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Report | 01-December-2019

Low risk of hemolysis after transfusion of uncrossmatched red blood cells

Transfusing uncrossmatched red blood cells (RBCs) can be a lifesaving bridge until crossmatched RBCs are available. The risk of using uncrossmatched RBCs is that of hemolysis from unexpected clinically significant antibodies. This study sought to quantify the risk of hemolysis after the transfusion of uncrossmatched RBCs. The records of recipients of uncrossmatched RBCs over approximately 9 months were retrieved from the regional transfusion service. Basic immunohematologic data were recorded

Lisa Radkay, Darrell J. Triulzi, Mark H. Yazer

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 39–44

Case report | 16-March-2020

Autoantibody formation after alloimmunization inducing bystander immune hemolysis

The development of RBC autoantibodies resulting from or associated with allogeneic blood transfusions is not an easily determined complication of RBC transfusions. This report discusses one patient who developed RBC autoantibodies in association with an allogeneic blood transfusion and alloimmunization leading to a temporary bystander immune hemolysis. A 72-year-old woman was hospitalized as a result of severe anemia and received two units of ABO- and D-compatible RBCs. She had a history of two

Mariza Mota, C. Bley, M.G. Aravechia, N. Hamerschlak, A. Sakashita, J.M. Kutner, L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1, 9–12

Report | 29-October-2019

Demonstration of IgG subclass (IgG1 and IgG3) in patients with positive direct antiglobulin tests

Serologic characterization of autoantibodies helps in the management and monitoring of the course of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate gel centrifugation test (GCT) cards for immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and determination of IgG subclasses IgG1 and IgG3 and their influence on hemolysis. Eighty direct antiglobulin test (DAT)-positive patients were examined with the help of GCT cards for IgG titer and IgG subclasses. The results were correlated with the

Ashutosh Singh, Archana Solanki, Rajendra Chaudhary

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 24–27

Case report | 16-March-2020

Nonhemolytic passenger lymphocyte syndrome: donor-derived anti-M in an M+ recipient of a multiorgan transplant

Passenger lymphocyte syndrome (PLS) is a well-recognized complication that may follow a hematopoietic progenitor cell or solid-organ transplant. Typically, the syndrome presents as acute hemolysis of the recipient’s RBCs, which have become serologically incompatible with blood group antibodies formed by passively transfused donor-origin B lymphocytes. Most cases involve anti-A or anti-B. However, there are cases involving non-ABO serologic incompatibility, as well as cases in which the

Addisalem T. Makuria, Albert Langeberg, Thomas M. Fishbein, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1, 20–23

Case report | 06-December-2020

Immune-mediated hemolysis in a postoperative patient Case report: anti-U and differential diagnosis

We present the differential diagnosis for a Coombs-positive immune hemolysis having onset during hospitalization and, in particular, during the postoperative period. The stimulus for this article was a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) due to anti-U following open-heart surgery. The initial clinical and serologic findings led us to consider other causes of immune hemolysis which are reviewed in this article. To our knowledge, this is the fourth case of a DHTR due to anti-U to be

Gnanasagren Sathaseevan Pillay, Betty Womack, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 2, 41–46

Article | 14-October-2020

The direct antiglobulin test in a hospital setting

in 179 (38.7%) cases. The incidence of a positive DAT was higher in the group of patients with > 2 signs of hemolysis (4/34 cases; 11.8%) than in the group of patients with ≤ 2 signs of hemolysis (5/145 cases;3.4%) (RR = 0.029;95% CI:0.08–1.03;p = 0.06). When a patient with anemia is being investigated, a complete laboratory evaluation for suspected hemolytic anemia should be done before performing a DAT.

Joan Cid, Xavier Ortín, Víctor Beltran, Lourdes Escoda, Enric Contreras, Enric Elies, Carmen Martín-Vega

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 1, 16–18

Article | 10-November-2020

Severe intravascular hemolysis due to autoantibodies stimulated by blood transfusion

Autoantibodies may cause severe hemolytic anemia, but only rarely are they the cause of a hemolytic transfusion reaction due to the destruction of transfused allogeneic blood. In two patients, autoantibody was detected shortly after blood transfusion. The first case was a D-negative patient who produced an autoanti-Ce and subsequently developed hemoglobinuria and hyperbilirubinemia. The second case was a patient who developed an autoanti-Wrb that caused severe hemolysis that resulted in death.

D. Chan, G.D. Poole, M. Binney, M.D. Hamon, J.A. Copplestone, A.G. Prentice

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 2, 80–83

Article | 17-November-2020

Acute hemolysis due to passively transfused high-titer anti-B causing spontaneous in vitro agglutination

Intravascular hemolysis due to passive transfer of anti-A or anti-B has been a frequently reported transfusion complication. In most reported cases, passive anti-A has been implicated. However, cases of hemolysis due to anti-B have also been reported following administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and during platelet transfusions. In our case, a 6-day-old infant with E. coli sepsis underwent double-volume exchange transfusion for hyperbilirubinemia. Modified whole blood used

Gregg Boothe, Mark E. Brecher, Mamie B. Root, Judy Robinson, Nancy R. Haley

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 2, 43–45

Article | 09-November-2020

Absence of hemolysis after a kidney transplant in an E+ recipient from a donor with anti-E

fetal red blood cells of her one pregnancy (the recipient). The kidney had been immediately perfused with saline after removal from the donor. No acute or delayed hemolysis was observed clinically or in laboratory tests performed immediately after the transplant and at 7, 15, and 30 days after the transplant. Antibody screens were still negative at 6 months. In this case, anti-E was not present in the transplanted kidney in sufficient concentration to cause hemolysis of the recipient’s red

Marcia C. Zago-Novaretti, Carlos Roberto Jorge, Eduardo Jens, Pedro Enrique Dorihiac-Llacer, Dalton de Alencar Fischer Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 138–140

Article | 17-February-2021

Blood component administration to multiple myeloma patients treated with daratumumab: suggesting a novel approach with use of 0.1 M dithiothreitol

and Ge3, and those in the Kell, Cartwright, Indian, JMH, Scianna, LW, Lutheran, Dombrock, Diego, and Cromer blood group systems—of which the most important is K.7 A common practice in these patients, therefore, is to transfuse K– RBC units unless the patients have been typed as K+. DTT treatment of RBCs has the potential to cause hemolysis at certain concentrations which can interfere with interpretation of results.8–12 Standard DTT treatment of RBCs is performed with 0.2 M DTT, although at this

P. Pandey, D. Setya, E. Kaul, S. Ranjan, M.K. Singh, A. Shankar

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 157–165

Case report | 11-March-2020

Persistent complement-dependent anti-AnWj in a lymphoproliferative disorder: a case study and review

intravascular hemolysis, including hemoglobinuria. Testing revealed a complement-dependent anti-AnWj. Phenotyping confirmed the AnWj– phenotype. Anti-AnWj was persistent despite immunosuppression, including treatment with allogeneic HSCT. Of interest, the pathogenesis of the downregulation of the graft AnWj in this patient is unclear.

George Grigoriadis, Jennifer Condon, Kate Green, Mary Ann Anderson, Marija Borosak, Erica Wood

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 3, 83–88

Article | 06-December-2020

Donor origin Rh antibodies as a cause of significant hemolysis following ABO-identical orthotopic liver transplantation

A group A, D-positive patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation from a group A, D-negative (cde/cde) donor. Anti-D and -E were eluted from the recipient’s red cells and were found in the recipient’s serum 13 days later, at which time significant hemolysis developed. These Rh antibodies appear to he secondary to passive transfer of sensitized donor lymphocytes, a rare finding following liver transplantation.

Brian K. Kim, Carolyn F. Whitset, Christopher D. Hillyer

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 100–101

Review | 26-October-2019

CD59: A long-known complement inhibitor has advanced  to a blood group system

glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. A defect of this anchor causes lack of this protein from the cell membrane, which leads to an enhanced sensitivity towards complement attack. Patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) harbor a varying percentage of red blood cell clones with a defect in GPI-anchored proteins, including CD59. The most characteristic symptoms of this disease are episodes of hemolysis and thromboses. Although CD59 has been classified as a membrane protein for more than 25 years, an

Christof Weinstock, Markus Anliker, Inge von Zabern

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 145–151

Review | 28-April-2020

Review: complement receptor 1 therapeutics for prevention of immune hemolysis

Karina Yazdanbakhsh

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 109–118

Article | 21-April-2020

Severe hemolytic anemia due to auto anti-N

Auto anti-N is infrequently encountered and, in most reported cases,does not cause clinical hemolysis. This case reports an auto anti-N associated with severe hemolytic anemia (Hb = 2.7 g/dL) in a 6-year-old Caucasian girl with a history of vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. Upon admission, she was found to have a metabolic acidosis,secondary to her severe anemia,with abnormal liver function tests. As in three other case reports,the autoimmune hemolytic anemia resolved,with disappearance of

Caroline C. Immel, Myra McPherson, Shauna N. Hay, Linda R. Braddy, Mark E. Brecher

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 63–65

Report | 01-December-2019

Cryopreservation of red blood cell units with a modified method of glycerolization and deglycerolization with the ACP 215 device complies with American and European requirements

. After deglycerolization, RBCs were preserved with either SAG-M or AS3 and stored for at least 10 or 14 days, respectively. Quality of stored RBCs was assessed by measuring osmolarity, blood cell counts, free hemoglobin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), hemolysis, and glucose. The overall RBC mass recovery after deglycerolization was 86 ± 7.6 percent, and the osmolarity was 336 ± 23 mOsml/kg H2O. The hemolysis for stored components at the end of their shelf life was 0.21 ± 0.08

Jana List, Michaela Horvath, Gerda C. Leitner, Günter Weigel

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 67–73

Article | 21-April-2020

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction secondary to anti-Fy3

was red. Her Hb dropped from 8.4 to 6.4 g/dL over 24 hours after the transfusion. Her total bilirubin rose to 4.0 mg/dL, with an LDH value of 1558 U/L and a haptoglobin of 10.9 mg/dL. Both the antibody detection test and the DAT were positive. An anti-Fy3 was identified in the serum and in the eluate. To the best of our knowledge,this is the first case of acute intravascular hemolysis due to anti-Fy3 in a patient without sickle cell disease.

Horatiu Olteanu, David Gerber, Kara Partridge, Ravindra Sarode

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 48–52

Review | 16-May-2020

Review: evaluation of patients with immune hemolysis

Lawrence D. Petz

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 3, 167–176

Article | 18-October-2020

Quantitation of red cell-bound immunoglobulins and complement in lymphoma patients

Quantitative ELISA may be useful for determining the amount of red blood cell (RBC)-associated immunoglobulins (Igs) in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). In idiopathic AIHA, there is about 20 times more RBC-associated IgG and complement than in normal persons. In patients with low-grade lymphomas (particularly, B-CLL and splenic marginal zone lymphoma) autoimmune hemolysis is a component of their anemia. In highgrade malignant lymphomas (i.e, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and

M. Podberezin, A. Levina, L. Romanova, O. Margolin, O. Nasibov, A.V. Pivnik

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 4, 147–153

Article | 06-December-2020

Immune hemolytic anemia following heart-lung transplantation

Immune hemolytic anemia due to minor ABO incompatibility between recipient and donor is a well-recognized occurrence in kidney and liver transplantation. In some cases, the responsible antibodies have been shown to be derived from the donor passenger lymphocytes using Gm allotyping. We report a case of acute, transient hemolysis following heart-lung transplantation in which serologic and Gm allotype studies confirmed the etiology of hemolysis.

EIizabeth J. Perlman, Rosetta S. Shirey, Mary Farkosh, Thomas S. Kickler, Paul M. Ness

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 2, 38–40

Report | 09-October-2019

Stability guidelines for dithiothreitol-treated red blood cell reagents used for antibody detection methods in patients treated with daratumumab

14 days for observation of hemolysis. In Set 1, all antigen reactivity remained at ≥2+ with both single- and double-dose cells for 14 days. The Rh antigens gave stronger reactions longer, compared with those tested in the Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood group systems. Sets 2 and 3 were monitored for hemolysis. On day 3, Set 2 began displaying hemolysis, with complete hemolysis by day 8. Set 3 did not display hemolysis in 14 days. In conclusion, a large volume of RBCs can be treated with DTT and

Wendy L. Disbro

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 105–109

Case report | 06-December-2020

Case report: hemolytic anemia produced by tolmetin

Tolmetin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was found to be the etiologic agent in a case of drug-induced hemolytic anemia. A 35-year-old female who had ingested tolmetin sporadically in the past took two doses that resulted in acute hemolysis. Two days after taking the second dose, she had a hemoglobin of 7.0 g/dL, increased serum lactate dehydrogenase, reticulocytosis, and indirect reacting hyperbilirubinemia. The direct antiglobulin test was weakly positive with anti-lgG and

LeeAnn McCall, Michael R. Owens

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 1, 17–18

Article | 01-April-2020

Application of gel technology in the serologic characterization of autoantibody in DAT-positive autoimmune diseases

Gel tests are now available for the determination of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses and complement fractions coating RBCs. These tests simplified serologic characterization of autoantibodies in various autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gel cards in the serologic characterization of autoantibody with regard to the immunoglobulin classes, complement fractions, and IgG subclasses, and the influence of these characteristics on hemolysis. Gel cards were

Sudipta Sekhar Das, Rajendra K. Chaudhary

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 59–62

Article | 10-November-2020

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to IgA class autoantibodies

that was thought to reflect the develop­ing autoimmune response. The autoantibodies had high affinity for red cells with very little free antibody detectable in the serum; in two instances Rh specificity was evident. Hemolysis was severe in four patients. Two of them had intravascular hemolysis, one of whom also had marked dyserythropoiesis and a transiently positive Ham’s test. Although IgA autoantibodies caused hemolysis pre­dominantly through immune adherence, on occasions they

R.J Sokol, D.J Booker, R. Stamps, J.R. Booth

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 14–19

Case report | 29-October-2019

Evans syndrome in a pediatric liver transplant recipient with an autoantibody with apparent specificity for the KEL4 (Kpb) antigen  

Although most warm red blood cell (RBC) autoantibodies react broadly with panel cells in addition to the patient’s own RBCs, occasionally an autoantibody with specificity for a specific blood group antigen is encountered. Rare cases of warm autoantibodies with specificity for the Kpb antigen of the Kell blood group system have been described. We report a pediatric transplant recipient with anemia, immune-mediated hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and a warm autoantibody with apparent anti-Kpb

Scott A. Koepsell, Kerry Burright-Hittner, James D. Landmark

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 14–17

Case report | 06-November-2019

Diagnostic pitfalls of drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

Abdulgabar Salama, Beate Mayer

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 80–84

Case report | 01-December-2019

A case of autoimmune hemolytic anemia with anti-D specificity in a 1-year-old child

Although antibodies to antigens in the Rh blood group system are common causes of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia, specificity for only the D antigen is rare in autoimmune hemolysis in pediatric patients. This case reports an anti-D associated with severe hemolytic anemia (Hb = 2.1 g/dL) in a previously healthy 14-month-old child who presented with a 3-day history of low-grade fevers and vomiting. Because of his severe anemia, on admission to the hospital he was found to have altered mental

Rachel S. Bercovitz, Margaret Macy, Daniel R. Ambruso

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 15–18

Case report | 27-April-2020

Case report: massive postpartum transfusion of Jr(a+) red cells in the presence of anti-Jra

,she did not develop laboratory or clinical evidence of acute hemolysis. The patient’s anti-Jra had a pretransfusion titer of 4 and a monocyte monolayer assay (MMA) reactivity of 68.5% (reactivity > 5% is considered capable of shortening the survival of incompatible RBCs). The titer increased fourfold to 64 and the MMA reactivity was 72.5% on Day 10 posttransfusion. Review of laboratory data showed evidence of a mild delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction by Day 10 posttransfusion. Despite

Shan Yuan, Rosalind Armour, Allison Reid, Khaled F. Abdel-Rahman, Michael Phillips, Dawn M. Rumsey, Theresa Nester

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 97–101

Article | 03-November-2020

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by warm-reacting IgM-class antibodies

Warm IgM autoantibodies occur in association with IgG-class and/or IgA-class immunoglobulins in approximately 30 percent of patients with warm-type autoimmune hemolysis. They may be classified as agglutinins or hemolysins, which may be incomplete or complete, depending on in vitro serology; they almost always bind complement. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia solely due to warm IgM autoantibodies is exceedingly rare. We report two cases of the incomplete agglutinin type. The autoantibodies were

R.J. Sokol, D.J. Booker, R. Stamps, S. Sobolewski, A.P. Haynes

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 53–58

Article | 06-December-2020

Clinical correlation of positive direct antiglobulin tests in patients with sickle cell disease

Serologic findings of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (autoimmune hemolytic anemia and cold agglutinin disease) are not infrequent in patients with sickle cell disease and can be clinically significant. Features of sickle cell disease that may affect the emergence and intensity of immune-mediated hemolysis include the antigenic stimulation of chronic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, increased autoantibody production, RBC membrane defects, and functional asplenism. We describe two patients

Raymond L. Comenzo, Marie E. Malachowski, Eugene M. Berkman

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 1, 13–16

Report | 06-November-2019

How we investigate drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

Drugs are a rare cause of immune hemolytic anemia, but an investigation for a drug antibody may be warranted if a patient has definitive evidence of immune hemolysis, other more common causes of hemolysis have been excluded, and there is a good temporal relationship between the administration of a drug and the hemolytic event. Drug antibodies are either drug-dependent (require drug to be in the test system) or drug-independent (reactive without drug present in the test). Drug-dependent

Regina M. Leger, Patricia A. Arndt, George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 85–94

research-article | 23-September-2021


Magdalena Godkowicz, Karolina Rudnicka

Advancements of Microbiology – Postepy Mikrobiologii, Volume 60 , ISSUE 3, 211–222

Article | 30-November-2020

Autoimmune hemolysis following transfusion: a mimicking autoanti-D in a D- patient with alloanti-D

Walter H. Dzik, Joyce Blank, Paula Lutz, Thomas G. Hirose, Christine Lomas-Francis, Marilyn Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 4, 117–119

Case report | 24-March-2020

Overt immediate hemolytic transfusion reaction attributable to anti-Wra

Wra is a low-prevalence antigen.  Anti-Wra is a relatively common antibody present in approximately 1 in 100 healthy blood donors.  Anti-Wra is reported to cause different degrees of hemolysis in transfusion and in HDN, ranging from benign to severe.  This report describes an acute overt hemolytic transfusion reaction in a patient whose serum contained anti-Wra and who received a Wr(a+) RBC component.

Fouad N. Boctor

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 3, 113–115

Article | 09-November-2020

Measurement of red blood cell-bound C3b and C3d using an enzyme-linked direct antiglobulin test

Complement has a complex role in immune mediated red blood cell (RBC) destruction and usually induces extravascular hemolysis of C3bcoated RBCs by erythrophagocytosis and by acting synergistically with cell-bound immunoglobulins. A sensitive two-stage enzyme-linked direct antiglobulin test (ELDAT) was developed and used to measure RBC-bound C3b and C3d in 120 healthy adult individuals and in 60 patients suffering from a variety of conditions, including warm- and cold-type autoimmune hemolytic

J.D. Bellamy, D.J. Booker, N.T. James, R. Stamps, R.J. Sokol

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 123–131

Article | 09-November-2020

Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria: an unusual association

An 80-year-old female presented with melena and anemia due to bleeding from a benign gastric ulcer. Her blood group was O, D+. The serum contained anti-B and a weak anti-A (titer 2 at 18°C). She was inadvertently transfused with approximately 3.5 units of group A red blood cells with no initial ill effects. One week later, the antiA titer increased to 8 and the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was weakly positive (IgG and C3d). The next day, intravascular hemolysis became evident. The DAT was

M.A. Wodzinski, R.C. Collin, D.J. Booker, R. Stamps, J.D. Bellamy, R.J. Sokol

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 2, 54–57

Article | 03-November-2020

The first case of the p phenotype in a Gurkha Nepalese

A serum sample from a Gurkha Nepalese soldier, residing in Hong Kong, was found to cause hemolysis of reagent ABO red cells (RBCs) in the reverse blood grouping test. Subsequent follow-up studies revealed that he was of the p phenotype, with potent anti-PP1Pk that was strongly hemolytic both at room temperature and 37°C. The anti-PP1Pk was composed of IgG and IgM, and its various components were separable.

C.K. Lin, K.H. Mak, C.K. Cheng, C.P. Yang

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 1, 30–32

Article | 15-February-2021

Donath-Landsteiner test

The Donath-Landsteiner (DL) test is a serologic test used to detect the presence of a biphasic hemolysin, seen in patients with paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH). The test relies on the characteristic cold binding of an IgG autoantibody with specificity to the P blood group antigen, which causes complement-mediated red blood cell (RBC) lysis when warmed to body temperature. Julius Donath and Karl Landsteiner first described the antibody responsible for this hemolysis in 1904.1 DL antibodies

M. Kilty, T.S. Ipe

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 3–6

Article | 09-November-2020

Immune hemolytic anemia due to diclofenac

A 37-year-old male presented with severe anemia, mild jaundice, and hemoglobinuria during his second course of diclofenac for gout. The peripheral blood showed microspherocytes and nucleated red blood cells (RBCs). The reticulocyte count was 21 percent and haptoglobin was < 0.1 g/L. A presumptive diagnosis of diclofenac-induced immune hemolysis was made and blood, urine, and drug samples were referred for investigation. Direct antiglobulin testing showed the RBCs to be coated with IgG1, IgG4

S.T. Laidlaw, R. Stamps, D.J. Booker, M.J. Brown, R.J. Sokol

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 9–11

Case report | 06-December-2020

Case report: serologic confirmation of paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria

A child with a history of recent viral infection entered the hospital with severe anemia, hemoglobinuria, and suspected autoimmune disease. Serologic findings included a positive direct antiglobulin test and incompatible crossmatches. Extensive studies, including a Donath-Landsteiner test, confirmed paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. The child was transfused several times with washed red blood cells compatible by prewarm technique. Although hemolysis continued after each transfusion, he stabilized

Carol A. Putnam

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 1, 19–21

Review | 01-December-2019

Cartwright blood group system review

The Cartwright (Yt) blood group system consists of two antigens, Yta and Ytb, that result from point mutations in the acetylcholinesterase gene on chromosome 7q. Yta is a highincidence antigen, whereas its antithetical antigen, Ytb, shows much lower incidence. Anti-Yta and anti-Ytb are relatively rare. Anti-Yta is more commonly found in individuals of Jewish descent. Cartwright antibodies are rarely clinically significant; however, cases of in vivo hemolysis have been reported, suggesting that

Melissa R. George

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 49–54

Article | 16-May-2020

Maternal alloanti-hrS - an absence of HDN

A 24-year old female,gravida III,para III,delivered a full-term infant by cesarean section. A maternal blood sample at the time of admission showed antibody in her serum that had apparent anti-e specificity and that her RBCs were e+. Further studies determined that the antibody was anti-hrS. Cord RBCs had a negative DAT and a normal Hb level. There was no clinical evidence for increased hemolysis in the infant. We describe an hrS+ infant with no evidence of HDN due to anti-hrS.

Ram Kakaiya, Jill Cseri, Beth Jochum, Laurie Gillard, Simone Silberman

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 3, 187–189

Letter to Editor | 06-December-2020

Letter to the Editor: A fatal case of tolmetin-induced immune hemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute renal failure

Valerie Jackson, Aaron M. Josephson, Jill Storry, Debra Futral, Floyd T. Boudreau

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 3, 79–79

Article | 30-November-2020

Misidentification of anti-Vel due to inappropriate use of prewarming and adsorption techniques

the reactivity at the IAT. The patient was transfused with two units of washed RBCs and died 6 to 8 hours later. Retrospective testing in our laboratory detected anti-Vel in both pretransfusion and posttransfusion samples. The pretransfusion serum was hemolytic when tested in LISS or with papain-treated RBCs. Weak reactivity (1+) was observed at the IAT. EDTA-treated serum (to prevent C‘-mediated hemolysis) was strongly reactive (3+s) with Vel+ RBCs but compatible with 10 examples of Vel

Jill Storry, Delores Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 3, 83–86

Article | 02-May-2020

Cefotetan-induced immune hemolytic anemia following prophylaxis for cesarean delivery

treatment with two units of PRBCs and experienced gradual resolution of hemolysis. Our case emphasizes the need for increased awareness of delayed onset hemolytic anemia following prophylactic use of cefotetan.

Sherry Shariatmadar, Jill R. Storry, Laima Sausais, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 63–66

Case report | 01-December-2019

Anti-Ge2: further evidence for lack of clinical significance

dehydrogenase, and urine hemoglobin were within normal limits. A monocyte monolayer assay performed on this anti-Ge2 supports the data that antibodies of this specificity do not cause hemolysis. The clinical and laboratory data obtained in our patient clearly indicated that no hemolysis of transfused RBCs occurred during and for 24 hours after transfusion. We believe that this report adds to a limited experience with antiGe2 and provides further evidence for concluding that, in all likelihood, this is not a

Deepthi Karunasiri, Frederick Lowder, Nora Ostrzega, Dennis Goldfinger

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 4, 156–157

Report | 26-October-2019

Clinical and reference lab characteristics of patients with suspected direct antiglobulin test (DAT)-negative immune hemolytic anemia

Clinical evidence of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia is present in 1 percent to 10 percent of patients whose direct antiglobulin test (DAT) is negative. The clinical underpinnings associated with DAT-negative immune hemolysis are poorly understood, and the current study aimed to further define the clinical characteristics associated with this form of anemia. A 19-question survey, requesting clinical information about each patient, was retrospectively mailed to all referring labs that had sent

Matthew S. Karafin, Gregory A. Denomme, Michael Schanen, Jerome L. Gottschall

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 3, 108–115

Case Study | 16-May-2020

Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction due to anti-Fyb caused by a primary immune response: a case study and a review of the literature

suggest that DHTRs by a primary immune response may be considered even in the case of the patient who had typical evidence of hemolysis but who had no previous transfusion history.

Hyung Hoi Kim, Tae Sung Park, Seung Hwan Oh, Chulhun L. Chang, Eun Yup Lee, Han Chul Son

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 3, 184–186

case-report | 30-September-2021

A mild case of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-Sc2

Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) occurs when the pregnant mother is alloimmunized with immunoglobulin (Ig)G-type antibodies specific for antigens present on the red blood cells (RBCs) of the fetus. These antibodies cross the placenta, and hemolysis occurs when the maternal antibody binds to the fetal RBC antigens, generating a binding to the Fc receptor of macrophages in the spleen of the fetus. After delivery, the continuous destruction of RBCs can cause progressive anemia and

M.A. Núñez Ahumada, C.E. Arancibia Aros, C.E. Villalobos Pavez, F.M. Pontigo Gonzalez, V. Abarca Arce, M. Sandoval Medrano, S. Reyes Jorquera

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 3, 122–125

Article | 10-April-2021

A fatal case of acute hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by anti-Wra: case report and review of the literature

beats per minute [bpm]; normal range 60–100 bpm). Her body temperature rose from 37 to 38.1°C, and her O2 saturation level dropped to 75 percent (normal >95%). The transfusion was immediately stopped, and the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. The blood gas analysis showed reduced PO2 and increased lactate, and the blood samples taken right after the transfusion reaction showed visible hemolysis. Laboratory tests showed normal haptoglobin, increased total bilirubin (TB), high levels

A. Espinosa, L.J. Garvik, N. Trung Nguyen, B. Jacobsen

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 20–24

Review | 09-October-2019

The H blood group system

) status, and homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for null alleles is associated with the nonsecretor (se) status. H– individuals have natural anti-H (mostly IgM), which can cause severe hemolytic transfusion reactions with intravascular hemolysis.

Erwin Andreas Scharberg, Coral Olsen, Peter Bugert

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 112–118

Case report | 01-December-2019

Major non-ABO incompatibility caused by anti-Jka in a patient before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

A 49-year-old white man with blood group AB, D+ was found to have alloanti-Jka and -K when he developed a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Given that his stem cell donor was blood group O, D+, Jk(a+), K–, rituximab was added to his conditioning regimen of fludarabine and melphalan to prevent hemolysis of engrafting Jk(a+) donor red blood cells. The patient proceeded to receive a peripheral blood stem cell transplant from a

Miriam Y. Kim, Preeti Chaudhary, Ira A. Shulman, Vinod Pullarkat

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 11–14

Review | 01-April-2020

Transfusion of multiple units of Js(b+) red blood cells in the presence of anti-Jsb in a patient with sickleβ-thalassemia disease and a review of the literature

percent on day 2 after transfusion to strongly positive at 88 percent and 66.5 percent (with and without the addition of fresh serum) 1 week later. MMA reactivity of greater than 5 percent is associated with increased RBC destruction. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of increased hemolysis above baseline. However,decreased RBC survival was suggested by the relatively brisk decrease of the HbA1 fraction after the transfusions. The current case and others reported in the literature suggest

Shan Yuan, Nadia P. Ewing, Debra Bailey, Marissa Salvador, Shirong Wang

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 75–80

Report | 16-March-2020

Transfusion of rare cryopreserved red blood cell units stored at -80°C: the French experience

more. However, the lack of nucleic acid testing for HIV and HCV may be problematic for old RBC units drawn from donors who were not subsequently tested for these markers, which is now mandatory in most countries. Regarding the 118 transfused RBC units older than 10 years, no evidence of hemolysis of thawed RBCs and no transfusion reaction, clinical or biologic hemolysis, or transfusion ineffectiveness was reported, either by any of the parties involved in the transfusion supply of rare RBC units or

Thierry Peyrard, Bach-Nga Pham, Pierre-Yves Le Pennec, Philippe Rouger

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1, 13–17

Case report | 15-April-2020

Case report:moderate hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-G

Views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or U.S.Government. The only previously published case of anti-G in a pregnant woman indicated that anti-G alone caused little, if any, fetal or neonatal hemolysis. This report describes an affected fetus with amnionitic fluid OD 450 absorbance values in the moderate zone of the Liley prediction graph who required prolonged phototherapy

Aaron R. Huber, George T. Leonard, Rita W. Driggers, Sakhone B. Learn, Colleen W. Gilstad

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 166–170

Case report | 30-November-2020

Case report: IgG1 Rh antibodies causing moderate hemolytic disease of the newborn

A gravida 3, para 1, 32-year-old black female presented at 27 weeks gestation for routine prenatal serologic tests. She typed as group A, D positive, category DIII mosaic. IgG1 anti-D, -hrB, and -E were identified in her serum. Ultrasound revealed an apparently normal fetus with no evidence of hydrops or ascites. Amniocentesis, performed at 30, 33, and 35 weeks, showed some evidence of hemolysis that did not increase over time. At 36 weeks of gestation, she delivered a full-term infant who

C. Faye Kugele, Cindy K. Oliver, Maria A. Carney, Jayne Hollander

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 4, 124–126

Article | 16-October-2019

Detecting polyagglutinable red blood cells

Polyagglutination is a condition in which red blood cells (RBCs) are agglutinated by normal adult human sera but not by autologous or newborn sera. Polyagglutination is caused by changes in the RBC membrane that enable patient RBCs to agglutinate with normal human sera; this agglutination can interfere with blood bank testing. Depending on the cause, polyagglutination may or may not be the cause of RBC hemolysis. Lectins and human sera can be used to detect polyagglutinable RBCs. Identification

Cami Melland, Connie Hintz

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 3, 113–117

Article | 22-January-2021

Anti-Ata in a renal transplant candidate: a case report

Phagocytic index, % Fresh complement Donor 1 At(a+) 13.4 With 12.0 Without Donor 2 At(a+) 13.8 With 16.1 Without Patient (control) At(a-) 0.2 Without As shown in Table 1, all of the PI values of the two donors are over 10 percent, which indicates the anti-Ata might have been capable of causing hemolysis of transfused At(a+) RBCs in vivo. In addition, the PI values with or without fresh complement did not show a significant difference. The sensitization step with added fresh complement is

J. Gao, S. Wise, S.H. Tinsley, J.F. Shikle

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 3, 104–107

Report | 09-October-2019

A detailed flow cytometric method for detection of low-level in vivo red blood  cell–bound IgG, IgA, and IgM

when tested with Ig-coated RBCs and the least amount of fluorescence when tested with naive RBCs. Tannic acid was used to prepare Ig-coated RBCs. Cross-reactivity of FITC-conjugated anti-IgG, -IgA, and -IgM with Ig-coated RBCs was evaluated, and a reference range was established. Use of this method may assist in clinical evaluation of patients who present with hemolysis and a negative direct antiglobulin test.

Wendy Beres, Geralyn M. Meny, Sandra Nance

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 161–169

Article | 09-November-2020

A maternal warm-reactive autoantibody presenting as a positive direct antiglobulin test in a neonate

. Umbilical cord blood testing revealed a panreactive eluate though the antibody was not detected in cord serum. The neonate’s mother was also found to have a positive DAT. A panagglutinin was identified in an eluate of her red cells, although the autoantibody could not be detected in her serum by a variety of sensitive techniques. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of maternal hemolysis.

Terry D. Williamson, Linda H. Liles, Douglas P. Blackall

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 6–8

Review | 14-March-2020

The Cromer blood group system: a review

protein. The RBCs of people with the Cromer null phenotype, Inab, lack DAF but do not appear to demonstrate increased susceptibility to hemolysis. Antibodies to Cromer antigens are rarely encountered, although there is evidence that the antibodies may cause accelerated destruction of transfused RBCs. There is no risk of HDN associated with Cromer system antibodies because the placenta is a rich source of fetally derived DAF, which is thought to adsorb the antibodies.

Jill R. Storry, Marion E. Reid, Mark H. Yazer

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 109–117

Article | 01-April-2020

Reduced red blood cell destruction by antibody fragments

Antibodies to blood group antigens can cause immune RBC destruction directly (extravascular destruction) or indirectly through subsequent complement activation (intravascular hemolysis). The Fc portion of the IgG antibody is responsible for the effector functions of immune RBC destruction. We hypothesized that sensitization of RBCs with blood group antigen–specific IgG antibodies lacking their Fc portion would escape from the recipient’s immune system, allowing for a longer survival

Amina Mqadmi, Steven Abramowitz, Xiaoying Zheng, Karina Yazdanbakhsh

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 11–14

Case report | 14-October-2020

Autoanti-D in a patient after cladribine treatment for lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma

phenotype of the patient as ccDEe. No hemolysis was evident, as judged by the absence of anemia, a bilirubin of 15.7 μmol/L, and lactic dehydrogenase of 412 IU/L. When an anti-D is identified in a D+ blood recipient, a passive transfer of anti-D, and an alloimmunization in a recipient with a weak D phenotype, should be ruled out. Finally, as in our case, an autoantibody is an additional possibility.

Joan Cid, Victor Beltran, L. Escoda, Enric Elies, Carmen Martin-Vega

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 16–18

Article | 16-February-2021

An update on the Cartwright (Yt) blood group system

M.R. George

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 154–155

Article | 06-December-2020

Reactive lysis - a phenomenon of delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions

posttransfusion, a mixed-field anti-IgG direct antiglobulin test (DAT) indicated that there were two cell populations present. The DAT remained positive with anti-C3b, -C3d throughout the course of the reaction. Because of the substantially lower Hb and the severity of symptoms, immunologic clearance of the antigen-positive donor RBCs was expected. However, we demonstrated their persistence. Our data corroborates the observation that complement activation occurring during DHTRs can result in the hemolysis of

Deborah L. Greene, Sanobar Khan

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 3, 74–77

Case report | 09-October-2019

Postpartum acute hemolytic transfusion reactions associated with anti-Lea in two pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia

, red blood cell units, compatible by electronic crossmatch, were issued and transfused. The subsequent transfusion reactions were characterized by acute intravascular hemolysis, evidenced by both clinical and laboratory criteria. These two cases demonstrate that, even when least anticipated, hemolytic transfusion reactions may occur. As expected, neither live-born neonate was affected by hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Because both transfusion reactions occurred in non–group O

Marcia Marchese

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 114–118

Article | 14-October-2020

The investigation of the significance of a positive direct antiglobulin test in blood donors

samples were not included in this study. With a tube test, most of the antibodies had titers from 4 to 8. IgG subclass studies showed that 14 of 25 samples with reactive eluates contained IgG1, one contained IgG1+IgG2, one contained IgG1+IgG4, and two contained IgG1+IgG3 weak. The frequency of donors with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was ~ 1 in 3000 and males were twice as likely to be DAT positive (8 females vs. 17 males in this study). None of the donors had hemolysis. Two donors showed

Marianna Bellia, John Georgopoulos, Vasilis Tsevrenis, Efrosini Nomikou, Niki Vgontza, I. Kontogpoulous-Griva

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 3, 78–81

Article | 20-December-2020

Two cases of autoantibodies that demonstrate mimicking specificity in the Duffy blood group system

unusual character­istic seen in both of these cases was hemolysis in the EDTA cell samples but none in the clotted samples.

Teresa Y. Harris

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 4, 87–91

Article | 14-October-2020

Antibody screening in 37°C saline. Is it safe to omit it using the indirect antiglobulin (gel) test?

pretransfusion samples were tested as they were received (from May 1998 to December 1999), in 37°C saline and by IAT using the DiaMed gel system. The screening tests were performed using 50 µL of 0.8% low-ionic-strength saline suspended RBCs and 50 µL of plasma. The tests were examined for agglutination and hemolysis. Two hundred and thirty three samples (9.81%) were reactive by IAT and 88 (3.70%) by 37°C saline. All 88 samples reactive by 37°C saline also reacted by IAT. These data

José A. Duran, Manuel Figueiredo

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 13–15

Article | 14-October-2020

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by anti-Coa

Randal B. Covin, Karen S. Evans, Richard Olshock, Hannis W. Thompson

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 2, 45–49

Article | 06-December-2020

Anti-Uz found in mother's serum and child's eluate

(DAT) and the autocontrol were negative. Her serum reacted stronger with S+ RBCs only in the antiglobulin phase, and failed to react with U- or ficin-treated RBCs. The antibody was adsorbed completely by S-s+U+ RBCs, proving that anti-S was not present. Monocyte monolayer assay results with S+s-U+ and S-s+U+ RBCs indicated that transfusion of incompatible blood would not result in significant hemolysis. The child's cord RBCs typed S-s+. The DAT was 3+ with anti-IgG, and an eluate prepared from

Sandra M. Read, Mary M. Taylor, Marion E. Reid, Mark A. Popovsky

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 2, 47–49

Article | 14-October-2020

A gel microtyping system for diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), an acquired stem cell defect, is underdiagnosed because of its atypical symptoms in some patients and because available methods, which are time consuming and complicated, are not widely used. The hemolysis of PNH red blood cells (RBCs) is attributed to their enhanced susceptibility to complement lysis caused by a deficiency in glycosylsphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored complement regulatory membrane proteins, especially membrane inhibitor of reactive

Barbara Zupanska, Irena Bogdanik, Hanna Pyl

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 9–12

Article | 09-November-2020

Direct Coombs test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia and low-affinity IgG class antibodies

diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Red cell transfusions and corticosteroids were given with eventual complete recovery. A 73-year-old male had a hemoglobin of 89 g/L and haptoglobin of < 0.1 g/L. The DAT was initially negative but was positive for IgG using cold-washed (4°C) RBCs; it was also positive with unwashed cells in the DiaMed system and an eluate contained IgG1 autoantibody. AIHA was therefore confirmed and prednisolone started but continued hemolysis necessitated

R.J. Sokol, D.J. Booker, R. Stamps, S. Jalihal, B. Paul

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 115–118

Article | 10-April-2021

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by anti-Yta

patient’s plasma. Assuming this antibody could have been anti-S, and to avoid alloimmunization to E, RBC units transfused were also S– and E–. Another RBC unit was requested 6 days later for an Hb of 9.3 g/dL. The crossmatch was weakly positive. Additional studies revealed the presence of anti-D and -C and an apparent alloantibody to the HPA. Findings of the serologic investigation were communicated to the clinic. Laboratory parameters were negative for hemolysis (total bilirubin [TB] 20 µmol/L, normal

M. Raos, N. Thornton, M. Lukic, B. Golubic Cepulic

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 13–17

Article | 09-November-2020

Clinical significance of an anti-Dib assessed by flow cytometry

Although antibodies to the Dib antigen are generally considered to be of potential clinical significance, we know of no reports assessing the clinical significance of anti-Dib (in vivo or in vitro). We report on an 88-year-old Japanese male gastrectomy patient who had alloanti-Dib. After transfusion of two Di(b–) units, three Di(b+) units had to be transfused, and there were no clinical signs of acute hemolysis. Di(b+) RBC survival was followed retrospectively by flow cytometry. On days 1

Regina M. Leger, Patricia A. Arndt, Asuncion Co, Lauren O’Brien, George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 3, 93–96

Report | 14-March-2020

The significance of a positive DAT in thalassemia patients

positive DAT than nonalloimmunized patients, but this association was not significant (OR, 2.2; p = 0.11). A positive DAT did not correlate with decreased response to transfusion, RBC survival, hemolysis, or increased transfusion requirements. Only two cases of early alloimmunization were detected by DAT among 288 DATpositive samples studied during 4 years. This study demonstrated that the routine performance of DATs on pretransfusion specimens in thalassemic patients has limited clinical utility, and

Suzanne A. Arinsburg, Donna L. Skerrett, Dorothy Kleinert, Patricia J. Giardina, Melissa M. Cushing

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 87–91

Case report | 09-October-2019

Development of red blood cell autoantibodies following treatment with checkpoint inhibitors: a new class of anti-neoplastic, immunotherapeutic agents associated with immune dysregulation

chart review, including serologic, hematology, and chemistry laboratory results, of two patients who developed red blood cell (RBC) autoantibodies during treatment with a checkpoint inhibitor. Serologic testing of blood samples from these patients during induction therapy with ipilimumab and nivolumab, respectively, showed their RBCs to be positive by the direct antiglobulin test (IgG+, C3+) and their plasma to contain panreactive RBC autoantibodies. Neither patient had evidence of hemolysis. Both

Laura L.W. Cooling, John Sherbeck, Jonathon C. Mowers, Sheri L. Hugan

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 1, 15–21

Article | 22-November-2020

Cefotetan-induced immune hemolytic anemia due to the drug-adsorption mechanism

Positive direct antiglobulin tests (DATs) associated with cephalosporin therapy have been reported, but rarely were associated with immune hemolytic anemia (IHA). In 1989, we described the first case of IHA associated with cefotetan (Cefotan™) causing hemolysis by the drug-adsorption mechanism. We now report the full details of our investigation. The patient was a 23-year-old female with a 2 1/2 year history of chronic ulcerative colitis. After 4 days of therapy with cefotetan (2 g/day

Robert J. Eckrich, Susan Fox, Delores Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 2, 51–54

Article | 06-December-2020

Serologic investigation of fatal hemolytic anemia associated with a multiple drug history and Rh-like autoantibody

A patient who expired during an episode of gross intravascular hemolysis had a complex medical history, including renal disease, Coombs positive anemia of unclear etiology, recent transfusion, and cholecystectomy. Drug history included 21 different medications, including penicillin, acetaminophen, procainamide, furosemide, sulindac, and tolmetin, all of which have been associated with a positive direct antiglobulin test or drug-induced hemolytic anemia. The patient had a history of recent use

Nancy I. Maddox, Debra Futral, Floyd T. Boudreau

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 3, 70–76

Article | 03-November-2020

Improved detection of weak, clinically significant antibodies by supplementation of polyethylene glycol with a low-ionic solution

268 by both saline-IAGTs and RAM-IAGTs. The four antibodies that were not detected were identified as anti-D, anti-E, anti-Bga, and an autoantibody known previously to be only reactive with papain-pretreated red cells. No nonspecific reactions were detected by PEG-IAGTs and no hemolysis was evident in any of the IAGTs. PEG-IAGTs were more sensitive than saline- and RAM-IAGTs. PEG-IAGTs detected all weak, clinically significant antibodies as well as four antibodies that were otherwise undetected by

Kim Swee Low, Yew-Wah Liew, Peter M. Bradley

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 68–71

Article | 17-February-2021

A prospective, observational study for optimization of antibody screening in pretransfusion compatibility testing

in these studies demonstrated any clinical or serologic evidence of hemolysis.4–7 The safety of this approach was further evaluated in massive transfusion and also in patients with autoantibodies.8–13 The Indian literature has some data in which transfusion safety with the use of TS and IST crossmatch has been compared with AHG crossmatch.14–18 These studies have revealed that the TS approach is safe and cost-effective. Despite knowing the use of AS, it has not been uniformly adopted as a part of

P. Pandey, D. Setya, R. Srivastava, M.K. Singh

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 1, 19–28

original-report | 25-June-2021

Effect of cryopreservation on a rare McLeod donor red blood cell concentrate

Cryopreservation of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates is used for long-term storage of rare phenotyped RBCs to provide life-saving therapies to patients. To produce these components in Canada, blood manufacturers must demonstrate that the production method they use yields RBC units that meet regulatory guidelines for hemolysis, hemoglobin (Hgb) content, and RBC recovery.1 The Canadian Blood Services (CBS) Rare Blood Program maintains a carefully selected inventory of cryopreserved RBCs with

T.R. Turner, G. Clarke, G.A. Denomme, R. Skeate, J.P. Acker

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 78–83

Case report | 09-October-2019

Hematologic complications in a patient with Glycine soja polyagglutination following fresh frozen plasma transfusion

Polyagglutination is a rare and underdiagnosed condition, characterized by agglutination of red blood cells (RBCs) with almost all ABO-compatible adult sera. Polyagglutination can occur when a cryptantigen is exposed on RBCs via microbial enzyme activity. Because nearly all adults naturally produce antibodies against cryptantigens, transfusion of plasma can cause unexpected hemolysis and hematologic complications, such as thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, in patients

Ryan P. Jajosky, Lloyd O. Cook, Elizabeth Manaloor, James F. Shikle, Roni J. Bollag

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 51–55

Case report | 26-October-2019

Anti-Jk3 in a Filipino man

laboratory for further testing. Results from the reference lab testing revealed the presence of anti-Jk3 in the patient’s serum. The patient was placed on steroids, and his reticulocyte count increased with no further signs of extravascular hemolysis. No additional transfusions were necessary. He was eventually discharged with a hemoglobin of 13.6 g/dL. The purpose of this case study is to report the findings of an extremely rare but clinically significant antibody, anti-Jk3.

Shaina McCaskill, Scott Wise, Sheila Tinsley

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 3, 119–122

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