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Research Article

CRESOLS AND THE MICROORGANISMS OF THE SOIL ENVIRONMENT

Phenolic compounds, including cresols, in the soil environment are a result of natural processes such as: biodegradation of lignins and tannins, and anthropogenic activity. Cresols are present in disinfectants as well as in the wastewater from chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, paper and textile industry. They are also used in the production of insecticides, herbicides, medicines and antioxidants and have been classified as hazardous substances. Exposure of microorganisms to cresols can

Magdalena Zaborowska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 7–17

Research Article

AMYLOIDS, COMMON PROTEINS AMONG MICROORGANISMS

Historically, the term amyloid was used strictly with reference to human neurodegenerative diseases. Nowadays, it is known that many proteins have the potential to conformational changes into β-sheet structures with tendency to form insoluble amyloid fibrils. Moreover, amyloid proteins are widespread among microorganisms. Bacteria and fungi produce functional amyloids which exhibit all characteristics of amyloid proteins, but in contrast to a numerous group of human toxic amyloids, they

Barbara Katarzyna Pawłowska, Beata Magdalena Sobieszczańska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 77–87

Research Article

DEADLY MICROBES – MICROBES USED AS A BIOLOGICAL WEAPON

, which significantly interferes with a sense of security and restricts the freedom of human activities. Currently, biological terrorism is a global threat associated with the use of weapons for political or religious reasons. The threat from radical religious fundamentalists is particularly dangerous. The most common biological threat agents are microorganisms causing zoonoses, i.e. diseases which can be transmitted from animals to humans. The most dangerous are Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis

Karol Abramczyk, Anna Gałązka

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 395–404

Article

CHITINASES AS THE KEY TO THE INTERACTION BETWEEN PLANTS AND MICROORGANISMS

Anna Kisiel, Katarzyna Jęckowska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 317–327

original-paper

The Influence of Temperature and Nitrogen Source on Cellulolytic Potential of Microbiota Isolated from Natural Environment

straw residues to increase the content of available nutrients and humus in the soil. Microorganisms play the important role in cellulose degrading in the natural environment. They evolved different mechanisms to degrade cellulose, lignocellulose, and hemicelluloses, mostly based on producing and secreting a combination of synergistically active enzymes (hydrolytic glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, polysaccharide lyases and cellodextrin phosphorylases) (Bomble et al. 2017). Microorganisms

AGNIESZKA WITA, WOJCIECH BIAŁAS, RADOSŁAW WILK, KATARZYNA SZYCHOWSKA, KATARZYNA CZACZYK

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 105–114

Research Article

GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION METHODS OF MICROORGANISMS IN THE SOIL – PLANT SYSTEM

Biodiversity is a key concept in finding important features of new microorganisms. Microorganisms play an important role in the soil ecosystem and participate, among others, in such processes as the maintenance of soil structure, humification, release of organic compounds, disposal of pollutants and transformation of organic matter. The maintenance of competent state of soil microbial communities, i.e. the appropriate microorganism count, activity and diversity, is a necessary condition for the

Małgorzata Łyszcz, Anna Gałązka

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 341–352

Research Article

MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE FACILITIES AND NATURAL GAS PIPELINES

The growing demand for natural gas is primarily due to an increase in the share of gas in electricity production. Replacing coal with natural gas results in a significant decrease in emissions of greenhouse gases and dusts. The presence of microorganisms may be the cause of underground gas storage (UGS) facilities and pipelines deterioration. Microorganisms and their metabolic products contribute to the formation of sudden and unexpected failure causing loss of energy security by: decline in

Agnieszka Staniszewska, Alin Kunicka-Styczyńska, Krzysztof Ziemiński

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 381–388

Research Article

BIOCHEMICAL METHODS FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL DIVERSITY OF MICROORGANISMS IN THE SOIL ENVIRONMENT

Soil microbiome is composed of groups of microorganisms which are structurally and functionally very different. For many years soil microbiome has been the subject of numerous studies, but still is not fully recognized. It is well known that soil microorganisms play a key role in biogeochemical processes. Knowledge of their structural and functional diversity makes it possible to assess the condition of the soil environment, which is extremely important for agronomy and ecology. The

Karolina Furtak, Anna M. Gajda

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 194–202

Research Article

NITROAROMATIC COMPOUNDS – CHARACTERISTICS AND METHODS OF BIODEGRADATION

information regarding their proprieties, synthesis and sources as well as pathways of microbial aerobic or anaerobic degradation are described. In some cases microorganisms have evolved several pathways of degradation specific nitrocompound, for instance nitrobenzene, which we describe in detail. The second part of the publication focuses on environmental bioremediation of nitrocompounds.

Alicja Wysocka, Agata Olszyna, Iga Komorowska, Magdalena Popowska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 289–305

research-article

THE USAGE OF ULTRASOUNDS TO DISINTEGRATE ESCHERICHIA COLI BACTERIA CONTAINED IN TREATED WASTEWATER

1. INTRODUCTION Wastewater and sewage sludge is a place of occurrence of the many microorganisms, including pathogenic and relatively pathogenic bacteria. Their number is subject to significant changes over time, and depends on many factors such as: type of wastewater flowing into the treatment plant, or the presence of substances that are a source of food for microorganisms. Wastewater allows microorganisms to enter other environments, such as receiver waters or soil. The type of pathogens

Eliza HAWRYLIK

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 131–136

Article

CHARACTERISTICS AND USE OF MULTICOPPER OXIDASES ENZYMES

in signal transduction [95]. AO has also been described in microorganisms, including Myrothecium verrucaria, Aerobacter aerogenes, Acremonium sp. HI-25 [60, 80]. In contrast to laccases which act as monomers, it is necessary to create a homodimer structure for proper functioning of the AO. Such a protein structure also performs stabilizing functions [61]. The copper efflux oxidase (CueO), which is present in periplasm in E. coli, may oxidize p-phenylenediamine and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. Like some

Aleksandra Góralczyk-Bińkowska, Anna Jasińska, Jerzy Długoński

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 7–18

Article

THE RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIOME AND ITS BENEFICIAL EFFECTS ON PLANTS – CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND PERSPECTIVES

and nutrients, and also supporting leaves and other organs, and (3) the shoot, which produces leaves, flowers and fruit and enables effective nutrition of plants through photosynthesis and is also responsible for the reproduction process [48, 63]. Plants are colonised by an extremely high number of (micro)organisms, which can reach cell density much greater than the number of cells in the plant itself. In addition, the number of the genes of the microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere

Małgorzata Woźniak, Anna Gałązka

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 59–69

Research Article

PROBIOTICS AND MAMMALIAN GASTROINTESTINAL IMMUNE SYSTEM

Probiotics are microorganisms that provide health benefits when consumed. These are also food supplements or food products containing specified probiotic microorganisms. Probiotic microorganisms colonize the gastrointestinal tract of the host environment, reducing the risk of pathogenic bacteria growth and their potential impact on the regulation of host immune responses. They also have the ability to eliminate pathogenic bacteria. The administration of probiotic microorganisms in addition to

Beata Tokarz-Deptuła, Wiesław Deptuła

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 157–162

Research Article

MECHANISMS OF ARSENIC TOXICITY AND TRANSPORT IN MICROORGANISMS

Seweryn Mucha, Mateusz Berezowski, Katarzyna Markowska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 88–99

Article

MICROORGANISMS AS INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR BIOLOGICAL POLLUTION

, as well as natural substances in significantly increased quantities. The Earth’s atmosphere is composed of gases and vapours of chemical compounds, acid rain, airborne ashes, dust, trace elements and biological contaminants [26]. Biological air pollutants, also known as bioaerosols, include pollen, fungi, bacteria and viruses [5]. Most are microorganisms that colonise the soil, water bodies, plant surfaces, rocks and buildings [85]. The components of the bioaerosol that make up the dispersed

Sylwia Siebielec, Małgorzata Woźniak, Anna Gałązka, Grzegorz Siebielec

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 115–127

original-paper

Characterization of Microbial Diversity and Community Structure in Fermentation Pit Mud of Different Ages for Production of Strong-Aroma Baijiu

Introduction Strong-aroma Baijiu is a unique liquor that is clear and transparent and comprises of water, ethanol, and flavor compounds. The flavor compounds include acids, alcohols, esters, carbonyl, and phenolic compounds, etc. (Liu and Sun 2018; Wu et al. 2019; Zhao et al. 2019). Although the content of flavor compounds is less than 2%, it determines the consumers’ acceptance and preference of Baijiu (Zhao et al. 2018). Microorganisms produce most flavor compounds during fermentation. Strong

XU-JIA WANG, HONG-MEI ZHU, ZHI-QIANG REN, ZHI-GUO HUANG, CHUN-HUI WEI, JIE DENG

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 151–164

Original Paper

The Diversity, Growth Promoting Abilities and Anti-microbial Activities of Bacteria Isolated from the Fruiting Body of Agaricus bisporus

Agaricus bisporus plays an important role in ecological processes and is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms worldwide. Mushroom growth-promoting bacteria have been isolated from casing soil and compost, but microorganisms in the fruiting body have received only a little attention. To get an overview of phylogenetic diversity of microorganisms in the fruiting body of A. bisporus, as well as to screen antimicrobial and mushroom growth-promoting strains, and eventually intensify mushroom

Quanju Xiang, Lihua Luo, Yuhuan Liang, Qiang Chen, Xiaoping Zhang, Yunfu Gu

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 201–207

minireview

The State of Research on Antimicrobial Activity of Cold Plasma

. 2013). The degradation of DNA caused by UV radiation could also be involved in the inactivation of microorganisms. Photons present in the plasma can alter the structure of the nucleic acids, leading to the formation of nitrogen base dimers and impairment of DNA replication capacity (Beggs 2002; Liao et al. 2017). The contribution of each of the mechanisms and their effectiveness in biological inactivation vary and depend primarily on the parameters of the plasma generation process, environmental

IWONA NIEDŹWIEDŹ, ADAM WAŚKO, JOANNA PAWŁAT, MAGDALENA POLAK-BERECKA

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 153–164

Research Article

THE HUMAN MICROBIOME

The human microbiome is represented by bacteria, archea, viruses, including bacteriophages, and fungi. These microorganisms colonize the human body and are necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis, including human immune status. Even though human microbiome is vital for the functioning of the human organism, it is still poorly understood, especially when it comes to archea, but also viruses and fungi. The aim of this study is to present the current state of knowlegde about the

Magdalena Malinowska, Beata Tokarz-Deptuła, Wiesław Deptuła

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 33–42

Original Paper

Screening and Identification of Trichoderma Strains Isolated from Natural Habitats with Potential to Cellulose and Xylan Degrading Enzymes Production

ROMAN MARECIK, LIDIA BŁASZCZYK, RÓŻA BIEGAŃSKA-MARECIK, AGNIESZKA PIOTROWSKA-CYPLIK

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, –

Research Article

THE APPLICATION OF GENOTYPING AND PHENOTYPING TECHNIQUES FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MICROORGANISMS

Marcin Brzozowski, Paweł Kwiatkowski, Joanna Jursa-Kulesza, Danuta Kosik-Bogacka

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 353–366

Research Article

IDENTIFICATION OF TWO TYPES OF ROTTEN MEAT USING AN ELECTRONIC NOSE FOR FOOD QUALITY CONTROL

Microorganisms are contained in all foods, some of them don't pose a risk for consumers, but many others became pathogenic, because of bad conservation or expired dates. Food will be degraded when the number of microorganisms became very large. The focus in this paper will be on the design of an electronic nose used in detecting rotten food. This nose is applied to detect bad odor diffused by rotten beef, and rotten chicken those meat have almost the same odor at rottenness which is not easily

Nihad Benabdellah, Khalid Hachami, Mohammed Bourhaleb, Naima Benazzi

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 3, 673–695

Mini Review

Are Probiotic Really Safe for Humans?

Probiotic bacteria have been used as a health-promoting factor for a very long time. Nowadays, products containing probiotic bacteria are becoming more and more popular on the market. The term probiotics refers to the products belonging to the following groups: probiotic drugs (medicinal products – live biotherapeutic products for human use), medical devices, probiotic foods (e.g. foods, food ingredients, dietary supplements or food for special medical purposes), directly fed microorganisms

ANNA ZAWISTOWSKA-ROJEK, STEFAN TYSKI

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 251–258

Article

POLY-3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE AS AN EXAMPLE OF A BIOPOLYMER PRODUCED BY METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA

, non-renewable resources (mainly crude oil) are used for their production, and the energy used in the production process is difficult to recover. In response to these challenges, alternatives to conventional polymers have been sought. The industry focused on the production of plastics is now paying increasing attention to biopolymers of natural origin, which unlike the synthetic ones, are easily decomposed by soil microorganisms, and are broken down into non-toxic compounds such as carbon dioxide

Adam Kubaczyński, Anna Pytlak, Zofia Stępniewska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 329–338

Research Article

CHANGES IN THE TAXONOMY OF γ-PROTEOBACTERIA, MODIFICATION OF THE ORDER ENTEROBACTERIALES AND NOVEL FAMILIES WITHIN ENTEROBACTERALES ORD. NOV.

Prokaryotic diversity increases every year with each new described species. Since the first discoveries of microorganisms, researchers’ endeavours are dedicated to the systematisation of all known living organisms in a consistent taxonomy. Originally based on morphology, in recent years modern taxonomy develops thanks to the implemenation of new discoveries in the fields of biochemistry and genetics. In the last thirty years, ribotyping was the leading technique used to classify

Paweł Nawrotek, Bartłomiej Grygorcewicz, Adrian Augustyniak

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 465–469

Original Paper

Levels of Organic Compounds, Number of Microorganisms and Cadmium Accumulation in Festuca ovina Hydroponic Culture

Małgorzata Majewska, Anna Słomka

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 191–200

Original Paper

Characterization of Endolithic Culturable Microbial Communities in Carbonate Rocks from a Typical Karst Canyon in Guizhou (China)

The endolithic environment is a ubiquitous habitat for microorganisms and a critical interface between biology and geology. In this study, a culture-based method and the phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were used to investigate the diversity of endolithic bacteria and fungi in two main types of carbonate rocks (namely dolomite and limestone) from Nanjiang Canyon in Guizhou karst area, China. The results of bacterial diversity indicated that

Yuan Tang, Jian-Zhong Cheng, Bin Lian

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 413–423

Research Article

FRUCTOPHILIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA (FLAB) – A NEW GROUP OF HETEROFERMENTATIVE MICROORGANISMS FROM THE PLANT ENVIRONMENT

Klaudia Gustaw, Magdalena Michalak, Magdalena Polak-Berecka, Adam Waśko

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 56–66

Original Paper

Characterization of Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Native Fruits of Ecuadorian Amazon

Tropical, wild-type fruits are considered biodiverse “hotspots” of microorganisms with possible functional characteristics to be investigated. In this study, several native lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of Ecuadorian Amazon showing highly inhibitory potential were identified and characterized. Based on carbohydrate fermentation profile and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, seven strains were assigned as Lactobacillus plantarum and one strain as Weissella confusa. Using agar-well diffusion

Karina Garzón, Clara Ortega, Gabriela N. Tenea

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 473–481

Article

USE OF COMPACT TRICKLE BED BIOREACTOR FOR THE PURIFICATION OF AIR FROM A VOC’s MIXTURE – PRELIMINARY RESEARCH

The study presents the preliminary results of research with the aim to test a Compact Trickle-Bed Bioreactor (CTBB) to the biopurification of air from VOC’s mixtures (ethyl alcohol, dimethyl sulphide, styrene). The experiments were performed using a 45 dm3 semi-industrial scale bioreactor in which gas and liquid phases flowed co-currently in downward direction through a bed made up of polyethylene rings. The bioreactor was inoculated with a co-culture of microorganisms including bacterial

Damian KASPERCZYK, Krzyszof BARBUSIŃSKI, Violetta KOZIK

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 137–143

Original Paper

Distribution and Identification of Endophytic Streptomyces Species from Schima wallichii as Potential Biocontrol Agents against Fungal Plant Pathogens

The prospective of endophytic microorganisms allied with medicinal plants is disproportionally large compared to those in other biomes. The use of antagonistic microorganisms to control devastating fungal pathogens is an attractive and eco-friendly substitute for chemi­cal pesticides. Many species of actinomycetes, especially the genus Streptomyces, are well known as biocontrol agents. We investigated the culturable community composition and biological control ability of endophytic

Ajit Kumar Passari, Vineet Kumar Mishra, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Ratul Saikia, Bhim Pratap Singh

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 319–329

Original Paper

Antimicrobial Effects of Platelet-rich Plasma against Selected Oral and Periodontal Pathogens

Antimicrobial properties of platelet rich plasma (PRP) against various microorganisms have been recently pointed out. PRP could be an alternative to conventional antibiotics in preventing oral and periodontal infections. We examined whether PRP has in vitro antimicrobial properties against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prophyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were obtained from whole blood of 10 healthy volunteers and 10

Reham L. Aggour, Lina Gamil

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 31–37

Short Communication

Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Selected Bacterial Groups in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

The aim of the study was evaluation of qualitative and quantitative changes in bacterial ecosystem in 109 children with inflammatory bowel diseases. Stools obtained from patients were analysed for selected bacteria and concentration of faecal inflammatory markers (calprotectin, lactoferrin, M2-PK). The number of selected microorganisms depends on the level of clinical activity of disease and is correlated with faecal concentration of inflammatory markers. Differences in microflora disturbance

Dorota Roszak, Mirosława Gałęcka, Wojciech Cichy, Patrycja Szachta

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 219–224

Short Communication

Vital Staining of Bacteria by Sunset Yellow Pigment

with sunset yellow. Our results suggest that sunset yellow is suitable pigment to dye microorganisms.

Peng Gao, Chengming Sun, Yuxia Li, Xiaohua Zou, Xun Wu, Yan Ling, Caifu Luan, Huipeng Chen

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 113–117

original-paper

Comparison of Rapid and Routine Methods of Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Microorganisms from Blood Culture Bottles

and may be present in the patient’s blood sample (Morrell et al. 2005; Kirn et al. 2014; Nataraj et al. 2016; Jacobs et al. 2017). Early and correct treatment of patients is essential for reducing morbidity and mortality. For this reason, rapid identification of microorganisms and antibiotic susceptibility testing is crucial. Due to Gram staining of microorganisms in blood cultures, their identification and antibiotic sensitivity results are obtained early, clinicians are informed quickly, and the

SADIK AKGUN, HAKAN SEZGIN SAYINER

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 165–176

Original Paper

Recovery of Gram-Positive Cocci and Candida albicans from Peroxygen/Silver-Based Disinfectants

all dilutions with all microorganisms. In conclusion, in-house made neutralizing broth effectively neutralized all disinfectants with all the tested microorganisms at 1:100 (v/v); thus, it can be used in sanitizer validation studies and EM media.

Mostafa E. Eissa, Ahmed S. Nouby

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 13–21

Original Paper

Detection of Acinetobacter spp. in Blood Cultures by an Improved Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization Assay

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) allows rapid detection of microorganisms. We aimed (i) to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of FISH for the detection of Acinetobacter spp. in blood culture specimens and (ii) to test the simultaneous application of two genus-specific probes labeled with the same fluorochrome to increase the fluorescent signal intensity and improve the detection of Acinetobacter spp. Three hundred and twenty blood culture specimens were tested via both the

Hanieh Asaadi, Behrouz Naeimi, Somayyeh Gharibi, Abdalnaser Khosravi, Sina Dobaradaran, Reza Taherkhani, Saeed Tajbakhsh

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 3–10

Research Article

FACTORS DETERMING THE ADHESIVE CAPACITY OF LACTOBACILLUS BACTERIA

The ability of Lactobacillus to adhere to the intestinal epithelium is one of the most important criterion in the selection of probiotic strains. Adherence allows microorganisms to survive and temporarily colonize the digestive system, which is necessary to induce beneficial effects on the host. Adhesion is a very complex, multistep process and, although there are many proposed theories, the exact mechanism is still not fully understood. A crucial role in the formation of the adhesive

Anna Paliwoda, Adriana Nowak

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 196–204

Research Article

METABOLITES OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA – OVERVIEW AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

Lactic acid bacteria are one of the most commonly found microorganisms in food. One of the reasons behind their popularity are their probiotic properties. Lactic acid bacteria produce a wide range of metabolites which often find use as antimicrobial agents or preservatives. The efficacy and efficiency of these compounds are vastly different. The most promising group of lactic acid bacteria metabolites are bacteriocins. However, there are crucial issues with the application of bacteriocins in

Katarzyna Ratajczak, Agnieszka Piotrowska-Cyplik

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 416–421

Research Article

PREDICTIVE MICROBIOLOGY OF FOOD

The beginnings of predictive microbiology date back to 1920 when Bigelow developed a logarithmic-linear dependence of kinetics on the death of microorganisms. Predictive microbiology is a sub-discipline of food microbiology, whose task is to predict the behavior of microorganisms in food using mathematical models. The predictive model for microbiology is usually a simplified description of the correlation between the observed reactions and the factors responsible for the occurrence of these

Elżbieta Rosiak, Katarzyna Kajak-Siemaszko, Monika Trząskowska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 229–243

Research Article

NON-CONVENTIONAL YEAST METSCHNIKOWIA PULCHERRIMA AND ITS APPLICATION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

Metschnikowia spp. are extensively studied “non-conventional” yeasts. Strains belonging to these genera are considered as non-pathogenic and safe. The unique properties of Metschnikowia spp. allow us to look at these microorganisms as a promising subject for evolutionary genetics, taxonomy, ecology, as well as a natural biocontrol agent in biotechnology. This article provides a synthesis of the systematics, morphology, ecology and physiology of Metschnikowia spp., with special

Ewelina Pawlikowska, Dorota Kręgiel

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 405–415

Review

The gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders

The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders. It is estimated that the human gut is colonized by up to 1018 microorganisms, mostly anaerobic bacteria. The gut microbiome is responsible for multiple functions, e.g. tightness of the intestine barrier, digestion and absorption. The correlation between gut dysbiosis and development of psychiatric, autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as bidirectional communication between

Marta Grochowska, Marcin Wojnar, Marek Radkowski

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 69–81

Short Communication

Influence of Pseudomonas and Bacillus Strains Isolated from Lolium perenne Rhizospheric Soil in Vojvodina (Serbia) on Planth Growth and Soil Microbial Communities

than with Bacillus sp. B1. Positive effect on the increase in the total number of microorganisms, aminoheterotrophs and azotobacter was also achieved. Bacillus sp. B1 increased only the number of actimycetes. Both isolates positively affected dehydrogenase activity (DHA).

Dragana R. Stamenov, Simonida Djuric, Timea Hajnal-Jafari, Snežana Andjelkovic

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 269–272

Research Article

BACTERIAL CHITINASES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

Chitin, an insoluble linear β-1,4-linked polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose. It is present in cell walls of several fungi, exoskeletons of insects and crustacean shells. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide is carried out in the presence of glycoside hydrolases-chitinases. They are produced by microorganisms, insects, plants, and animal, but it is the bacterial chitinases which play a fundamental role in degradation

Anna Kisiel, Ewa Kępczyńska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 306–315

Short Communication

Inhibition of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria by a Photoactivated Porphyrin

. coli and P. aeruginosa showed very low susceptibility.In a later stage, suspensions of Gram-negative bacteria were processed with EDTA before photo-activation, obtaining a significant decrease in viable counts. In view of the results, if the combination of low porphyrin concentrations and short irradiation times will be effectivein vivo also, this approach could be a possible alternative to antibiotics, in particular against localized infections due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

Moreno Bondi, Anna Mazzini, Simona De Niederhäusern, Ramona Iseppi, Patrizia Messi

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 533–536

Original Paper

Isolation of Bacterial Endophytes from Phalaris arundinacea and their Potential in Diclofenac and Sulfamethoxazole Degradation

Diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), an antimicrobial agent, are in common use and can be often detected in the environment. The constructed wetland systems (CWs) are one of the technologies to remove them from the aquatic environment. The final effect of the treatment processes depends on many factors, including the interaction between plants and the plant-associated microorganisms present in the system. Bacteria living inside the plant

ANNA WĘGRZYN, EWA FELIS

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 321–331

Research Article

PATHOGENIC FREE-LIVING AMOEBA

methods to identify the mechanisms of penetration, proliferation and exocytosis of many pathogenic microorganisms.

Natalia Łanocha-Arendarczyk, Danuta Kosik-Bogacka, Wojciech Zaorski, Karolina Kot, Katarzyna Galant, Aleksandra Łanocha

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 106–112

Research Article

ROLE OF MICROBIOTA IN MAINTAINING THE HOMEOSTASIS IN THE HUMAN BODY

The human body is believed to be occupied by around 4 × 1013 microorganism cells, which is 10 times the number of cells of the human body. Multidisciplinary studies conducted worldwide by microbiologists and physicians suggest that the microorganisms which colonize the human body can more actively influence the state of health than previously thought. The most important role in the regulation of the homeostasis is played by ontocenoses of the intestine. Imbalanced taxonomic composition

Katarzyna Góralska, Magdalena Dzikowiec

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 5–11

Research Article

BACTERIAL MOONLIGHTING PROTEINS

Existence of moonlighting proteins in microorganisms is a known phenomenon, yet still not well understood. Moonlighting proteins have at least two independent biological functions, which must be performed by one polypeptide chain without separation into protein domains. Most of these proteins, beside their role in the cytoplasm, play an important role outside of the cell i.e. they take part in the process of pathogenesis by binding and activating host’s plasminogen. The existence of

Jagoda Płaczkiewicz

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 226–232

Original Paper

Study of Acid Phosphatase in Solubilization of Inorganic Phosphates by Piriformospora indica

Phosphorus is an essential plant macronutrient present in the soil. Only a small portion of phosphorus in soil is taken up by plants and the rest of it becomes unavailable to plants as it is immobilized. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms play a vital role in converting the insoluble form of phosphates to the soluble form. The present paper reports the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate, single super phosphate, zinc phosphate and aluminum phosphate by Piriformospora

Seshagiri Swetha, Tallapragada Padmavathi

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 407–412

Original Paper

The Prevalence of Exoenzyme S Gene in Multidrug-Sensitive and Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Strains

Pseudomonas aeruginosa rods are one of the most commonly isolated microorganisms from clinical specimens, usually responsible for nosocomial infections. Antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa strains may present reduced expression of virulence factors. This fact may be caused by appropriate genome management to adapt to changing conditions of the hospital environment. Virulence factors genes maybe replaced by those crucial to survive, like antimicrobial resistance genes. The aim of this study was

Tomasz Bogiel, Aleksander Deptuła, Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg, Małgorzata Prażyńska, Agnieszka Mikucka, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 427–431

Original Paper

Characterisation of Antimicrobial Properties of Extracts of Selected Medicinal Plants

The scope of the experiments included analysis of the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts against bacterial and fungal cultures and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of plant extracts tested microbial growth. Analysis of the antifungal and antibacterial activity was carried out by the disc diffusion method using paper discs. In the experiment 11 species of microorganisms – 8 bacterial and 3 fungal strains were used. The highest

Monika Cioch, Paweł Satora, Magdalena Skotniczy, Dorota Semik-Szczurak, Tomasz Tarko

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 463–472

Article

USE OF BIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR REMOVAL OF H2S FROM BIOGAS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS – A REVIEW

Biogas is produced during anaerobic digestion of organic substances by a consortium of microorganisms. Biogas consists mainly of methane (CH4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Other gases such as dinitrogen (N2), water vapour (H2 O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and other sulfur compounds could also be found therein. Biogas produced by waste biomass has been recognized as one of the most important alternative energy sources in the recent years. In order to be used as a source of energy to

Krzysztof Barbusiński, Katarzyna Kalemba

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 103–112

research-article

PHYSICOCHEMICAL METHODS OF NITRATES REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER

, i.e. oxidation of ammonium ions and nitrate (III) by microorganisms, Atmospheric deposition from the emission of nitrogen oxides. However, a much higher amount of nitrates(V) in the waters is the result of human interaction through [3]: Outflow of inaccurately treated wastewater – mainly industrial wastewater, Surface run-off from fertilized fields. The risk of nitrate(V) overcharging to the aquatic environment is substantial as nitrate(V) ion derivatives and salts have been frequently used as

Maciej ŻOŁNIERCZYK, Krzysztof BARBUSIŃSKI

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 153–159

original-paper

Biodiversity of Bacteria Associated with Eight Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) P. Kumm. Strains from Poland, Japan and the USA

MARIUSZ ADAMSKI, STANISLAW J. PIETR

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 71–81

Original Paper

Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Carotenogenic Flavobacterial Isolates from Marine Waters

Carotenoids are known to possess immense nutraceutical properties and microorganisms are continuously being explored as natural source for production of carotenoids. In this study, pigmented bacteria belonging to Flavobacteriaceae family were isolated using kanamycin-containing marine agar and identified using the molecular techniques and their phenotypic characteristics were studied along with their potential to produce carotenoids. Analysis of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD

Rama Sowmya, Nakkarike M. Sachindra

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 77–88

Original Paper

Comparison of Microbial Communities Associated with Halophyte (Salsola stocksii) and Non-Halophyte (Triticum aestivum) Using Culture-Independent Approache

, Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, Thermotogae, Verrucomicrobia, Choroflexi and Euryarchaeota were predominant groups from halophyte whereas Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia were predominant phyla of wheat samples. Diversity and differences of microbial flora of Salsola and wheat suggested that functional interactions between plants and microorganisms contribute to salt stress tolerance.

Salma Mukhtar, Ayesha Ishaq, Sara Hassan, Samina Mehnaz, Muhammad S. Mirza, Kauser A. Malik

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 353–364

Mini Review

Secondary Metabolites of Actinomycetes and their Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antiviral Properties

The growing resistance of microorganisms towards antibiotics has become a serious global problem. Therapeutics with novel chemical scaffolds and/or mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat infections caused by multidrug resistant pathogens, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Development of novel antimicrobial agents is still highly dependent on the discovery of new natural products. At present, most antimicrobial drugs used in medicine are of natural origin. Among the natural

KATARZYNA JAKUBIEC-KRZESNIAK, ALEKSANDRA RAJNISZ-MATEUSIAK, ADAM GUSPIEL, JOANNA ZIEMSKA, JOLANTA SOLECKA

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 259–272

Research Article

APPLICATION OF THE BACTERIAL OUTER MEMBRANE VESICLES IN VACCINE DESIGN

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are extracellular structures produced by most gram‑negative bacteria, including pathogens of humans and animals. OMVs play an important role in the physiology of microorganisms and are an integral part of many biological processes. Following the discovery that they are able to transport many biomolecules, also these which have the ability to interact with the immune system, their potential use as non‑replicating vaccines has become an important aspect of

Joanna Jadwiga Klim, Renata Godlewska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 43–55

original-paper

Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of β-caryophyllene on Bacillus cereus

products such as essential oils (EOs) obtained from plant or animal sources as well as those produced by microorganisms are being studied extensively for their application as alternative antibacterial agents (Yap et al. 2017; Yang et al. 2018; Yang et al. 2019). EOs can be obtained from various plant parts such as flowers, seeds, buds, leaves, and bark. EOs are made up of a variety of constituents, including hemiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, sesterpenoids, triterpenoids

CHEW-LI MOO, SHUN-KAI YANG, MOHD-AZURAIDI OSMAN, MOHD HAFIS YUSWAN, JIUN-YAN LOH, WEI-MENG LIM, SWEE-HUA-ERIN LIM, KOK-SONG LAI

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 49–54

original-paper

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Nigerian Women During the Menstrual Cycle

different composition of microbial communities and, correspondingly, different susceptibility to vaginal infections. Women are more prone to urinary tract infections (UTI) than men due to the position of the urethra. The reduction in protective vaginal flora may increase the risk of these infections (Gupta et al. 2017). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of pathogenic microorganisms, e.g. Klebsiella spp. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida

FOLASHADE GRACE ADEOSHUN, WERNER RUPPITSCH, FRANZ ALLERBERGER, FUNMILOLA ABIDEMI AYENI

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 203–209

Article

THE ROLE OF THE STRINGENT COMPONENTS IN THE REGULATION OF VIRULENCE

Klaudyna Krause, Klaudia Milewska, Agnieszka Szalewska-Pałasz

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 247–258

Article

BIOSYNTHESIS AND THE POSSIBILITY OF USING ECTOINE AND HYDROXYECTOINE IN HEALTH CARE

derivative hydroxyectoine are cyclic amino acids produced by microorganisms under stress conditions such as: salinity, high temperature, low water content environment or UV radiation. Ectoine was first isolated by Galiński et al. in 1985 [32]. This discovery took place during the study of halophilic purple bacteria Ectothiorhodospira halochloris, autotrophs which use light energy for the production of organic compounds. Ectoine and hydroxyectoine have a similar chemical structure. Hydroxyectoine differs

Weronika Goraj, Zofia Stępniewska, Anna Szafranek-Nakonieczna

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 339–349

original-paper

New Look on Antifungal Activity of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs)

using ImageJ ver. 1.50i software (Pal et al. 2007; Bundschunh et al. 2016; Koziróg et al. 2016). Microorganisms. Microorganisms used in the study were obtained from the Deutsche Sammlung von Microorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ), and the Microorganisms Collection of the Department of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology (KBiMŻ) at Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences (Aspergillus brasiliensis DSMZ1988, Penicillium pinophilum DSMZ1944, Paecilomyces variotii DSMZ1961, Trichoderma

BARBARA ŻAROWSKA, TOMASZ KOŹLECKI, MICHAŁ PIEGZA, KATARZYNA JAROS-KOŹLECKA, MAŁGORZATA ROBAK

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 515–525

original-paper

Microbiota and Chemical Compounds in Fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma (Banxiaqu) from Different Areas in the Sichuan Province, China

out by different microorganisms in different regions or seasons, the quality of fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma may drastically fluctuate, thus explaining the difference in the quality of fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma during different seasons, or produced in different districts (Hu et al. 2018). Due to the lack of standardization, the clinical application of fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma is severely hindered. As such, only the fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma made from certain large traditional factories are

BO SHU, JING YING, TAO WANG, MENGQIAN XIA, WENYU ZHAO, LING YOU

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 83–92

original-paper

Periodontal Status and Subgingival Biofilms in Cystic Fibrosis Adults

Introduction The role of oral health, including the level of dental hygiene, accumulation of dental bacterial plaque, and periodontal diseases in the pathogenesis of respiratory infections is usually ignored in the medical care of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The oral cavity is a reservoir of many microorganisms; to date, more than 700 oral bacterial species have been identified. Over 400 of them form dental bacterial plaque biofilm and can be isolated from gingival sulcus or gingival pocket

TAMARA PAWLACZYK-KAMIEŃSKA, RENATA ŚNIATAŁA, HALINA BATURA-GABRYEL, MARIA BORYSEWICZ-LEWICKA, SZCZEPAN COFTA

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 377–382

Mini Review

The Role of Staphylococcus aureus in Secondary Infections in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis (AD)

allergic skin condition of a chronic and recurrent nature. Patients with AD are highly predisposed to secondary staphylococcal infections due to active S. aureus colonization of the stratum corneum, dam­age of the skin barrier or a defective immune response. Microorganisms present in skin lesions destroy the tissue by secreting enzymes and toxins, and additionally stimulate secondary allergic reactions. The toxins secreted by strains of S. aureus also act as superantigens and penetrate the skin

Aneta Buda, Jacek Międzobrodzki

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 253–259

Original Paper

Natural Attenuation Potential of Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Polluted Marine Sediments

The marine environment in Kuwait is polluted with various hazardous chemicals of industrial origin. These include petroleum hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and heavy metals. Bioremediation with dedicated microorganisms can be effectively applied for reclamation of the polluted marine sediments. However, information on the autochthonous microbes and their ecophysiology is largely lacking. We analyzed sediments from Shuwaikh harbor to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total

Sarah Aldhafiri, Huda Mahmoud, Mohammed Al-Sarawi, Wael A. Ismail

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 37–48

Original Paper

Distribution of Cell Envelope Proteinases Genes among Polish Strains of Lactobacillus helveticus

production, bacterial growth rate in milk as well as liberation of biologically active peptides. The study reveals significant differences in the presence of various variants of CEPs encoding genes among ten novel Polish strains and indicates the intraspecific diversity exhibited by L. helveticus. In terms of distribution of CEPs genes, four different genetic profiles were found among the microorganisms analyzed. Furthermore, the strains exhibited also various levels of proteolytic activity. Molecular

KATARZYNA W. SKRZYPCZAK, WALDEMAR Z. GUSTAW, ADAM D. WAŚKO

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 203–211

original-paper

Illumina MiSeq Analysis and Comparison of Freshwater Microalgal Communities on Ulleungdo and Dokdo Islands

producer and consumer trophic levels (Berner 1992; Vitousek et al. 2002; Cardinale et al. 2011). However, microalgal community research based solely on the culturing faces certain limitations, particularly the difficulty in identifying and analyzing unculturable microorganisms (Handelsman 2004; Streit and Schmitz 2004). Consequently, amplicon sequencing analysis using Illumina MiSeq can be a powerful tool for the investigation of unculturable microorganisms in their natural environment (Knight 2000

HYUN-SIK YUN, YOUNG-SAENG KIM, HO-SUNG YOON

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 527–539

Original Paper

The Emergence of Different Functionally Equivalent PAH Degrading Microbial Communities from a Single Soil in Liquid PAH Enrichment Cultures and Soil Microcosms Receiving PAHs with and without Bioaugmentation

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) are common soil contaminants of concern due to their toxicity toward plants, animals and microorganisms. The use of indigenous or added microbes (bioaugmentation) is commonly used for bioremediation of PAHs. In this work, the biodegradation rates and changes in the bacterial community structure were evaluated. The enrichment culture was useful for unambiguously identifying members of the soil bacterial community associated with PAH degradation and yielded

FRANCINE AMARAL PIUBELI, LIGIA GIBBI DOS SANTOS, EMILIA NARANJO FERNÁNDEZ, FLÁVIO HENRIQUE DA SILVA, LUCIA REGINA DURRANT, MATTHEW JAMES GROSSMAN

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 365–375

Article

MICROBIOME OF THE WOMEN’S GENITAL SYSTEM

1. Introduction The human body is a unique living environment for many microorganisms characterized by a large diversity of species and genera. Bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses colonizing the human body are called a microbiota [27]. They are found both on the skin surface and in the entire digestive system, from the oral cavity to the anus, in the upper respiratory tract and the urogenital system. However, most of them inhabit our digestive tract, including their greatest abundance in the

Monika Pytka, Monika Kordowska-Wiater, Piotr Jarocki

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 227–236

Article

NEW SPECIES OF BACTERIA IN HUMAN INFECTIONS

1. Introduction More frequent and wider application of quick methods for identifying microorganisms based on new technologies in microbiological diagnostics has led to the appearance of descriptions of bacterial infection cases in literature which have been so far disregarded due to the impossibility of their description or have been considered to be scarcely virulent or non-pathogenic. New methods include, among others, mass spectrometry or infrared spectrometry. These methods are highly

Alicja Sękowska, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 29–34

original-paper

Cytokine Levels in the In Vitro Response of T Cells to Planktonic and Biofilm Corynebacterium amycolatum

al. 2017; Kang et al. 2018). The potential association between coryneforms and clinical infections can be attributed to immunosuppression, severe underlying medical disorders or invasive procedures (Nhan et al. 2012; Cacopardo et al. 2013; Kimura et al. 2017; Qin et al. 2017). In order to shed more light on the role of diptheroids as medically relevant microorganisms, their inherent low virulence should be confronted to the increasingly reported multidrug resistance (Yoon et al. 2011; Bernard

ALINA OLENDER, AGNIESZKA BOGUT, AGNIESZKA MAGRYŚ, JACEK TABARKIEWICZ

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 457–464

Original Paper

Production, Characterization and Valuable Applications of Exopolysaccharides from Marine Bacillus subtilis SH1

Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are high molecular weight polymers consisting of different sugar residues they are preferable for replacing synthetic polymers as they are degradable and nontoxic. Many microorganisms possess the ability to synthesize and excrete exopolysac­charides with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures to have potential applications in different fields. The present study attempt to optimize the production of EPS by marine Bacillus subtilis SH1 in addition to

Sahar W.M. Hassan, Hassan A.H. Ibrahim

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 449–461

Article

TAXONOMY OF DERMATOPHYTES – THE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS MAY CHANGE BUT THE IDENTIFICATION PROBLEMS REMAIN THE SAME

. Frey 1957). The term “dermatophytoids” [32, 34] was proposed in order to distinguish these nonpathogenic species from the pathogens proper and to indicate their biological connection at the same time. 2. First dermatophyte classification systems Dermatophytes were described as one of the first microorganisms being pathogenic agents of the then observed skin lesions in humans and animals [34]. Taxonomic studies of these fungi were initiated in 1841 by Robert Remak and David Gruby [26]. The five

Sebastian Gnat, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Przemysław Zięba

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 49–58

Article

THE STRINGENT RESPONSE AND ITS INVOLVEMENT IN THE REACTIONS OF BACTERIAL CELLS TO STRESS

replication. The aim of this work is to summarize the contemporary state of knowledge with regard to bacterial stringent response, which is significant due to its involvement in the reactions of microorganisms to the effects of stress factors, with particular emphasis on this mechanism in bacteria interacting with plants. The activation of the stringent response in bacteria gives them a chance to colonize new niches and, to an extent, guarantees their survival, even in extreme conditions. 2. RelA, SpoT

Julia Berdychowska, Justyna Boniecka, Grażyna B. Dąbrowska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 127–142

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