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Review | 09-October-2019

Recognizing and resolving ABO discrepancies

Patient samples are routinely typed for ABO prior to transfusion. Determining the ABO group requires both red blood cell (RBC) antigen typing for A and B (forward type) and testing for anti-A and anti-B in the plasma (reverse type). An ABO discrepancy exists when the result of an ABO RBC typing, or forward type, does not agree with the result of the plasma typing, or reverse type. This brief review examines several causes of ABO discrepancies encountered in the clinical transfusion service

Geralyn M. Meny

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 76–81

original-report | 25-June-2021

Statistical model for prediction of ABO hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn in India

In recent years, clinical and public health efforts, such as red blood cell antibody screening of all pregnant women and administration of Rh immune globulin (RhIG) in developed countries, have reduced the burden of Rh hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), ultimately resulting in ABO HDFN as the most common cause of immune HDFN. Approximately 15–25 percent of feto-maternal pairs are ABO incompatible (blood group O mother with non–group O neonate), of which 10–15 percent of neonates

D.S. Patale, T.L. Lokhande, R.K. Chaudhary

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 64–68

Article | 09-November-2020

Common variable immunodeficiency: diagnosis by absent ABO reverse type

Many causes for ABO discrepancy between red blood cell and serum testing have been cited in the literature. ABO discrepancy due to weak or absent reverse type is most often seen at the extremes of age. We report a case of ABO discrepancy in a 25-year-old woman who presented for wisdom teeth extraction. Initial serologic workup revealed total absence of isohemagglutinin anti-B in this group A, D+ individual. Further evaluation revealed decreased levels of all classes of immunoglobulins and a

Carmen J. Julius, Mindy Wade, Abdul Waheed, Donald L. McNeil, Melanie S. Kennedy

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 3, 80–83

Report | 26-October-2019

Proposed criterion for distinguishing ABO mosaics from ABO chimeras using flow cytometric analysis

Differentiation of ABO mosaics from chimeras is performed using flow cytometry (FCM) analysis. Although mosaics and chimeras have been distinguished by presence or absence of clear resolution using FCM analysis, the lack of quantitative metrics and definitive criteria for this differentiation has made some cases difficult to differentiate. In this study, therefore, we attempted to establish a definitive and quantitative criterion for this differentiation. When FCM histogram gates for group

Akira Oda, Nobuki Matsuyama, Mizuko Hirashima, Hiroyuki Ishii, Keiko Kimura, Harumichi Matsukura, Fumiya Hirayama, Keisei Kawa, Yasuo Fukumori

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 24–28

Review | 17-March-2020

The ABO blood group system revisited: a review and update

The antigens of the ABO system were the first to be recognized as blood groups and actually the first human genetic markers known. Their presence and the realization of naturally occurring antibodies to those antigens lacking from the cells made sense of the erratic failure of blood transfusion hitherto and opened up the possibility of a safe treatment practice in life-threatening blood loss. Although initially apparently simple, the ABO system has come to grow in complexity over the years. The

Jill R. Storry, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 2, 48–59

Report | 09-October-2019

Trends of ABO and Rh phenotypes in transfusion-dependent patients in Pakistan

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of ABO and Rh phenotypes in the general Pakistan population. This information could be used to help reduce the rate of alloimmunization in patients with blood disorders, such as thalassemia major, who require frequent blood transfusions. A total of 242 patients with blood disorders requiring frequent blood transfusions were enrolled in the study. ABO and Rh typing was performed on samples from these patients using tube and gel methods

Nida Anwar, Munira Borhany, Saqib Ansari, Sana Khurram, Uzma Zaidi, Imran Naseer, Muhammad Nadeem, Tahir Shamsi

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 170–173

Article | 15-April-2020

Chimerism and mosaicism are important causes of ABO phenotype and genotype discrepancies

Discrepancies between blood group genotype and RBC phenotype are important to recognize when implementing DNA-based blood grouping techniques. This report describes two such cases involving the ABO blood group in the Korean population. Propositus #1 was a 22-year-old healthy man undergoing pretransfusion testing for minor surgery. Propositus #2 was a 23year-old male blood donor. RBCs from both propositi were determined to be group AB and demonstrated unusual agglutination patterns on forward

Duck Cho, Jin Sol Lee, Mark Harris Yazer, Jong Won Song, Myung Geun Shin, Jong Hee Shin, Soon Pal Suh, Mee Jeong Jeon, Ji Young Kim, Jong Tae Park, Dong Wook Ryang

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 183–187

Article | 16-February-2021

Comparison of ABO genotyping methods: a study of two low-resolution polymerase chain reaction assays in a clinical testing laboratory

The ABO blood group system was discovered in 1900; the current nomenclature was established in 1927 by Landsteiner.1 The system comprises four main phenotype groups: A, B, AB, and O. These groups arise from the activity of one or two distinct glycosyltransferases: A glycosyltransferase and B glycosyltransferase. These enzymes catalyze the transfer of the terminal sugar residues (N-acetyl-galactosamine or D-galactose) to the H-active chain on red blood cell (RBC) membrane glycoproteins and

J.A. Keller, T. Horn, S. Scholz, S. Koenig, M.A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 149–153

Review | 25-March-2020

The O2 allele: questioning the phenotypic definition of an ABO allele

There are three main alleles in the ABO blood group system, A, B, and O.  The former two alleles encode glycosyltransferases resulting in the wild-type A and B phenotypes, whereas the latter allele does not encode a functional enzyme owing to a frameshift polymorphism in the majority of cases.  Thus the group O phenotype is the absence of A or B sugars.  More than 15 years ago the O2 allele was described; this allele did not feature the usual crippling 261delG polymorphism, which

Mark H. Yazer, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 138–147

Article | 14-October-2020

ABO and Rh(D) blood typing on the PK 7200 with ready-to-use kits

The performance of ready-to-use kits was evaluated on the PK 7200 blood grouping system. The Olymp Group (kit 1) and Olymp Group II (kit 2) containing anti-A, -B, -AB, and -D reagents were tested for first and second determinations of A, B, and D antigens. More than 500 RBC samples, including several variant ABO and D phenotypes, were evaluated for specificity, repeatability, reproducibility, and sensitivity. Specificity was tested with wellcharacterized reagent RBCs. Repeatability was

Pierre Moncharmont, Annick Plantier, Véronique Chirat, Dominique Rigal

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 2, 54–56

Article | 18-October-2020

Significant ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn in a group B infant with a group A2 mother

ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) occurs almost exclusively in infants of blood group A or B who are born to group O mothers because IgG anti-A or -B occurs more commonly in group O than in group A or B individuals. We report a case in which clinically significant ABO-HDN occurred in a group B neonate from anti-B of a group A2 mother. The IgG anti-B titer was much higher (256) than that found in a group A1 mother/infant control group (≤ 32). The maternal antibody screen was negative

Hye-Ran Jeon, Beverly E.W. Calhoun, Mohammad Pothiawala, Marguerite Herschel, Beverly W. Baron

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 3, 105–108

Case report | 09-October-2019

ABO serology in a case of persistent weak A in a recipient following a group O–matched unrelated bone marrow transplant

HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from red blood cell (RBC)-incompatible donors is not uncommon. The engraftment process following ABO-incompatible allogeneic HSCT results in the transition from patient blood group to donor blood group in the recipient. In contrast, most non-hematopoietic tissues retain expression of the patient’s original blood group for life, and these antigens may adsorb from the plasma onto the donor-derived RBCs. Correct serologic

Dianne E. Grey, Elizabeth A. Fong, Catherine Cole, Jesper Jensen, Jill Finlayson

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 99–104

Article | 10-April-2021

Comparative evaluation of the conventional tube test and column agglutination technology for ABO antibody titration in healthy individuals: a report from India

ABO blood group antigens are called histo-antigens because they are known to be expressed not only on red blood cells (RBCs) but also on almost all other organs in the human body.1 ABO antibodies are naturally occurring, characterized as causing hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, and antibody-mediated rejection of solid-organ transplants. In ABO-incompatible stem cell transplants, anti-A/-B titer levels correlate with the risk of immediate or delayed

S.S. Datta, S. Basu, M. Reddy, K. Gupta, S. Sinha

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 25–32

Article | 17-November-2020

ABO discrepancy with monoclonal ABO reagents caused by a pH-dependent autoantibody

ABO discrepancy was noted when a patient’s unwashed saline red cell suspension was tested with monoclonal ABO reagents. The discrepancy was resolved when a washed (x 3) saline red cell suspension was used in repeat testing. The patient’s serum contained an autoagglutinin that reacted optimally below pH 7.0. The discrepancy occurred when monoclonal ABO reagents, formulated at a low pH, lowered the pH of the reaction mixture, and autoagglutination was observed.

Melanie S. Kennedy, Abdul Waheed, Jane Moore

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 3, 71–73

case-report | 25-June-2021

B subgroup detection in a small hospital transfusion service

The ABO blood group system is the most clinically significant antigen system in transfusion medicine. The ABO gene is located on chromosome 9 and consists of seven exons. Exons 6 and 7 encode for the catalytic domain of the ABO glycosyltransferases. The A blood group is formed by the addition of N-acetyl-galactosamine to the H antigen, the B blood group is formed by the addition of galactose to the H antigen, and blood group O results when no sugar is added to the H antigen.1 ABO blood groups

E. Elardo, N. Elbadri, C. Sanchez, V. Powell, M. Smaris, Y. Li, J. Jacobson, T. Hilbert, T. Hamilton, D.W. Wu

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 89–94

Article | 03-November-2020

Comparison of tube and gel red blood cell agglutination techniques in detecting chimeras after major ABO-mismatched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

We compared the ability of tube and gel red blood cell (RBC) agglutination techniques to follow erythroid engraftment in a patient who received a major ABO-mismatched peripheral blood stem cell transplant and bone marrow transplant. Tube and gel RBC agglutination techniques were used to detect mixed-field reactivity in cell mixtures containing A/O and c+/c– RBCs and the ability of these two technologies to detect RBC chimeras were compared. We detected c+ RBCs in c+/c– RBC

Marni J. Kupferman, Karen M. Cipilone, Jo Lynn Procter, David F. Stroncek

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 63–67

Article | 01-April-2020

Differences in ABO antibody levels among blood donors: a comparison between past and present Japanese,Laotian,and Thai populations

Passively transfused blood group antibodies cause clinical problems. High titers of anti-A and anti-B seem to be one reason for hemolytic transfusion reactions and for ABO HDN. In Japan,anti-A and anti-B titers notably decreased in the 15 years between 1986 and 2001. At present,titers of more than 100,as measured using the saline method,are rare. Differences in the level of anti-A and anti-B among ethnic populations have been reported; these differences were found to be the result of

Toshio Mazda, Kenji Tadokoro, Ryuichi Yabe, Oytip NaThalang, Te Thammavong

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 1, 38–41

Article | 20-April-2020

ABO, Rh, MNS, Duffy, Kidd, Yt, Scianna, and Colton blood group systems in indigenous Chinese

The frequencies of selected alleles in the ABO, Rh, MNS, Duffy, Kidd, Yt, Scianna, and Colton blood group systems were determined among four indigenous Chinese ethnic populations:Han,Tajik, She, and Yugu. Genotypes were determined by PCR or PCR with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP). In the Han population, the frequencies of A1, A2, B, and O1 alleles were 0.189, 0.003, 0.170, and 0.638, respectively, and the O2 allele was not identified. Among D+ Hans, the frequencies of C and c alleles were

Lixing Yan, Faming Zhu, Qihua Fu, Ji He

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 10–14

Article | 16-February-2021

Dilution is not the solution: acute hemolytic transfusion reaction after ABO-incompatible pooled platelet transfusion

Platelet units are obtained in two ways: as a product of whole blood donation or via apheresis. To make a transfusable dose of pooled platelets, between four and six ABO/D-identical whole blood-derived platelet concentrates are combined; each whole blood-derived platelet unit is suspended in approximately 40–70 mL donor plasma.1 Apheresis platelets are suspended in 200–400 mL plasma from one donor.2 Contained within the plasma, and thus passively transfused with a platelet unit, are the

J. Guarente, M. Harach, J. Gould, J.K. Karp, A.R. Peedin

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 91–94

Article | 16-November-2020

ABO genotyping by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

Genotyping enables the identification of both maternally and paternally derived alleles. A number of protocols have been described for the genotyping of the ABO blood group system. Generally, these methods have a number of disadvantages including the use of hazardous reagents, being technically demanding, and the excessive use of materials. In this study, a relatively simple polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method is described. Four different

Nicole A. Mifsud, Albert P. Haddad, Jennifer A. Condon, Rosemary L. Sparrow

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 4, 143–148

Review | 18-October-2020

ABO blood group system: a rev i ew of molecular aspects

Marion E. Reid, Agnes Hallie Lee

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 1, 1–6

Report | 16-October-2019

Mixed-field agglutination observed in column agglutination testing is not always associated with the A3 subgroup

Mixed-field agglutination (MFA) can be observed in forward typing of samples from A3 individuals with serologic ABO typing methods. The results of column agglutination testing (CAT) and tube agglutination testing using different antibody clones can be discordant. In this report, we reveal our experience using polymerase chain reaction–sequence-based typing (PCRSBT) of ABO exon 7 to clarify serologic method discordance of A subgroup blood typing in Northern Thai donors. A total of 21 group

Nampeung Anukul, Nipapan Leetrakool, Praijit Tanan, Poonsub Palacajornsuk, Phennapha Klangsinsirikul

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 2, 49–56

Article | 22-November-2020

Application of the Inverness Blood Grouping System for semiautomated ABO and D testing of patients' samples

We evaluated the performance of the Inverness Blood Grouping System (IBG Systems, Inc., Laytonsville, MD) for the ABO and D red cell grouping of patients' samples. The IBG System is a semiautomated microplate device for blood grouping and antibody detection. We tested 2,051 samples using the IBG System and by manual grouping techniques. In no instance did the IBG System give a final ABO interpretation different from the final manual technique. For three samples, the IBG System's ABO

Paul D. Mintz, Garth Anderson, Christine Barrasso, Elizabeth Sorenson

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 2, 60–63

Case report | 27-December-2020

Case ABO report: discrepancy due to vancomycin complicating a transfusion reaction investigation

A 3-year-old patient with acute myelogenous leukemia developed fever and chills during transfusion of packed red cells. A preliminary workup suggested that a group AB donor unit had been issued to a Group A patient. However, a discrepancy between the ABO group of the original donor unit segment (A) and blood taken from the IV tubing (AB) and the patient's pre- and posttransfusion samples (A and AB, respectively) suggested another reason for the weak reactivity of some samples with anti-B

Denise M. Gilbert, Ronald E. Domen

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 4, 119–120

Article | 14-October-2020

Easy method for determining the frequency of O1 and O2 alleles in Brazilian blood donors by PCR-RFLP analysis

Serologic ABO blood typing is routinely performed using anti-A and anti-B sera to distinguish four phenotypes (A, B, AB, and O). Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and DNA sequence studies offer the possibility of direct ABO genotyping. We used polymerase chain reaction-RFLP analysis to determine the frequency of O1 and O2 alleles in 82 unrelated blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil, known to be group O. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes by a modified salting

Ana C. Batissoco, Marcia C.Z. Novaretti, Valdecir J. Bueno, Pedro E. Dorlhiac-Llacer, Dalton A.F. Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 4, 111–116

Article | 15-February-2021

Heat elution: a modification of the Landsteiner-Miller method

alloantibodies, due to drug-induced antibodies, or in the investigation of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN).7 They may also be used in combination with in vitro adsorption studies to identify weakly expressed blood group antigens and for the identification of multiple alloantibodies. Indications for heat elution include: Investigation of ABO HDFN. Elution is rarely required, however, because the diagnosis is generally made from clinical findings consistent with HDFN in an ABO-incompatible

C. Dean-El, N. Quraishy

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 45–47

Article | 15-February-2021

Serologic problems associated with administration of intravenous immune globulin (IVIg)

antibodies, some of which may cause clinical complications. Anti-A and/or anti-B antibodies present in IVIg can cause immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in non–group O patients, a finding reported to be about 34 percent of patients receiving IVIg in one prospective study.12 The hemolysis can occasionally be severe, even life-threatening.12–16 Some manufacturers have removed the majority of ABO isoagglutinins from IVIg by a chromatographic step in their processing, which may limit the risk of hemolytic

D.R. Branch

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 13–15

Article | 06-December-2020

A possible relationship between colorectal carcinoma and ABO/Lewis blood groups

The incidence of colorectal carcinoma was compared with the incidence of ABO and Lewis blood groups. The raw data showed the known overrepresentation of the Le(a-b) phenotype, but also suggested an association of colorectal carcinoma with the Le(a-b+) phenotype in group O individuals. When the data were adjusted by taking into account the known loss of Lewis antigens by Lewis-positive patients, this association could be shown to be statistically significant. These results may indicate

Stephen M. Henry, D. Graeme Woodfiel

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 4, 101–104

Article | 16-November-2020

ABO genotyping - identification of O1, O1*, and O2 alleles using the polymerase chain reaction– sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) technique

ABO polymorphism at the gene level has been investigated by molecular methods, predominantly sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We describe the application of the polymerase chain reaction–sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCRSSO) method, which is considered to be more versatile for large sample numbers, compared with conventional ABO genotyping by PCR-RFLP. PCR-SSO, while maintaining accurate and reliable results, reduces costs and labor. A population of 155

Nicole A. Mifsud, Albert P. Haddad, Jennifer A. Condon, Rosemary L. Sparrow

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 4, 149–153

Article | 14-October-2020

Comparison of three low-ionic diluents for dilution and storage of reagent A1 and B cells for testing in gel technology

Currently, ABO serum grouping performed by gel technology employs a red cell diluent containing EDTA (MTS Diluent 2 Plus™) that does not permit extended storage of the red cell suspensions. A diluent currently used for suspension and long-term storage of reagent red cells for antibody detection and identification (Ortho 0.8% Red Cell Diluent™) was evaluated for use with A1 and B cells. Because this diluent does not contain EDTA, testing was limited to EDTA samples. As a comparison

E. Ann Steiner, LouAnn Dake

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 2, 53–56

Article | 01-April-2020

Serologic and molecular characterization of the B(A) blood group in the Chinese population

B(A) phenotype individuals have normal B antigen and a small amount of A antigen on the RBCs with anti-A in the plasma. Some highly potent monoclonal anti-A reagents are capable of agglutinating B(A) RBCs,which therefore usually results in a discrepancy between RBC and plasma ABO grouping. To date,five B(A) alleles (ABO*B(A)01, B(A)02, B(A)03, B(A)04, and B(A)05) have been defined by nucleotide sequences. To get a more complete picture of B(A) phenotypes found in the Chinese population and

Zhong-Hui Guo, Dong Xiang, Zi-Yan Zhu, Xi Liu, He-Ping Chen, Jian-Lian Wang, Da-Zhuang Liu, Tong-Mao Zhao

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 69–74

Article | 14-December-2020

Typing of normal and variant red cells with ABO, Rh, and Kell typing reagents using a gel typing system

In 1989 Lapierre et al. described a novel method of detecting agglutination reactions by the use of a Sephadex (DiaMed ID Typing System) gel held in a microtube. This report examines the use of gels containing ABO, Rh, and Kell system specific antibodies. The anti-A and -B were monoclonal reagents; anti-A,B, and those for the Rh and Kell systems were polyclonal. Five hundred and fifty-one tests performed for the ABO system detected all but the most weakly reacting variants, a detection rate

Don Tills, Derek J. Ward, Dieter Josef

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 4, 94–97

Article | 20-December-2020

A simple method for inhibiting ABO antibodies in sera used for platelet crossmatching

Sometimes it is necessary to crossmatch and transfuse ABO-incompatible platelets. As IgG anti-A and anti-B sometimes react with platelets from group A or B donors, these reactions can confuse the interpretation of crossmatching, which is designed to detect HLA or platelet-specific antibodies. Methods previously described to overcome this problem have been complex. Neutr-ABR, which contains A and B blood group substances from porcine and equine sources, can be used to neutralize anti-A and/or

Nina Postoway, George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 3, 68–70

Article | 16-October-2019

Clinical and laboratory profile of anti-M

et al.5 reported the following prevalence rates in a northern Indian blood donor population: 34.6 percent M+N–, 54.1 percent M+N+, and 11.3 percent M–N+. Because the M antigen is destroyed by routinely available proteolytic enzymes, anti-M does not react with enzyme-treated red blood cells (RBCs).6 Anti-M is generally active below 37°C, with optimum activity at 4°C.6 Hence, these antibodies are generally ignored in transfusion practice, although they can interfere in ABO plasma grouping and cause

D. Basu, S. Basu, M. Reddy, K. Gupta, M. Chandy

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 165–169

Case report | 01-December-2019

Major non-ABO incompatibility caused by anti-Jka in a patient before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

matched unrelated donor with no adverse events. To our knowledge, this is the first case of successful management of major non-ABO incompatibility caused by anti-Jka in a patient receiving an allogeneic HSCT reported in the literature.

Miriam Y. Kim, Preeti Chaudhary, Ira A. Shulman, Vinod Pullarkat

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 11–14

Case report | 01-December-2019

A case of masquerading alloantibodies:  the value of a multitechnique approach

, D+ blood type showing strong reactivity with all cells tested  in the forward and reverse ABO, in the D testing as well as in a three-cell antibody screen. The initial assumption was that the plasma contained a cold autoantibody. Subsequent testing, including the use of gel column technology, ficin-treated cells, and antisera for phenotyping, showed the apparent cold autoantibody to be a red herring. Additional tube testing at immediate spin, 37°C, and indirect antiglobulin test (IAT

Paula M.S. Wennersten, Laurie J. Sutor

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 3, 117–120

Article | 30-July-2021

Changes in mandibular position in treated Class II division 2 malocclusions in growing and non-growing subjects

Kazem AL-Nimri, Mohamad Abo-Zomor, Sawsan Alomari

Australasian Orthodontic Journal, Volume 32 , ISSUE 1, 73–81

Article | 01-April-2020

A novel study of association between Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the human carbohydrate blood groups

Previous studies of association of ABO blood groups with gonorrhea have shown contradictory results. Despite the interdependencies ofABO,Lewis,and secretor systems,none of the previous studies examined the combined effect of these systems on their proposed association with gonorrhea. This study attempted to redress that and used genotyping in addition to RBC phenotyping to determine correct tissue phenotypes. Samples from 131 gonorrhea-positive individuals and from 175 gonorrhea-negative

Holly E. Perry, Rick A. Franklin, Susan J. Bray, Min K. Lo, Lola A.C. Svensson, Stephen M. Henry

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 3, 100–104

Report | 16-October-2019

Blood chimerism in twins

ögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis. In addition to chimerism of ABO blood groups being possibly mistaken for ABO subgroups, these autoimmune diseases may affect other serologic immunohematologic tests. This study aimed to determine the frequency of chimerism in DTs through ABO and D testing using the tube method, column agglutination, and short tandem repeat (STR) assays. Among the 103 subjects assessed for this study, 24 subjects (12 pairs) were excluded

Letícia Tavares, Daiane Cobianchi da Costa, Anna Paula de Borba Batschauer, Luiz Fernando Job Jobim, Gisele Menezes Ewald, Carolina de Mello, Eduardo Samuel Alvarez Velazquez, Alexandre Geraldo

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 151–157

Article | 16-February-2021

PROCEEDINGS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF BLOOD TRANSFUSION WORKING PARTY ON IMMUNOHAEMATOLOGY, WORKSHOP ON THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF RED BLOOD CELL ALLOANTIBODIES, SEPTEMBER 9, 2016, DUBAI: Clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Lutheran, Kell, Lewis, Duffy, Kidd, Diego, Yt, and Xg blood group systems

ABO ABO 4 002 MNS MNS 49 003 P1PK P1PK 3 004 RH Rh 55 005 LU Lutheran 25 006 KEL Kell 36 007 LE Lewis 6 008 FY Duffy 5 009 JK Kidd 3 010 Dl Diego 22 011 YT Yt 5 012 XG Xg 2 013 SC Scianna 7 014 DO Dombrock 10 015 CO Colton 4 016 LW Landsteiner-Wiener 3 017 CH/RG Chido/Rodgers 9 018 H H 1 019 XK Kx 1 020 GE Gerbich 11 021 CROM Cramer 20 022 KN Knops 9 023 IN Indian 6 024 OK Ok 3 025 RAPH Raph 1 026 JMH John Milton Hagen 6 027 I I 1 028 GLOB

N.M. Thornton, S.P. Grimsley

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 95–101

Article | 14-December-2020

Indicators of clinically significant red cell antibodies produced by sensitized lymphocytes in liver transplant patients

transplant recipients. We therefore propose an antibody screen on all potential liver donors and titration of unexpected alloantibodies; titration of ABO antibodies of liver donors who demonstrate minor ABO-incompatibilities with their recipients; and, when needed, transfusion of group O RBCs to recipients of livers from donors with minor ABO-incompatibility who have antibody scores > 60.

BeverIy E.W. Calhoun, M. Pothiawala, G. Musa, B. Baron

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 2, 37–39

Article | 26-October-2020

Serologic and molecular investigations of a chimera

A chimeric individual possesses two or more genetically distinct cell populations. Although the chimerism may not be evident in all gene systems, various loci display greater numbers of alleles than genetically "normal" individuals. The proposita was referred for further laboratory investigation due to a rnixed-field ABO blood group reaction following routine antenatal testing. Various molecular (HLA class Il, ABO genotyping, and 10 short tandem repeat [STR] microsatellites) and

Nicole A. Mifsud, Albert P. Haddad, Cathie F. Hart, Jennifer A. Condon, Michael Swain, Rosemary L. Sparrow

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 3, 100–104

Article | 01-April-2020

ABO and platelet transfusion therapy

Laura Cooling

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 1, 20–33

Report | 25-March-2020

Rapid, single-subject genotyping to predict red blood cell antigen expression

isolated from fresh and 1- and 2-week-old stored blood from 20 donors with known ABO and Rh phenotypes and was used for ABO, RHD, and RHCE genotyping using SSPs.  The amplicons were analyzed using gel electrophoresis and a novel microfluidic onchip electrophoresis system.  Analysis of DNA from fresh and 1- and 2-week-old blood by SSP and gel electrophoresis yielded the correct ABO, RHD, and RHCE type in all samples, but with DNA from 2-week-old stored blood the amplicons were more difficult

Stefanie L. Slezak, Sharon Adams, Hallie Lee-Stroka, Joshua E. Martin, Lorraine Caruccio, David F. Stroncek

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 154–159

case-report | 25-June-2021

Neonatal testing leading to the identification of Bh (para-Bombay) phenotype in the mother: case report with review of the literature

FUT2 gene.2 As a result, para-Bombay individuals have ABH substances in their secretions and plasma (Type 1 precursor chain) depending on whether or not they inherit ABO genes. ABH substance in the plasma can be adsorbed onto the red blood cells (RBCs), leading to a weak expression of ABH antigens. There are few case reports on the para-Bombay phenotype from India; what makes this case unique is that we identified a para-Bombay phenotype in the mother because of her newborn’s blood type. Case

G. Mohan, A. Vaidya, S. Shastry

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 59–63

Review | 01-May-2020

Review: ABO blood group system - ABH oligosaccharide antigens, anti-A and anti-B, A and B glycosyltransferases, and ABO genes

Fumiichiro Yamamoto

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 3–22

Article | 01-April-2020

External quality assessment scheme in red blood cell serology: a 5-year experience in Thailand

From 2000 to 2004, 36, 58, 72, 78,and 86 laboratories participated in an external quality assessment scheme (EQAS) organized by the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. Each year the staff was requested to perform ABO grouping,D typing,antibody screening,antibody identification,and DATs on eight blood samples. Each participant received information on the correct test results and a coded summary. Regarding ABO grouping, the error .rate ranged from 0.3 to 1.3

Sasitorn Bejrachandra, Jariya Saipin, Oytip Nathalang, Usanee Siriboonrit, Ekaraj Rungroung, Sudjai Udee

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 1–5

Article | 17-November-2020

ANNOTATION - Monoclonal ABO blood grouping reagents: a decade later

Malcolm L. Beck, Julie Kirkegaard

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 3, 67–70

Article | 06-December-2020

Immune hemolytic anemia following heart-lung transplantation

Immune hemolytic anemia due to minor ABO incompatibility between recipient and donor is a well-recognized occurrence in kidney and liver transplantation. In some cases, the responsible antibodies have been shown to be derived from the donor passenger lymphocytes using Gm allotyping. We report a case of acute, transient hemolysis following heart-lung transplantation in which serologic and Gm allotype studies confirmed the etiology of hemolysis.

EIizabeth J. Perlman, Rosetta S. Shirey, Mary Farkosh, Thomas S. Kickler, Paul M. Ness

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 2, 38–40

Case report | 20-December-2020

A case report: clinically benign anti-Csa

Previous reports on the clinical significance of anti-Csa(Cost-Stirling) have presented conflicting data. We report our findings, over an 8-month period, of a patient whose serum contained anti-Csa and anti-Fya. Nineteen donor units of ABO and Rh-matched, Fya-negative red cells, which were crossmatch incompatible, were transfused with no clinical, serological, or biochemical evidence of a hemolytic transfusion reaction.

Thom Sererat, Jan Alexander, Jack Beatty

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 3, 71–72

Report | 01-December-2019

Blood group antigen distribution in Lao blood donors

systems including ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Kell, Lewis, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego. The results show similar antigen prevalence to that among Northeast Thais for ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Kell, and Duffy systems. In the ABO system, O was the highest at 37.72 percent, followed by 35.56 percent B, 19.83 percent A1, 6.47 percent A1B, and 0.43 percent A2B. The common phenotypes were D+C+E–c– e+ at 60.43 percent, M+N–S–s+ at 46.55 percent, Fy(a+b–) at 80.82 percent, Jk(a+b+) at 39.44 percent

Chirapha Keokhamphoui, Yupa Urwijitaroon, Douangchanh Kongphaly, Te Thammavong

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 132–136

Article | 16-February-2021

Quality improvement with platelet additive solution for safer out-of-group platelet transfusions

Introduction Transfusion of ABO-incompatible platelet components is an accepted practice in many institutions.1–4 The AABB’s Standards for Blood Banks and Transfusion Services states: “The transfusion service shall have a policy concerning transfusion of components containing significant amounts of incompatible ABO antibodies or unexpected red cell antibodies.”5 This guideline can be implemented in many different ways, leading to a wide variety of hospital practices.6–9 Among 3152 North

M. Tynuv, W.A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 108–115

Article | 03-November-2020

The first case of the p phenotype in a Gurkha Nepalese

A serum sample from a Gurkha Nepalese soldier, residing in Hong Kong, was found to cause hemolysis of reagent ABO red cells (RBCs) in the reverse blood grouping test. Subsequent follow-up studies revealed that he was of the p phenotype, with potent anti-PP1Pk that was strongly hemolytic both at room temperature and 37°C. The anti-PP1Pk was composed of IgG and IgM, and its various components were separable.

C.K. Lin, K.H. Mak, C.K. Cheng, C.P. Yang

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 1, 30–32

Article | 16-October-2019

Cold autoadsorption

Cold-reactive autoantibodies can mask the presence of underlying clinically significant alloantibodies in a patient’s plasma or serum. These autoantibodies are problematic when performing laboratory procedures such as ABO typing, red blood cell (RBC) crossmatching, antibody detection testing, and antibody identification. To avert the masking of clinically significant alloantibodies in a patient’s plasma or serum, adsorption studies can be performed at 4°C using autologous RBCs

Ernest M. Ekema

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 158–160

Article | 14-October-2020

Equivalence of spray-dried K2EDTA,spray-dried K3EDTA, and liquid K3EDTA anticoagulated blood samples for routine blood center or transfusion service testing

We compared the results of routine blood tests for 102 blood donors’samples and 100 patients’samples collected in spray-dried K2EDTA, spray-dried K3EDTA, and liquid K3EDTA blood collection tubes to evaluate the impact of changes in formulation of the anticoagulant (K2EDTA vs.K3EDTA), its application (liquid vs.spraydried), and tube material (glass vs. plastic). Methods for ABO/D testing, antibody screening, and antibody identification included direct hemagglutination/microplate

Stacie Leathem, Nicole Dodge Zantek, Marti Kemper, Laura Korte, Al Langeberg, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 4, 117–121

Article | 16-February-2021

Addition of fresh serum to plasma to aid in enhancement of complement-dependent antibodies

enhance these complement-dependent antibodies using fresh serum as a source of complement. Reagents/Supplies Reagents Supplies 0.9% saline or PBS, pH 6.5–7.5 Polyspecific antihuman globulin (anti-IgG-C3d) Control RBCs (antigen positive) RBC antibody (in EDTA plasma) Fresh ABO-compatible serum 10 × 75 or 12 × 75 mm test tubes Transfer pipettes Calibrated serologic centrifuge 37°C heat block or water bath PBS = phosphate-buffered saline; RBCs = red blood cells. Procedural

C. Grey

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 102–104

Report | 01-December-2019

Seroprevalence of unexpected red blood cell antibodies among pregnant women in Uganda

We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among pregnant women in Kampala, Uganda, to determine ABO and D blood types and to determine the percentage who have unexpected red blood cell (RBC) antibodies and their specificities. Deidentified blood samples from routine testing of 1001 pregnant women at the Mulago Hospital antenatal clinics in Kampala were typed for ABO and D and screened for the presence of unexpected RBC antibodies with confirmation and subsequent antibody

Kristina Eipl, Clemensia Nakabiito, Kabali Bwogi, Mahnaz Motevalli, Angela Roots, Lorraine Blagg, J. Brooks Jackson

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 115–117

Letter to Editor | 17-November-2020

Letter to the Editor: Anti-Pra and ABO Blood Grouping Discrepancies

Julie R. Kirkegaard, Mike Coon, Malcolm Beck

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 3, 95–95

Article | 29-December-2020

Evaluation of monoclonal anti-A reagents by salivary inhibition studies

test is done, a nonsecretor control saliva of the same ABO group as the saliva to be tested should be used.

Stephen M. Henry, Graeme Benny, Graeme Woodfield

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 4, 75–78

case-report | 25-June-2021

Anti-A1Leb: a mind boggler

, the secretor (SE) gene and LE gene on locus 19q and 19p, respectively, are inherited independently.2 Genetic interaction also exists between the LE and ABO genes because the amount of Le antigen detectable on the RBC is influenced by the ABO genes inherited, and the products of ABO and LE share the same precursor substrate. Individuals who are Le(a+b–) are nonsecretors, Le(a–b+) are secretors, and Le(a–b–) can be secretors or nonsecretors. Although individuals who are Le(a+b–) are nonsecretors

A. Gupta, K. Chaudhary, S. Asati, B. Kakkar

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 69–71

Case Study | 31-December-2020

A Case Study: An ABO Discrepancy Due to an Antibody to EDTA

Monica Tobar

Immunohematology, Volume 3 , ISSUE 3, 40–41

Review | 09-October-2019

How to recognize and resolve reagentdependent reactivity: a review

patient transfusion. It is imperative that reagent-dependent reactivity is recognized and resolved during the investigation of ABO discrepancies, positive RBC antibody screens and antibody identification panels, and crossmatch reactivity.

Gavin C. Patch, Charles F. Hutchinson, Nancy A. Lang, Ghada Khalife

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 96–99

Review | 02-May-2020

Review: the Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group systems

with the proteins,the genes,and the molecular basis for the antigens. What has not changed is that,after ABO and Rh,antibodies to antigens in these three systems are still the most clinically significant. They will form the basis of this review.

Constance M. Westhoff, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 37–49

Article | 16-October-2019

Dithiothreitol treatment of red blood cells

to a 2–5 percent suspension in PBS. Test DTT-treated cells with serum containing the antibody in question. Test K+ treated RBCs with anti-K. DTT = dithiothreitol; PBS = phosphate-buffered saline; RBCs = red blood cells. Treatment of autologous RBCs with 0.01 M DTT can resolve spontaneous agglutination due to potent IgM autoantibodies that interfere with ABO/Rh and direct antiglobulin testing.4 Monoclonal anti-CD38 (daratumumab), approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for

C.B. Bub

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 170–172

Review | 22-November-2020

Review: recent progress in the molecular genetic study of the histo-blood group ABO system

Fumi-ichiro Yamamoto

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 1, 1–7

Article | 16-October-2019

Separation of multiple antibodies by adsorption with allogeneic red blood cells

Principle Antibody detection and identification are processes that are commonly performed in the transfusion service before the transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs). Antibody identification usually follows the discovery of a positive antibody detection test, or other factors such as ABO serum/cell discrepancy or incompatible crossmatch.1 Antibody identification is a necessary practice in blood banking to determine blood products that are suitable for transfusion to an individual

E.M. Ekema

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 155–158

Article | 16-October-2019

Detecting polyagglutinable red blood cells

of this phenomenon can be helpful in providing not only transfusion recommendation information for physicians but also information associated with pathogens (i.e., Streptococcus pneumoniae) and severity of illness. Testing with ABO group–compatible adult human sera can determine if a patient’s RBCs are polyagglutinable. Further testing with a variey of lectins may identify the kind of polyagglutination.

Cami Melland, Connie Hintz

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 3, 113–117

Article | 06-December-2020

The P1H antigen and antibody

P1H, a newly discovered compound antigen associated with both the ABO and P systems, occurs in approximately 7 percent of Natal (South African) blacks. The compound antigen, is evident only when the red cells have exceptionally strong expression of both P1 and H antigens, and it is apparentIy a dominant character. The antigen is thought to originate by steric rearrangement in the molecule, or to he the product of competition between P1 and H gene transferases for the available paragloboside

Phyllis P. Moores

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 7–10

Article | 17-February-2021

May the FORS be with you: a system sequel

amount of FSL-FS on kodecytes or using FORS1+ RBCs, the prevalence of anti-FORS1 was approximately 10 percent, and it was also shown that there seems to be an ABO restriction. The vast majority of blood group A individuals (in particular A1) do not make anti-FORS1, which was verified by negative screening results with both FSL-FS kodecytes and FORS1+ RBCs. The clinical significance of this antibody is still unknown to a large extent but may (in analogy with other antibody specificities against

A.K. Hult, M.L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 1, 14–18

Article | 06-December-2020

Donor origin Rh antibodies as a cause of significant hemolysis following ABO-identical orthotopic liver transplantation

Brian K. Kim, Carolyn F. Whitset, Christopher D. Hillyer

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 100–101

Case report | 14-October-2020

Autoanti-D in a patient after cladribine treatment for lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma

We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who developed an autoanti-D after cladribine treatment. In May 2000, the patient underwent splenectomy for a stage IV-B lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma. She was transfused with ABO- and Rh(D)-matched blood. A month later, she received chemotherapy with cladribine. In February 2001, blood grouping showed her to be AB, D+ and the direct antiglobulin test was positive for IgG. An autoanti-D was identified in the eluate. Genotypic analysis confirmed the Rh

Joan Cid, Victor Beltran, L. Escoda, Enric Elies, Carmen Martin-Vega

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 16–18

Article | 06-December-2020

A weak B antigen with serologic reactivity between B1 and B2 red blood cells found in a Chinese family

During a serologic study on red cell samples from individuals representing three generations of a Chinese family, an unusual pattern of reactivity was noted in a sample from a daughter of an A1B2 individual. The results of direct ABO grouping, titration, and adsorption studies demonstrated that the red blood cells (RBCs) from the proposita and two of the proposita's uncles (1) expressed more B antigen than group B2 RBCs but less than group B1 RBCs; (2) expressed the B1 antigen but at a

Gongliang Zhang, Yiging Wang, Jie Zheng, Alice Lee, Robert J. Eckrich, Delores M. Mallory, Tsung Dao Lee

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 11–14

Article | 17-November-2020

Quantifying the loss of ABO antigenicity in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia by flow cytometric analysis

Hazel J. Popp, Margaret Nelson, Cecily Forsyth, Mark Falson, Harry Kronenberg

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 5–7

Case report | 16-March-2020

Nonhemolytic passenger lymphocyte syndrome: donor-derived anti-M in an M+ recipient of a multiorgan transplant

Passenger lymphocyte syndrome (PLS) is a well-recognized complication that may follow a hematopoietic progenitor cell or solid-organ transplant. Typically, the syndrome presents as acute hemolysis of the recipient’s RBCs, which have become serologically incompatible with blood group antibodies formed by passively transfused donor-origin B lymphocytes. Most cases involve anti-A or anti-B. However, there are cases involving non-ABO serologic incompatibility, as well as cases in which the

Addisalem T. Makuria, Albert Langeberg, Thomas M. Fishbein, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1, 20–23

Review | 09-October-2019

The FORS awakens: review of a blood group system reborn

the presence of complement in vitro. First believed to be part of the ABO system, it was later shown that the gene encoding the glycosyltransferase giving rise to FORS1 expression is GBGT1. This gene had previously been deemed nonfunctional in humans, but a mutation, so far only detected in FORS1+ individuals, restores the enzymatic activity. Tissue distribution of the antigen in FORS1+ individuals has not been studied in detail, although the gene is expressed in several cell types. The antigen

Annika K. Hult, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 64–72

Case report | 01-December-2019

Red blood cell phenotype matching for various ethnic groups

profiles, for the Rh, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS systems. A significant donor-recipient phenotype mismatch ratio exists with certain blood group antigens such that, with current routine ABO and D matching practices, recipients of certain ethnic groups are predisposed to alloimmunization.

Karafa S.W. Badjie, Craig D. Tauscher, Camille M. van Buskirk, Clare Wong, Sarah M. Jenkins, Carin Y. Smith, James R. Stubbs

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 1, 12–19

Case report | 26-October-2019

Weak D type 67 in four related Canadian blood donors

Correct donor D typing is critical to prevent recipient alloimmunization. No method can detect all variants, and the immunogenicity of many variants is unknown. Routine ABO and D serologic typings are performed in our laboratory by automated microplate testing. Until 2011, routine confirmation of D– status of first-time donors was performed by the manual tube indirect antiglobulin test (IAT); this was replaced by automated solidphase testing including weak D testing by IAT. Selected

Philip Berardi, Emma Bessette, Michiko Ng, Nancy Angus, Debra Lane, Lise Gariepy, Katerina Pavenski, Gorka Ochoa-Garay, Jacqueline Cote, Mindy Goldman

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 159–162

Report | 09-October-2019

Distribution of blood groups in the Iranian general population

Ehsan Shahverdi, Mostafa Moghaddam, Ali Talebian, Hassan Abolghasemi

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 135–139

Review | 01-December-2019

P1PK: The blood group system that changed its name and expanded

The antigens in the P1PK blood group system are carried on glycosphingolipids. The system currently includes three different antigens, P1, Pk, and NOR. The P1 antigen was disovered in 1927 by Landsteiner and Levine, and Pk and NOR were described in 1951 and 1982, respectively. As in the ABO system, naturally occurring antibodies of the immunoglobulin (Ig) M or IgG class, against the missing carbohydrate structures, can be present in the sera of people lacking the corresponding antigen. Anti-P1

Åsa Hellberg, Julia S. Westman, Britt Thuresson, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 25–33

Article | 14-October-2020

Blood group antigen profile predicted by molecular biology - use of real-time polymerase chain reaction to genotype important KEL, JK, RHD, and RHCE alleles

The most clinically important blood group systems in transfusion medicine, excluding the ABO system, are the RH, Kell, and Kidd systems. Alloantibodies to antigens of these systems may be produced following blood transfusion or during pregnancy and can result in serious hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn.We developed rapid and robust techniques for RHD, RHCE, KEL, and JK genotyping with the use of a real-time polymerase chain reaction instrument. Two

Fernando Manuel Ferreira Araújo, Christiana Pereira, Fátima Monteiro, Isabel Henriques, Elsa Meireles, Pedro Lacerda, Ana Aleixo, Regina Celeste, Luis M. Cunha-Ribeiro, Maria J. Rodrigues

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 3, 59–64

research-article | 31-December-2019

Gallbladder diseases in pregnancy: Sonographic findings in an indigenous African population

higher level of progesterone(10). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, pattern, and characteristics of gallbladder disease in gravid Nigerian women and to elucidate any association of gallbladder disease in pregnancy with gravidity and ABO blood group. Materials and methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of six hundred and fifty six gravid women at Union Diagnostics and Clinical Services Plc, Yaba, Lagos state, Nigeria from March 2015 to March 2016. The

Bukunmi Michael Idowu, Stephen Olaoluwa Onigbinde, Isaiah Uzezi Ebie, Michael Temidayo Adeyemi

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 79, 269–275

Article | 14-October-2020

MIMA-9, a valuable antibody for screening for rare donors

Since monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) are potentially available in an unlimited volume, they can be used to screen numerous donor blood samples to identify antigen-negative donors. We have used a Mab (MIMA-9) with characteristics that allow for the simultaneous screening of RBCs of any ABO group for high-incidence antigennegativity in the Kell and Gerbich blood group systems. MIMA-9, a murine IgG2a antibody, previously shown to facilitate the identification of K+k–, Kp(a+b–), K0

Edith Tossas, Ragnhild Øyen, Gregory R. Halverson, Harry Malyska, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 2, 43–45

Letter to Editor | 26-October-2019

Alternative to providing ABO-incompatible donors for patients  in end-stage renal disease: renal transplant registries, the need  of the hour

Sheetal Malhotra, Hari Krishan Dhawan, Ratti Ram Sharma, Neelam Marwaha

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 3, 130–133

Case report | 20-March-2020

New serologic findings in a patient with ulcerative colitis and a warm autoantibody

of ulcerative colitis but no signs of hemolytic anemia. A case of IgG-RBC sensitization associated with serine proteases and a warm autoantibody in a 14-yearold Hispanic girl with ulcerative colitis is reported. The patient was admitted for severe anemia (Hb, 6.9 g/dL). On admission, pretransfusion testing of the patient’s serum and RBCs showed an ABO/Rh discrepancy between the forward typing and reverse grouping. The phenomenon of IgG-RBC sensitization associated with serine proteases was

Thomas G. Lightfoot, Laurie Delia VanThof

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 4, 160–164

Report | 16-March-2020

D+ platelet transfusions in D– patients: cause for concern?

prophylactic Rh immunoglobulin (RhIG), results in D alloimmunization. The transfusion records of all patients who received platelet transfusions from December 2004 to March 2007 were reviewed. Transfusion recipients were evaluated with pretransfusion ABO and D typings, and an antibody screen. Recipients were reevaluated in the same manner before subsequent transfusions. Transfusion records of 114 D– patients were analyzed. Overall, 104 patients received D+ platelets; 67 had repeat antibody screening

Angela N. Bartley, John B. Carpenter, Mary P. Berg

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1, 5–8

Case report | 16-March-2020

Autoantibody formation after alloimmunization inducing bystander immune hemolysis

The development of RBC autoantibodies resulting from or associated with allogeneic blood transfusions is not an easily determined complication of RBC transfusions. This report discusses one patient who developed RBC autoantibodies in association with an allogeneic blood transfusion and alloimmunization leading to a temporary bystander immune hemolysis. A 72-year-old woman was hospitalized as a result of severe anemia and received two units of ABO- and D-compatible RBCs. She had a history of two

Mariza Mota, C. Bley, M.G. Aravechia, N. Hamerschlak, A. Sakashita, J.M. Kutner, L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1, 9–12

Article | 22-January-2021

Routine indirect antiglobulin testing of blood donors—a further step toward blood safety: an experience from a tertiary care center in northern India

selected as per the norms and criteria mandated by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.4,5 Informed consent and the history of previous blood donation, blood transfusion, pregnancy, medication, and any significant medical illness were obtained through a blood donor questionnaire form. Immunohematology Workup At our center, IH workup of donor samples includes ABO and D blood typing with an autocontrol using

S. Malhotra, G. Negi, D. Kaur, S.K. Meinia, A.K. Tiwari, S. Mitra

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 3, 93–98

Case report | 09-October-2019

Hematologic complications in a patient with Glycine soja polyagglutination following fresh frozen plasma transfusion

Polyagglutination is a rare and underdiagnosed condition, characterized by agglutination of red blood cells (RBCs) with almost all ABO-compatible adult sera. Polyagglutination can occur when a cryptantigen is exposed on RBCs via microbial enzyme activity. Because nearly all adults naturally produce antibodies against cryptantigens, transfusion of plasma can cause unexpected hemolysis and hematologic complications, such as thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, in patients

Ryan P. Jajosky, Lloyd O. Cook, Elizabeth Manaloor, James F. Shikle, Roni J. Bollag

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 51–55

Report | 01-December-2019

Prevalence of clinically significant red blood cell alloantibodies in pregnant women at a large tertiary-care facility

alloantibodies known to cause HDFN in pregnant women at a tertiary-care facility during a 5-year period were compiled and analyzed. Patient selection was carried out by computerized search of patient data based on an obstetric location and the presence or history of RBC antibody between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2011. The information was organized by ABO and D status of the patient, antibody specificity, and transfusion needs. Of the 8894 obstetric patients identified during the 5-year period, 264

Heather M. Smith, Rosetta S. Shirey, Sandra K. Thoman, Jay B. Jackson

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 127–130

Report | 26-October-2019

Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors

Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and

Lorena I. Aranda, Linda A. Smith, Scott Jones, Rachel Beddard

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 166–173

Case report | 14-October-2020

Red blood cell antigen changes in malignancy: case report and review

Jeffrey L. Winters, Dianna S. Howard

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 1, 1–9

No Record Found..
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