been increasing concerns on the negative effects of pharmaceutical products to wildlife because they can include complex compounds which are toxic to aquatic organisms even at low concentrations [1, 13]. Antibiotics are among the most common pharmaceutical products which are most used in aquaculture and hospitals which can be transported directly into surface water or accumulate in the sediment [7, 18, 29]. Xu et al. (2007) has found that the
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 147–152
barrier contributing to a chronic inflammation of the atopic skin lesions. The S. aureus species also releases proinflammatory proteins, including enzymes that cause tissue damage. When initiating treatment it is particularly important to properly assess that the onset of the secondary bacterial infection is caused by S. aureus and thus justifying the inclusion of antibiotic therapy. Depending on the severity and extent of the staphylococcal infection, topical antibiotics are used, usually
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 253–259
What are immune peptides
Peptides of immunity – HDPs (Host Defense Peptides), form a complex of old, evolutionarily preserved effector molecules synthesized by the organisms of mammals (humans, animals – including marsupials and monotremes), birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, insects and plants. Even microorganisms have not developed a defence mechanism against these substances along their evolutionary path, hence HDPs are often referred to as natural antibiotics [36, 56, 60, 87, 89, 93, 94
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 19–28
chemotherapeutic agents and antibiotics improves therapy efficiency, since it results in restoration of the equilibrium between the local and general pro- and anti-inflammatory response.
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 157–162
estimated that annually in the United States, at least 2 million patients are diagnosed with infectious diseases caused by bacteria resistant to one or more groups of antibiotics. Moreover, nearly 23,000 of these patients die and the immediate cause of death is the developing infection due to ineffective antimicrobial therapy . Data from the CDC report indicates that in the USA more than 14,000 patients are diagnosed with the so-called Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI) caused by Enterobacterales
Sylwia Joanna Chmielewska,
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 271–289
susceptible to nitrofurantoin. The susceptibility to other antibiotics was strain specific. Probiotic products should be subject to regular and thorough inspection by appropriate institutions.
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 97–104
obtained, including two virulent environmental clones and three clinical clones virulent and resistant to antibiotics. Intra-hospital transmission of high-risk clones detected, in and between wards, constitutes a great public health concern.
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 397–400
-associated infections. Staphylococcus epidermidis is mainly responsible for bloodstream infections and other biomedical device-related infections. Hospital strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis form protective biofilm and are characterized by their resistance to various antibiotics.
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 338–348
Drug-resistant bacteria from the genus Enterococcus are currently among the most important pathogens behind healthcare-associated infections. The drug resistance of these bacteria has been on the increase since the 1980s, leeding to their multi-drug resistance. Selective pressure, present mainly in the hospital environment, contributed to this phenomenon. However, also outside the hospital environment selective pressure comes into play, namely the use of antibiotics as promoters of growth in
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 244–250
significant. Statistically significant differences in various drug forms dispensation were also observed. Increased consumption of antibiotics in seasons of influenza-like illnesses might be connected with a lack of proper diagnostics or numerous cases of bacterial co-infections.
Eligia M. Szewczyk
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 119–123
The subject of the study was phenotypic marking of the antibiotic susceptibility and MLSB resistance mechanism in Corynebacterium spp. isolated from human skin (18 isolates) and from clinical materials (19 isolates). The strains were tested for the presence of the erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(X), lnu(A), msr(A), msr(B) and mph(C) genes. Clinical isolates showed wide resistance to antibiotics. In 89% clinical isolates and 72% skin microbiota a constitutive type of MLSB resistance was found. In 12
ELIGIA M. SZEWCZYK
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 237–240
belonging to ST2, the most frequently found clonal type of hospital-associated invasive S. epidermidis, are characterized by bacterial biofilm formation and resistance to methicillin, amongst other antibiotics. S. epidermidis is mainly responsible for bloodstream infections and other biomedical device-related infections. Treating infections characterized by biofilm formation is problematic. An additional challenge is differentiation between actual S. epidermidis bloodstream infections and blood probe
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 348–359
. coli and P. aeruginosa showed very low susceptibility.In a later stage, suspensions of Gram-negative bacteria were processed with EDTA before photo-activation, obtaining a significant decrease in viable counts. In view of the results, if the combination of low porphyrin concentrations and short irradiation times will be effectivein vivo also, this approach could be a possible alternative to antibiotics, in particular against localized infections due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms.
Simona De Niederhäusern,
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 533–536
extracts of the analysed plants. As a positive control three antibiotics – amphotericin B, vancomycin and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid were used.
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 463–472
were among the three most frequently used antimicrobial classes (van Rennings et al. 2015). A Netherland study has shown that colistin, as one of the most used antimicrobials next to tetracyclines, trimethoprim/sulfonamides, macrolides, and lincosamides was available on the prescription and deliveries for pigs, veal calves, and broilers in the country (Bos et al. 2013).
In Asian countries, the use of antibiotics, particularly colistin, in animal husbandry also takes place on a large scale. China is
ELŻBIETA M. STEFANIUK,
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 417–427
lactobacilli, such as neutropenia in immunocompromised patients and certain underlying diseases, especially diabetes. Also, lactobacilli have a natural resistance to some antibiotics, especially vancomycin. The identification of lactobacilli can be very difficult due to the number of species, subspecies and genotypic or phenotypic traits. The most advanced procedures are molecular DNA-based techniques. Conventional biochemical tests can be also used to determine some differences. Lactobacilli infection can
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 180–186
-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases, as well as the LysE-type exporter of amino acids. This indicates that (p)ppGpp influences the processes of fermentation and export of amino acids .
The role of the stringent response in the production of siderophores and antibiotics
The stringent response regulates the production of substances secreted by bacteria, including siderophores, i.e. carriers of iron ions. One of such compounds is pyoverdine, which demonstrates fluorescence and bactericidal
Grażyna B. Dąbrowska
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 127–142
the bacteria multiply. The treatment of brucellosis is based on two-drug therapy, the most common combinations of antibiotics are: doxycycline with rifampicin or fluoroquinolones with rifampicin. Currently, also other methods are used to disrupt Brucella intracellular replication (tauroursodeoxycholic acid or ginseng saponin fraction A).
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 151–161
Listeria monocytogenes is Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, a causative agent of food poisoning and systemic disease – listeriosis. This species is still susceptible to several conventionally used antibiotics but an increase in its resistance has been reported. For this reason the search for new, alternative therapies is an urgent task. Silver nanoparticles seem to be the promising antibacterial agent. Minimal inhibitory concentration of silver nanoparticles was determined. Sublethal
ANNA MARIA GRUDNIAK,
KRYSTYNA IZABELLA WOLSKA
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 315–320
and aminoglycoside antibiotics. Twenty-four isolates, which were resistant to carbapenems, carried the blaOXA-23-like gene. The data indicated that air might be an alternative way for the transmission of A. baumannii. Hospitals should pay more attention to this route, and design new measures accordingly.
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 333–338
The growing resistance of microorganisms towards antibiotics has become a serious global problem. Therapeutics with novel chemical scaffolds and/or mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat infections caused by multidrug resistant pathogens, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Development of novel antimicrobial agents is still highly dependent on the discovery of new natural products. At present, most antimicrobial drugs used in medicine are of natural origin. Among the natural
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 259–272
Campylobacter spp. are Gram-negative, spiral, thermophilic, motile bacteria, which require microaerophilic environment for growth. They have restricted carbohydrate catabolism, but have well-developed mechanism of acquiring micronutrients instead. A common problem, especially in developing countries, is campylobacteriosis, mostly caused by Campylobacter jejuni. The major reason of this disease is the increasing resistance of these bacteria to commonly used antibiotics. The most frequent source
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 260–269
scepticemia, skin, eye, wound and respiratory tract infections in humans. Several virulence and antibiotic resistance genes have been identified and isolated from this group, which if present in their mobile genetic elements, may be horizontally transferred to other naive environmental bacteria posing threat to the society. The extensive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics has given rise to many resistant varieties of bacteria. Multidrug resistance genes, such as NDM1, have been identified in this group
UTTARA DEY BHOWMICK,
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, –
strains are increasingly frequently isolated. This is mainly due to the overuse of antibiotics in animal husbandry (Jamali et al. 2013). Also, several virulence factors enable L. monocytogenes to infect and spread in the host (Park et al. 2012). L. monocytogenes possesses many virulence genes responsible for the invasion of host cells (inlA, inlB, and iap), phagosomal escape (hlyA, plcA, and plcB) and cell to cell spread (actA) (Hamon et al. 2006).
This study aimed was to determine the multiple
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 353–369
, V. fluvialis, and V. alginolyticus are reported as the causative agents of vibriosis in shrimp (de la Pena et al. 1993; Karunasagar et al. 1994; Lee et al. 1996; Lightner 1996; Austin and Zhang 2006; Chatterjee and Halder 2012). No molecular level study has so far been conducted to precisely identify the causal agent of vibrio sis in shrimp in Bangladesh and the required effective management for this worrisome disease.
A number of antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents have been used in shrimp
MD. ABDUL HANNAN,
MD. MAHBUBUR RAHMAN,
MD. NURUNNABI MONDAL,
DEB SUZAN CHANDRA,
MD. TOFAZZAL ISLAM
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 429–438
undergone multiple procedures in New Zealand including long term intravenous (IV) antibiotics resulting from an infection previously undiagnosed. Nursing considerations will be discussed throughout the case study including peri and postoperative care for neurosurgical patients with pseudomeningoceles, complications to be aware of, and holistic support for patients - physical, emotional and psychological.
Australasian Journal of Neuroscience , ISSUE 1, 33–37
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is widespread worldwide in different types of animal species and as a zoonosis takesa great risk for human health not only as a food toxicoinfection, but also as a highly resistant pathogen causing serious soft tissue infectious, septicaemia and even death. One of the most affected food-producing animal species is swine in the production of which new antibiotics in big amounts are used more and more continuously, increasing antimicrobial
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 383–392
carried out in standard automated systems. Subsequently, FISH (Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization) and nested multiplex-real-time-PCR (PCR) were performed. Blood cultures, FISH and PCR yielded positive results in 18%, 39.1%, and 71.7% of samples, respectively. Significant differences were found between the results obtained through culture before and after induction of antibiotherapy: 25.5% vs. 9.7%. There was no significant difference in FISH and PCR results in relation to antibiotics. The three
TOMASZ W. ŹRÓDŁOWSKI,
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 479–486
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 247–254
suspected UTI, and 7% for other infections. The above study also has revealed that broad-spectrum antibiotics were applied such as fluoroquinolones (35%), cephalosporins (27%), and penicillins (16%). The results obtained by Cek et al. (2014) showed the correlation between the increased use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and increased antimicrobial resistance and multi-resistance of bacteria. These authors also observed that prophylactic antibiotic treatment of urological patients occurred most frequently
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 403–415
Antimicrobial properties of platelet rich plasma (PRP) against various microorganisms have been recently pointed out. PRP could be an alternative to conventional antibiotics in preventing oral and periodontal infections. We examined whether PRP has in vitro antimicrobial properties against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prophyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were obtained from whole blood of 10 healthy volunteers and 10
Reham L. Aggour,
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 31–37
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an opportunistic pathogen usually connected with healthcare-associated infections, is an environmental bacterium. Intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics, with different virulence determinants in the last decade classified this bacterium in the group of global multiple drug resistant (MDR) organism. S. maltophilia clinical isolates, were collected from tertiary care pediatric hospital in Belgrade, Serbia to investigate influence of different factors on biofilm
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 433–438
underwent phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The identification of PKS and NRPS genes in the strains investigated was demonstrated among the homologues the genes involved in the biosynthesis of antibiotics (bacillaene, difficidine, erythromycin, bacitracin, tridecaptin, and fusaricidin), biosurfactants (iturin, bacillomycin, plipastatin, fengycin, and surfactin) and antitumor agents (epothilone, calyculin, and briostatin). Bacillus spp. 9A and 2A strains showed the highest diversity of PKS and
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 501–516
. 2006b; Asiedu et al. 2014). During the present study to justify the future application as a bioremediating agent, we documented the antibiotics resistance potential of the isolated petrol metabolizing bacteria.
Constant spilling of petrol at the gas stations contaminates the surrounding soil which thus could be the rich reservoir of the petrol utilizing bacteria. Although various studies have reported the isolation of petrol metabolizing bacteria from the petrol-contaminated soil of petrol pumps, no
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 193–201