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Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the JR blood group system

Update on the JR System The JR blood group system consists of one antigen, Jra, which is of high prevalence in all populations. Anti-Jra has caused transfusion reactions and been involved in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The Jra antigen is located on ABCG2 transporter, a multipass membrane glycoprotein, which is encoded by the ABCG2 gene on chromosome 4q22.1. Several null alleles of ABCG2 (nonsense, deletions, and insertions) are responsible for the Jr(a–) phenotype, and the

L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 43–44

Review | 12-March-2020

The Dombrock blood group system: a review

The Dombrock blood group system (Do) consists of two antithetical antigens (Doa and Dob) and five antigens of high prevalence (Gya, Hy, Joa, DOYA, and DOMR). Do antigens are carried on the Dombrock glycoprotein, which is attached to the RBC membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkage. The gene (DO, ART4) encoding the Do glycoprotein, located on the short arm of chromosome 12, has been cloned and sequenced, allowing the molecular basis of the various Do phenotypes to be determined. Doa

Christine Lomas-Francis, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 71–78

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the MNS blood group system

Update on the MNS Blood Group System The MNS blood group system is highly complex, with 49 antigens currently recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion.1 All antigens are carried by glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or multiple glycophorin (GP) variants resulting from unequal crossover or gene conversion events between GYPA and GYPB genes.2 GYPE, the other glycophorin gene family member, does not encode detectable antigens on the red blood cell (RBC) surface but has

L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 61–62

Review | 26-October-2019

Kidd blood group system: a review

The Kidd blood group system has been recognized as clinically important in red blood cell (RBC) serology since its identification in 1951. Forty years later, the JK glycoprotein was determined to be a product of SCL14A1 and was identical to the urea transport protein UT-B produced by HUT11A. The functional role of the protein as a urea transporter in RBCs and kidney has been well documented. The polymorphism responsible for the antithetical antigens Jka and Jkb was identified in 1994 as c.838G

Janis R. Hamilton

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 29–35

Review | 01-December-2019

GIL: a blood group system review

The GIL blood group system was added to the list of systems already recognized by the International Society for Blood Transfusion in 2002. It was designated as system 29 after the antigen was located on the aquaglyceroporin 3 (AQP3) protein and the gene encoding the protein was identified in 2002. There is only one antigen in the system, GIL, and the antigen, as well as the system, was named after the antigen-negative proband identified in the United States who had made anti-GIL. It was later

Dawn M. Rumsey, Delores A. Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 141–144

Article | 14-October-2020

Studies on the Dombrock blood group system in non-human primates

The Dombrock blood group system consists of five distinct antigens: two antithetical antigens, Doa and Dob , and three highfrequency antigens:Gya ,Hy, and Joa . Although the prevalence of Doa and Dob in different populations makes them useful as genetic markers, the scarcity of reliable antibodies to these antigens has prevented this potential from being realized. The gene (DO;ART4) encoding the Dombrock glycoprotein has been cloned and sequenced, and the molecular bases of the various Dombrock

Cristina Mogos, Alissa Schawalder, Gregory R. Halverson, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 3, 77–82

Review | 20-March-2020

MNS blood group system: a review

The MNS blood group system is second only to the Rh blood group system in its complexity. Many alloantibodies to antigens in the MNS system are not generally clinically significant although antibodies to low-prevalence and high-prevalence MNS antigens have caused hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The MNS antigens are carried on glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or hybrids thereof, which arise from single-nucleotide substitution, unequal crossing over, or gene conversion

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 95–101

Article | 17-February-2021

An update on the RAPH blood group system

M.A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 2, 58–59

Article | 10-April-2021

The Ok blood group system: an update

Summary of the Ok Blood Group Antigens To date, the Ok blood group system, system 24 in the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT024), comprises three high-prevalence antigens: Oka, OKGV, and OKVM. Only one example of the OKGV− and OKVM− phenotypes has been described, each identified by the presence of a specific antibody to its respective high-prevalence antigen.1,2 The Ok(a−) phenotype was identified in Japanese people only,3 and the allele frequency in the gnomAD database is 0.1

J.R. Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 18–19

Article | 17-February-2021

The Xg blood group system: no longer forgotten

Erythrocyte Expression of the Xga and CD99 Antigens Since the previous review by Johnson in 2011,1 much of the work on the Xg blood group system has centered on identifying the genetic determinants of Xga and CD99 status. Strikingly, for a decade, the Xg system remained one of only two blood group systems for which the polymorphic blood group could not be genetically determined2—this scenario occurred despite the fact that the gene encoding Xga, XG (formerly PBDX), has been known since 1994.3

Y.Q. Lee, J.R. Storry, M.L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 1, 4–6

Review | 29-October-2019

Raph blood group system

This review describes the current state of knowledge of the Raph blood group system, which consists of a single antigen, MER2. MER2 was initially classified as a high-incidence antigen in the 901 series of blood groups, formerly known as 901011, but was reclassified as an antigen in the Raph blood group system in 2004. There have been six reports of human alloantibodies to MER2. Three of the subjects were found to have a stop codon in the CD151 gene, which encodes a member of the tetraspanin

Michele Hayes

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 6–10

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the H blood group system

E.A. Scharberg, C. Olsen, P. Bugert

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 67–68

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Scianna blood group system

P.A.R. Brunker, W.A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 48–50

Review | 29-October-2019

JMH blood group system: a review

The JMH blood group system consists of six high-prevalence antigens. These antigens are located on the Sema7A protein. The molecular basis of the JMH1– phenotype is not known; however, single nucleotide changes in the SEMA7A gene on chromosome 15 account for the other JMH antigens. JMH1, commonly known as JMH, is most notable because transient depression of the antigen occurs and anti-JMH may develop. These antibodies are most commonly observed and are not significant in transfusion

Susan T. Johnson

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 18–23

Report | 11-March-2020

The Indian blood group system

The Indian blood group system (ISBT: IN/023) consists of two antithetical antigens: Ina (IN1), which is present in approximately 10 percent of some Arab populations and in 3 percent of Bombay Indians, and its allelic antigen Inb (IN2), an antigen of high incidence in all populations. In 2007, two new high-incidence antigens were identified as belonging to the IN blood group system, namely IN3 (INFI) and IN4 (INJA). The antigens in this system are located on CD44, a single-pass membrane

Qun Xu

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 3, 89–93

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Augustine blood group system

New Augustine Antigens Since the publication of the original review,1 two new antigens have been added to the Augustine (AUG) blood group system: AUG3 and AUG4 (Table 1). Table 1. Antigens of the Augustine system Antigen Molecular basis Reference Number Name Prevalence Nucleotides Exon Amino acids AUG1 High c.589+1G>C 6 Slice site 1 AUG2 Ata High c .117 1 G > A 12 Glu391l_ys 1 AUG3 ATML Low c .115 9 A > C 12 p.Thr387Pro 2 AUG4 ATAM High c.242A>G 3 p.Asn81Ser 3 An

G. Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 1–2

Article | 22-January-2021

The P1PK blood group system: revisited and resolved

After having expanded to include three antigens (P1, Pk, and NOR) and also having changed its name from the P blood group system to P1PK (since the P antigen resides in the GLOB system1), the status of this system has stabilized—although P1PK remained one of two systems for which a polymorphic blood group could not be genetically determined.2 Thus, one of the major developments reported is the clarification of the genetic basis and underlying molecular mechanism explaining the presence (P1

L. Stenfelt, Å. Hellberg, J.S. Westman, M.L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 3, 99–103

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Duffy blood group system

Introduction A description of Duffy (FY) blood group system antigens and antibodies and how this information is used in transfusion management was featured prominently in the original Duffy blood group review published in 2010.1 At that time, the Duffy glycoprotein was also known to bind to a variety of chemokines of the CXC and CC classes and was referred to as the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC). Ongoing research studies of FY, particularly at the molecular level, continue to

G.M. Meny

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 11–12

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Knops blood group system

York Antigen York (Yka) was assigned when the Knops (KN) blood group system (system 22) was established.1 The number given for the Yk(a–) phenotype was KN:–5, and the allele was designated as KN*01.-05. Although the molecular mechanism for the more well-known high-prevalence antigens (e.g., Kna, McCa, and Sl1) were identified fairly rapidly, that for Yka was elusive. In 2011, Veldhuisen et al.2 identified a mutation at c.4223C>T that resulted in the change of threonine to methionine at amino

J.M. Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 16–18

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Lewis blood group system

M.R. Combs

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 65–66

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the CD59 blood group system

Introduction CD59 is a 20-kDa cell membrane glycoprotein, present on a large number of cells, including red blood cells (RBCs), that binds the complement components C8 and C9 and, thereby, protects the cell from a complement attack.1 CD59 was assigned a blood group system after a CD59-deficient child presented with anti-CD59, reacting with all CD59-carrying RBCs.2 In contrast to patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, where an acquired mutation in a stem cell clone causes the

C. Weinstock, M. Anliker, I. von Zabern

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 7–8

Article | 16-February-2021

An update on the Cartwright (Yt) blood group system

referring laboratories. The nomenclature across various systems is denoted in Table 2.3–6 Table 2. Nomenclature for the Yt blood group system System name System symbol Gene symbol Traditional/ISBT ISBT number Traditional ISBT ISBT number Traditional ISBT ISGN Yt or Cartwright 011 Yt YT Yt YT ACHE Yta YT1 011.001 Ytb YT2 011.002 YTEG YT3 011.003 YTLI YT4 011.004 YTOT YT5 011.005 ISBT = International Society of Blood Transfusion; ISGN

M.R. George

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 154–155

Review | 01-December-2019

The Diego blood group system: a review

The Diego blood group system (DI) currently encompasses 22 antigens. Three of the antigens are of high prevalence and the other 19 are of low prevalence. The antigens of the Diego blood group system are carried on the erythroid band 3 protein anion exchanger 1 (AE1), the product of a single gene, SLC4A1 (solute carrier family 4, anion exchanger, member 1). AE1 is a member of a family of three anion exchangers or transporters expressed in a variety of tissues. This protein is involved in carbon

Dolores Figueroa

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 2, 73–81

Review | 12-March-2020

The Gerbich blood group system: a review

Antigens in the Gerbich blood group system are expressed on glycophorin C (GPC) and glycophorin D (GPD), which are both encoded by a single gene, GYPC. The GYPC gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 2, and Gerbich antigens are inherited as autosomal dominant traits. There are 11 antigens in the Gerbich blood group system, six of high prevalence (Ge2, Ge3, Ge4, GEPL [Ge10*], GEAT [Ge11*], GETI [Ge12*]) and five of low prevalence (Wb [Ge5], Lsa [Ge6], Ana [Ge7], Dha [Ge8], GEIS [Ge9

Phyllis S. Walker, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 60–65

Review | 01-December-2019

Cartwright blood group system review

The Cartwright (Yt) blood group system consists of two antigens, Yta and Ytb, that result from point mutations in the acetylcholinesterase gene on chromosome 7q. Yta is a highincidence antigen, whereas its antithetical antigen, Ytb, shows much lower incidence. Anti-Yta and anti-Ytb are relatively rare. Anti-Yta is more commonly found in individuals of Jewish descent. Cartwright antibodies are rarely clinically significant; however, cases of in vivo hemolysis have been reported, suggesting that

Melissa R. George

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 49–54

Review | 14-March-2020

The Cromer blood group system: a review

The antigens of the Cromer blood group system reside on decay-accelerating factor (DAF), a protein belonging to the regulators of complement activation family. The blood group system consists of 12 high-prevalence and three lowprevalence antigens. The molecular basis for the antigens is known, and with the exception of IFC, each antigen is the product of a single nucleotide change in the DAF gene and has been localized to one of the four complement control protein (CCP) domains on the DAF

Jill R. Storry, Marion E. Reid, Mark H. Yazer

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 109–117

Review | 14-October-2020

The Cromer blood group system: a review

The antigens of the Cromer blood group system reside on decay accelerating factor (DAF), a protein belonging to the regulators of complement activation family. The blood group system consists of eight high-incidence antigens and three low-incidence antigens. The molecular basis for the antigens is known and, with the exception of IFC, each antigen is the product of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the DAF gene and has been localized to one of the four short consensus repeat regions on the

Jill R. Storry, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 4, 95–103

Review | 09-October-2019

The H blood group system

The H blood group system, ISBT symbol H (018), consists of a single antigen (H) defined by a terminal fucose residue found on red blood cells and in secretions formed by the action of α-1,2-fucosyltransferases 1 (α2FucT1) and 2 (α2FucT2), respectively. Mutant alleles of the corresponding FUT1 and FUT2 genes result in either a H– phenotype (Bombay phenotype, Oh) or a weak H phenotype (para-Bombay, H+w). In addition, the FUT2 gene is the molecular basis of the secretor (Se

Erwin Andreas Scharberg, Coral Olsen, Peter Bugert

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 112–118

Review | 06-December-2020

Review: the LW blood group system

The LW blood group system had its origin in the early Rh experiments of the 1940s and played an important role in our understanding of hemolytic disease of the newborn. Considered for a number of years to be the animal equivalent of the human Rh(D) antigen, LWa has been shown to be unique. Biochemical studies have located the antigen on a different protrein from proteins of the Rh antigens; however, the interdependence of LW and D still exists. The disappearance of LW antigens in various

Jill Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 87–93

Article | 17-November-2020

Loss of the Knops blood group system antigens from stored blood

Complement receptor type one (CR1) is a polymorphic glycoprotein, present on red blood cells (RBCs), that carries the Knops blood group system antigens. Since Knops system antigens can vary in strength, we investigated whether CR1 deteriorated upon storage, thus affecting Knops blood group system antigen reactivity. Units of whole blood were collected in CPDA-1 and evaluated at day 0 and day 35 for antigen strength, using routine serologic techniques. CR1 was quantitated by an enzyme-linked

Joann M. Moulds, L. Lee Brown, Elizabeth Brukheimer

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 2, 46–50

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Lutheran blood group system

New Antigens of the Lutheran System and Molecular Basis of LU7 Since publication of the original review in 2009,1 the molecular basis for LU7 has been resolved,2 and six new high-prevalence antigens have been added to the Lutheran (LU) blood group system (Table 1). The antigen-negative phenotype of each of these new antigens, except LU22, results from homozygosity for one or two nucleotide changes in the Lutheran gene. LU22 is more complex, however. LU22 expression requires the presence of both

G. Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 23–24

Review | 01-December-2019

The molecular basis of the LU:7 and LU:–7 phenotypes

The Lutheran blood group system currently consists of 20 antigens that have been assigned ISBT numbers. Of these, all but LU7 have been associated with one or more nucleotide changes in LU. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis associated with the LU:–7 phenotype. We obtained a stored sample from one proband with this phenotype and sequenced LU. Using genomic DNA, exons 1 through 15, and their flanking intronic regions, of LU were amplified by polymerase-chain

Kim Hue-Roye, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 130–131

Review | 01-December-2019

Scianna: the lucky 13th blood group system

The Scianna system was named in 1974 when it was appreciated that two antibodies described in 1962 in fact identified antithetical antigens. However, it was not until 2003 that the protein on which antigens of this system are found and the first molecular variants were described. Scianna was the last previously serologically defined, protein-based blood group system to be characterized at the molecular level, marking the end of an era in immunohematology. This story highlights the critical role

Patricia A.R. Brunker, Willy A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 2, 41–57

Review | 01-December-2019

A review of the JR blood group system

The JR blood group system (ISBT 032) consists of one antigen, Jra, which is of high prevalence in all populations. The rare Jr(a–) phenotype has been found mostly in Japanese and other Asian populations, but also in people of northern European ancestry, in Bedouin Arabs, and in one Mexican. Anti-Jra has caused transfusion reactions and is involved in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The Jra antigen is located on ABCG2 transporter, a multipass membrane glycoprotein (also known

Lilian Castilho, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 2, 63–68

Case report | 01-December-2019

Alloimmunization to Kell blood group system antigen owing to unmatched blood transfusion in a resource-poor setting

Sheetal Malhotra, Gagandeep Kaur, Sabita Basu, Ravneet Ravneet, Geetanjali Jindal

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 45–48

Review | 01-December-2019

XG: the forgotten blood group system

The XG blood group system is best known for its contributions to the fields of genetics and chromosome mapping. This system comprises two antigens, Xga and CD99, that are not antithetical but that demonstrate a unique phenotypic relationship. XG is located on the tip of the short arm of the X chromosome with exons 1 to 3 present in the pseudoautosomal region of the X (and Y) chromosome(s) and exons 4 to 10 located only on the X chromosome. Xga demonstrates a clear X-linked pattern of

Nanette C. Johnson

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 2, 68–71

Article | 21-April-2020

Novel molecular basis of an Inab phenotype  

The Cromer blood group system consists of ten high-prevalence and three low-prevalence antigens carried on decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF is found in the cell membranes of RBCs, granulocytes,platelets,and lymphocytes and is widely represented in other body tissues. Sequence analyses of DNA were performed on a blood sample from a 91-year-old Japanese woman whose serum contained an alloantibody to a high-prevalence antigen in the Cromer blood group system (anti-IFC). A blood sample from her

Kim Hue-Roye, Vivien E. Powell, Gita Patel, Debra Lane, Mariska Maguire, Amy Chung, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 53–55

Review | 12-March-2020

The Duffy blood group system: a review

mutation upstream of the FY allele. This mutation prevents expression of Duffy glycoprotein on erythrocytes only, while permitting expression on nonerythroid cells. Other antigens include Fy3, Fy5, and Fy6. Antibodies to Duffy antigens are usually clinically signifi cant and have been reported to cause hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. This review provides a general overview of the Duffy blood group system, including the role of the Duffy glycoprotein as a chemokine receptor (Duffy antigen

Geralyn M. Meny

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 51–56

Report | 01-December-2019

Implications of the Kidd blood group system in renal transplantation

The association of the Kidd blood group system with hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn is well known. The Kidd antigens, which are localized to the HUT/UT-B urea transport protein, are found on red blood cells and the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the medulla of the kidney. Recently it has been suggested that these antigens might play a role as minor histocompatibility antigens in renal transplantation. In the current case, the appearance of an anti

Angela Rourk, Jerry E. Squires

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 3, 91–94

Article | 16-February-2021

An update on the I blood group system

L. Cooling

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 85–90

Review | 26-October-2019

CD59: A long-known complement inhibitor has advanced  to a blood group system

The blood group system number 35 is based on CD59, a 20-kDa membrane glycoprotein present on a large number of different cells, including erythrocytes. The major function of CD59 is to protect cells from complement attack. CD59 binds to complement components C8 and C9 and prevents the polymerization of C9, which is required for the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). Other functions of CD59 in cellular immunity are less well defined. CD59 is inserted into the membrane by a

Christof Weinstock, Markus Anliker, Inge von Zabern

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 145–151

Review | 01-December-2019

The LAN blood group system: a review

LAN (Langereis) was officially recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion in 2012 as being the 33rd human blood group system. It consists of one single high-prevalence antigen, Lan (LAN1). The ABCB6 protein is the carrier of the Lan blood group antigen. The ABCB6 gene (chromosome 2q36, 19 exons) encodes the ABCB6 polypeptide (ATP-binding cassette protein, subfamily B, member 6), known as a porphyrin transporter. The exceptional Lan– people do not express ABCB6 (Lan null

Thierry Peyrard

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 131–135

Article | 16-February-2021

An update on the Chido/Rodgers blood group system

A review of the Chido/Rodgers blood group system published in 2010 summarized the discovery of this blood group,1 with the eventual recognition that Chido/Rodgers antigens were not intrinsic red blood cell (RBC) antigens but were epitopes carried on the C4 component of complement. In normal homeostasis, fragments of the C4 protein (C4b) are deposited on the RBC membrane and on other tissues as well. C4b is then broken down to C4d. Thus, with anti-Ch or anti-Rg, agglutination with indirect

R. Mougey

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 135–138

Review | 01-December-2019

An update on the GLOB blood group system and collection

The P blood group antigen of the GLOB system is a glycolipid structure, also known as globoside, on the red blood cells (RBCs) of almost all individuals worldwide. The P antigen is intimately related to the Pk and NOR antigens discussed in the review about the P1PK blood group system. Naturally occurring anti-P is present in the serum of individuals with the rare globosidedeficient phenotypes p, P1k, and P2k and has been implicated in hemolytic transfusion reactions as well as unfavorable

Åsa Hellberg, Julia S. Westman, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 19–24

case-report | 25-June-2021

Anti-A1Leb: a mind boggler

The Lewis blood group system (Le) is unique because it is the only system in which the antigens are not synthesized by red blood cells (RBCs); rather, the antigens are passively adsorbed onto the RBC membrane.1 Le antigens are soluble carbohydrate moieties formed by tissue cells and secreted by body secretions like saliva, where they appear as glycoproteins; in plasma, however, they appear as glycolipids. The Le phenotype depends on ABH secretor status of an individual, although FUT2 and FUT3

A. Gupta, K. Chaudhary, S. Asati, B. Kakkar

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 69–71

Article | 21-April-2020

Analysis of SERF in Thai blood donors

The Cromer blood group system consists of nine high-prevalence and three low-prevalence antigens carried on decay-accelerating factor (DAF). We recently described one of these Cromer highprevalence antigens,SERF,the absence of which was found in a Thai woman.The lack of SERF antigen in this proband was associated with a substitution of nucleotide 647C>T in exon 5 of DAF, which is predicted to be a change of proline to leucine at amino acid position 182 in short consensus repeat (SCR) 3 of

Poonsub Palacajornsuk, Kim Hue-Roye, Oytip Nathalang, Srisurang Tantimavanich, Sasitorn Bejrachandra, Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 66–69

Report | 26-October-2019

Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors

(59.0%), and Caucasian –R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b–) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b–) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system

Lorena I. Aranda, Linda A. Smith, Scott Jones, Rachel Beddard

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 166–173

Review | 09-October-2019

The FORS awakens: review of a blood group system reborn

The presence of the FORS1 antigen on red blood cells was discovered relatively recently, and in 2012, the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) acknowledged FORS as blood group system number 031. This rare antigen is carried by a glycosphingolipid and formed by elongation of the P antigen. Most people have naturally occurring anti-FORS1 in their plasma. The clinical significance of these antibodies is unknown in the transfusion setting, but they can hemolyze FORS1+ erythrocytes in

Annika K. Hult, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 64–72

Review | 09-October-2019

The Augustine blood group system, 48 years in the making

The high-prevalence antigen, Ata, was first identified in 1967, but it was not until 2015 that Ata became AUG1 of a new blood group system, Augustine (AUG). The new system was established after the identification of the gene encoding Ata and the recognition of a null phenotype (AUG:–1,–2) in an At(a–) patient with an antibody (anti-AUG2) reactive with At(a–) red blood cells. The At(a–) phenotype is very rare and, with the exception of the one family with the null

Geoffrey Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 100–103

Review | 01-December-2019

P1PK: The blood group system that changed its name and expanded

The antigens in the P1PK blood group system are carried on glycosphingolipids. The system currently includes three different antigens, P1, Pk, and NOR. The P1 antigen was disovered in 1927 by Landsteiner and Levine, and Pk and NOR were described in 1951 and 1982, respectively. As in the ABO system, naturally occurring antibodies of the immunoglobulin (Ig) M or IgG class, against the missing carbohydrate structures, can be present in the sera of people lacking the corresponding antigen. Anti-P1

Åsa Hellberg, Julia S. Westman, Britt Thuresson, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 25–33

Review | 16-October-2019

An update on the GLOB blood group system (and former GLOB collection)

The main change that has occurred in the GLOB blood group system since the GLOB review published in this journal in 2013 is the addition of an antigen. The high-prevalence PX2 antigen, originally recognized as the x2 glycosphingolipid, is expressed on red blood cells of most individuals and is elevated in the rare PP1Pk-negative p blood group phenotype. P synthase, encoded by B3GALNT1, was found to elongate paragloboside to PX2 by adding the terminal β3GalNAc moiety. Hence, PX2 was moved

Jennifer Ricci Hagman, Julia S. Westman, Åsa Hellberg, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 161–163

Review | 21-April-2020

Review: Cromer and DAF: role in health and disease

The antigens of the Cromer blood group system are located on the protein decay-accelerating factor (DAF). This system consists of ten high-prevalence and three low-prevalence antigens; the molecular basis for all of these antigens is a single nucleotide polymorphism in the DAF gene. DAF is a 70,000-Da plasma membrane protein that is widely distributed on all blood cells and on endothelial and epithelial tissues. The physiological role of DAF is to inhibit the complement cascade at the level of

Douglas M. Lublin

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 39–47

Article | 26-October-2020

Anti-Lu9: the finding of the second example after 25 years

The first and only reported exanipie of anti-Lu9 (an antibody directed at a low-incidence antigen in the Lutheran blood group system and allelic to the high-incidence antigen Lu6) was described in 1973 in the serum of a white female, Mrs. Mull. Her serum also contained anti-Lul1 (-Lua), and subsequently, an anti-HLA-B7 (-Bga) was identified. We report the second example of anti-Lu9 in a white male (GR), found 25 years later. The GR serum was reactive in the indirect antiglobulin test with Lu

Kayla D. Champagne, Marilyn Moulds, Jo Schmidt

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 3, 113–116

Report | 12-March-2020

RHCE*ceAR encodes a partial c (RH4) antigen

The Rh blood group system is highly complex both in the number of discrete antigens and in the existence of partial antigens, especially D and e.  Recently, several partial c antigens have been reported. Here we report findings on an African American man with sickle cell disease whose RBCs typed C+c+ and whose plasma contained anti-c. Hemagglutination tests, DNA extraction, PCR-RFLP, reticulocyte RNA isolation, RT-PCR cDNA analyses, cloning, and sequencing were performed by standard

Marion E. Reid, Christine Halter Hipsky, Christine Lomas-Francis, Akiko Fuchisawa

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 57–59

Article | 14-October-2020

Low-incidence MNS antigens associated with single amino acid changes and their susceptibility to enzyme treatment

identified changes in amino acids that are associated with several low-incidence antigens in the MNS blood group system. This review relates the molecular studies with the susceptibility or resistance of these antigens to treatment of intact red blood cells by proteolytic enzymes.

Marion E. Reid, Jill Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 76–81

Case report | 09-October-2019

Two cases of the variant RHD*DAU5 allele associated with maternal alloanti-D  

Rh is a complex blood group system with diverse genotypes that may encode weak and partial D variants. Standard serologic analysis may identify clinically significant D variants as D+; nevertheless, individuals with these D variants should be managed as D– patients to prevent antibody formation to absent D epitopes. Variant identification is necessary during pregnancy to allow for timely and appropriate Rh immune globulin (RhIG) prophylaxis for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

Jennifer A. Duncan, Susan Nahirniak, Rodrigo Onell, Gwen Clarke

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 60–63

Article | 14-October-2020

Anti-Mta associated with three cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn

The Mta antigen is a low-frequency red blood cell (RBC) surface antigen and is an established antigen of the MNSs blood group system. There has been one report of anti-Mta –induced hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in the literature to date. We describe a family in which three children were affected by neonatal anemia. The clinical and hematologic findings were consistent with HDN, despite repeatedly negative direct antiglobulin tests (DAT) on cord RBCs. Serologic investigations

Carol C. Cheung, Daniel Challis, George Fisher, Susan J. Russell, Andrew Davis, Hayley Bruce, Julie Watt, Beng H. Chong

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 2, 37–39

Review | 20-March-2020

Lewis blood group system review

Martha Rae Combs

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 112–118

Case report | 14-October-2020

Red blood cell antigen changes in malignancy: case report and review

Jeffrey L. Winters, Dianna S. Howard

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 1, 1–9

Case report | 01-December-2019

Possible suppression of fetal erythropoiesis by the Kell blood group antibody anti-Kpa

Antibodies to antigens in the Kell blood group system are usually immunoglobulin G, and, notoriously, anti-K, anti-k, and anti-Kpa can cause severe hemolytic transfusion reactions, as well as severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). It has been shown that the titer of anti-K does not correlate with the severity of HDFN because, in addition to immune destruction of red blood cells (RBCs), anti-K causes suppression of erythropoiesis in the fetus, which can result in severe anemia

Michelle Tuson, Kim Hue-Roye, Karen Koval, Sherwin Imlay, Rajendra Desai, Gayatri Garg, Esam Kazem, Diane Stockman, Janis S. Hamilton, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 2, 58–60

Article | 17-February-2021

A resource-conserving serologic and high-throughput molecular approach to screen for blood donors with an IN:−5 phenotype

The Indian blood group antigen Ina was recognized in the early 1970s when an antibody to a low-prevalence antigen was assigned the symbol after the name of the country where it was first found.1 It received blood group system status after its antithetical antibody, called Salis, directed to a high-prevalence antigen (HPA) was reviewed and renamed as Inb.2 The system was further expanded when four more HPAs, namely, INFI, INJA, INRA, and INSL, were found befitting to the system.3–5 Although Ina

S.R. Joshi, S.B. Senjaliya, K. Srivastava, W.A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 129–132

Review | 21-April-2020

Review: the Scianna blood group system

Randall W. Velliquette

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 70–76

Review | 06-December-2020

Review: the Diego blood group system

Mohammad Zafar, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 2, 35–40

Review | 09-October-2019

The Vel blood group system: a review

Jill R. Storry, Thierry Peyrard

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 56–59

Review | 11-March-2020

The LW blood group system: a review

Marilyn K. Grandstaff Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 4, 136–142

Review | 14-March-2020

The OK blood group system: a review

Elizabeth A. Smart, Jill R. Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 124–126

Review | 12-March-2020

The Knops blood group system: a review

Joann M. Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 1, 2–7

Article | 26-October-2020

The Diego blood group system - an update

Joyce Poole

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 4, 135–143

Review | 03-November-2020

The Lutheran blood group system: a review

Malcolm L. Beck

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 94–100

Review | 27-December-2020

A review: the Duffy blood group system

Kathryn M. Beattie

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 2, 45–54

Review | 12-March-2020

A review of the Colton blood group system

Gregory R. Halverson, Thierry Peyrard

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 1, 22–26

Editorial | 30-November-2020

EDITORIAL: The Rh blood group system: additional complexities

Peter D. Issitt

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 4, 109–116

Review | 06-December-2020

Review: developments in the Kell blood group system

W. Laurence Marsh, Colvin M. Redman

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 1–6

Letter to Editor | 09-November-2020

Letters to the Editors: Blood Group System Terminology: Quick Reference

Kirk D. Kitchen

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 145–145

Review | 17-March-2020

The ABO blood group system revisited: a review and update

Jill R. Storry, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 2, 48–59

Review | 18-October-2020

ABO blood group system: a rev i ew of molecular aspects

Marion E. Reid, Agnes Hallie Lee

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 1, 1–6

Article | 18-October-2020

The Rh blood group system: the first 60 years of discovery

Christine Lomas-Francis, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 1, 7–17

Article | 21-April-2020

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction secondary to anti-Fy3

Horatiu Olteanu, David Gerber, Kara Partridge, Ravindra Sarode

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 48–52

Review | 09-October-2019

A Caucasian JK*A/JK*B woman with Jk(a+b–) red blood cells, anti-Jkb, and a novel JK*B allele c.1038delG

Glenn Ramsey, Ricardo D. Sumugod, Paul F. Lindholm, Jules G. Zinni, Jessica A. Keller, Trina Horn, Margaret A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 91–95

Article | 01-April-2020

A single base insertion of the 4-α-galactosyltransferase gene led to the deficiency of Gb3 biosynthesis

Mitsunobu Tanaka, Naoko Yamashita, Junko Takahashi, Fumiya Hirayama, Yoshihiko Tani, Hirotoshi Shibata

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 23–29

Article | 01-April-2020

A confusion in antibody identification:anti-D production after anti-hrB

Christine Lomas-Francis, Rosyln Yomtovian, Claire McGrath, Phyllis S. Walker, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 4, 158–160

Article | 20-December-2020

Two cases of autoantibodies that demonstrate mimicking specificity in the Duffy blood group system

Teresa Y. Harris

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 4, 87–91

Report | 20-March-2020

A simple screening assay for the most common JK*0 alleles revealed compound heterozygosity in Jk(a–b–) probands from Guam

Elisabet Sjöberg Wester, Julia Gustafsson, Beverly Snell, Peggy Spruell, Åsa Hellberg, Martin L. Olsson, Jill R. Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 4, 165–169

Article | 01-April-2020

An alloantibody to a highprevalence MNS antigen in a person with a GP.JL/Mk phenotype

John Ratliff, Susan Veneman, Joan Ward, Christine Lomas-Francis, Kim Hue-Roye, Randall W. Velliquette, Laima Sausais, Twilla Maldonado, Janet Miyamoto, Yolanda Martin, David Slater, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 4, 146–149

Article | 21-April-2020

Severe hemolytic anemia due to auto anti-N

Caroline C. Immel, Myra McPherson, Shauna N. Hay, Linda R. Braddy, Mark E. Brecher

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 63–65

Article | 17-February-2021

May the FORS be with you: a system sequel

The FORS blood group system was reviewed in this journal1 and elsewhere2 and was acknowledged by the International Society of Blood Transfusion in 2012.3 The discovery that human red blood cells (RBCs) from rare families could express the Forssman glycolipid4 was made 100 years after Professor Forssman (Fig. 1) of Lund, Sweden, discovered it in animals by immunizing rabbits with extracts of tissue from guinea pigs or horses to obtain the so-called Forssman antiserum that, when given to sheep

A.K. Hult, M.L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 1, 14–18

Review | 06-December-2020

Review: the Lutheran system-1991

The Lutheran blood group system, comprised of 18 antigens with four pairs of alleles at closely linked Ioci, is complex This article outlines current knowledge of the Lutheran system with special reference to recent serologic, immunochemical and clinical findings.

Joyce Poole

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 1, 1–8

Review | 15-April-2020

Review: molecular basis of MNS blood group variants

chance of recombination, resulting in hybrid molecules that often carry one or more novel antigens. Some of the antigens in the MNS system result from a single nucleotide substitution. The MNS blood group system now consists of more than 40 distinct antigens. This review summarizes the molecular basis associated with some of the antigens in the MNS blood group system.

P. Palacajornsuk

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 171–182

Article | 17-November-2020

Detection of Lewis, P1, and some MNS blood group system antibodies by a solid phase assay

Susan Rolih, Ronald Thomas, Lyle Sinor

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 3, 78–80

Case report | 09-October-2019

A suspected delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction mediated by anti-Joa

Ryan P. Jajosky, Wendy C. Lumm, Scott C. Wise, Roni J. Bollag, James F. Shikle

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 73–75

Article | 22-January-2021

Routine indirect antiglobulin testing of blood donors—a further step toward blood safety: an experience from a tertiary care center in northern India

antibodies among these blood donors was found to be 0.18 percent (19 of 10,390). Of the 19 alloimmunized donors, 16 (84.2%) were male (alloimmunization rate 0.16%, 16 of 9959) and 3 (15.8%) were female (alloimmunization rate 0.69%, 3 of 431) (p = 0.01; chi-square test). In our study, the most frequent alloantibodies identified were of the Lewis blood group system (17 of 25 [68%] in 14 of the 19 alloimmunized donors). The second most common alloantibodies belonged to the Rh blood group system (4 of 25 [16

S. Malhotra, G. Negi, D. Kaur, S.K. Meinia, A.K. Tiwari, S. Mitra

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 3, 93–98

Article | 10-November-2020

The second example of Lu:-7 phenotype: serology and immunochemical studies

We describe the second example of red blood cells (RBCs) with the Lu:–7 phenotype in a 37-year-old Latino female (SA). Her RBCs were nonreactive with anti-Lu7 (Mrs. GA) but were reactive with all other antibodies to high-prevalence antigens tested, including those in the Lutheran blood group system. No Lu:–7 RBCs were available for testing. SA’s serum was nonreactive by the indirect antiglobulin test against (1) recessive and dominant Lu(a–b–) RBCs and (2) trypsin

Marion E. Reid, Jack L. Hoffer, Ragnhild Øyen, Edith Alicea-Tossas, Manijeh Sadjadi, Gladys M. Messina

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 2, 66–68

Article | 26-October-2020

Mta: review and case report

Anti-Mta, which recognizes an antigen in the MNS blood group system, was detected during prenatal testing of a para 6, gravida 1 woman with no history of transfusions. Her husband was apparently Mt(a–). Anti-Mta was first reported in 1962 as a naturally occurring antibody directed against a new antigen in the MNS system. The last report in the literature of detection of anti-Mta was in 1972.

Lisa Bakowski, Joanne Kosanke

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 2, 78–79

case-report | 25-June-2021

Severe perinatal hemolytic disease due to anti-e

G. Soler-Noda, Y. Romero-Díaz, L. Orbeal-Aldama, S. Aquino-Rojas

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 72–77

Article | 27-December-2020

Auberger red cell antigens are not part of the Kell, Colton, or Dombrock blood group systems

Since 1981, red cell samples from families were tested with anti-Aua and, since 1986, with both anti-Aua and anti-Aub in an attempt to elevate Auberger to a blood group system status. The results show that Auberger is not part of the Kell (five families), Colton (three families), or Dombrock (two families) blood group systems. Exclusion from four more systems (Di, Yt, LW, Ch:Rg) is required before system status may be claimed.

Patricia Tippett, Geoff L. Daniels, Christine Lomas, Carole A. Green

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 3, 67–69

Article | 15-February-2021

ZZAP treatment of red blood cells

S.I. Marckwardt

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 9–10

Article | 03-November-2020

Use of LOR-15C9 monoclonal anti-D to differentiate erythrocytes with the partial DVI antigen from those with other partial D antigens or weak D antigens

Marion E. Reid, Gregory R. Halverson, Francis Roubinet, P.A. Apoil, Antoine Blancher

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 89–93

Article | 22-January-2021

Anti-Ata in a renal transplant candidate: a case report

J. Gao, S. Wise, S.H. Tinsley, J.F. Shikle

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 3, 104–107

Review | 01-May-2020

Review: ABO blood group system - ABH oligosaccharide antigens, anti-A and anti-B, A and B glycosyltransferases, and ABO genes

Fumiichiro Yamamoto

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 3–22

Review | 01-December-2019

EDTA glycine acid treatment of red blood cells

blood group system and for the high-prevalence antigen Era.

Joanne Kosanke

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 3, 95–96

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